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SEPTEMBER 1995 



Revealed! When the P6 Is 
Slower than the Pentium p. 24 

Telephony's Killer App p. 215 

CompuServe, AOL, Prodigy: 
Which Wins Web War? p. 229 



best 
COMPUTER S 

top » 

PROGRAMS 



biggest 

T ECHNOLOG IES! 

most 
influential 

PEOPLE 



MM Error Messages 
IWBugs 
Anang Hacker Feats 

AND MORE- 



re— - 




. . .„^s&L/'* 


MumgjgptMW 






_J 










»JMEDO 







^^§s^^g ^=i^ii^w- 



Stellar 
Performance 

icron is fast becoming 
1 the industry leader in 
# personal computer design, engi- 



PD3 Millennia plus 



• Intel 133MHz Pentium* processor 

• 256K Micron SyncBursf cache, Flash BIOS 

• PCI 32-bit Fast SCSI-2 controller 

• 6X SCSI-2 CD-ROM drive, 3.5" floppy 

• SoundBlaster 16 stereo sound & speakers 

• PCI 64-bit graphics accelerator (2MB) 

• Tool-Free mini-tower or desktop 

• Microsoft Mouse, 101 -key keyboard 

• MS-DOS & Windows for Workgroups CD 

• MS Office Pro 4.3 & MS Bookshelf CDs 

A • 16MB EDO RAM • 1GB SCSI-2 hard drive 
•1S"Micron1SFGx l 1280Nl f .28mm 



$ 3A99 



(Business Lease Sl19/month) 



B • 32MB EDO RAM • 2GB SCSI-2 hard drive 
•1S"Micron15FGx,1280Nl f .28mm 

$ 4,499 (Business Lease 5153/month) 

C • 64MB EDO RAM • 4GB SCSI-2 hard drive 
•17"Micron17FGx,1280NI,.28mm 

0/4"" (Business Lease $213/month) 

D*» 128MB EDO RAM • 9GB SCSI-2 hard drive 
•21"Micron21FGx,1600NI,.28mm 

1 f/^r«#2# (Business Lease $369/month) 
'Option not available in desktop 



P75 POWErStAHON 



neering and manufacturing. 
Right off the production line, 
Micron PCs are receiving awards 
and critical acclaim for exception- 
al quality, record-breaking speed 
and dependable performance. 



Everywhere you turn, Fortune 



500 corporations, mid-size busi- 



• Intel 75MHz Pentium processor 

• 256K write-back cache, Flash BIOS 
•4XEIDE CD-ROM drive, 3.5" floppy 

• SoundBlaster 16 stereo sound & speakers 

• PCI 64-bit graphics accelerator (2MB) 

• Tool-Free mini-tower or desktop 

• Microsoft Mouse, 101 -key keyboard 

• MS-DOS & Windows for Workgroups CD 

A • 8MB EDO RAM • 850MB EIDE hard drive 
•15"Micron15FGx,1028NI,.28mm 
• MS Works Multimedia CD 



1,899 



B • 16MB EDO RAM • 1.2GB EIDE hard drive 
•1S"Micron1SFGx,1280NI,.28mm 

• MS Office Pro 4.3 & MS Bookshelf CDs 

A>/«J«7«# (Business Lease SB5/month) 

C • 32MB EDO RAM • 1.6GB EIDE hard drive 

• 17"Micron 17FGx, 1280NI,.28mm 

• MS Office Pro 4.3 & MS Bookshelf CDs 

«3/4r«#«7 (Business Lease $119/month) 

• With 90MHz Pentium processor. add $100 

• With 100MHz Pentium processor.....add $200 



(Business Lease $71/month) 



P90 POWERStAHON 



• Intel 90MHz Pentium processor 

• 256K write-back cache, Flash BIOS 
•4X EIDE CD-ROM drive, 3.5" floppy 

• SoundBlaster 16 stereo sound & speakers 

• PCI 64-bit graphics accelerator (2MB) 

• Tool-Free mini-tower or desktop 

• Microsoft Mouse, 101 -key keyboard 

• MS-DOS & Windows for Workgroups CD 

• With 100MHz Pentium processor.. ...add $100 



A • 8MB EDO RAM • 850MB EIDE hard drive 

• 15"Micron 15FGx, 1280NI, .28mm 

• MS Works Multimedia CD 

MgmfmJmJ (Business Lease $71/month) 
B • 16MB EDO RAM • 1.2GB EIDE hard drive 
•1S"Micron1SFGx, 1280NI,.28mm 

• MS Office Pro 4.3 & MS Bookshelf CDs 






$ 2A99 



(Business Lease SB9/month) 






i.mwi :ia Ehe e 

DIT0RS' EDITORS' 
CHOICE CHOICE 



:.MWi:ia 

EDITORS' 
CHOICE 



MM 



djMMf 



XL 

bmirj 




May 30, 1995 
Pi 20 MILLENNIA 


June 28. 1994 

P90PCI 

POWERSTATlON 


May 16, 1995 
P90 HOME MPC 


July 1995 
P90 HOME MPC 


February 1995 
P90 HOME MPC 


October 1994 

P90PCI 

POWERSTATlON 



Pentium 



nesses and home offices are dis- 



covering the benefits of buying a 



Micron computer. 



P133 PowerServer smp 

• Intel 133MHz Pentium processor 

• Dual Pentium SMP ZIF sockets 

• 51 2K write-back cache, Flash BIOS 
•Slots: 5 EISA, 2 PCI, 1 EISA/PCI 

• PCI 32-bit Fast SCSI-2 controller 

• 4X SCSI-2 CD ROM drive, 3.5" floppy 

• PCI 64-bit graphics accelerator (2MB) 

• Full-size tower with 10 drive bays 

• Microsoft Mouse, 101 -key keyboard 

• MS DOS & Windows for Workgroups CD 

A • 16MB RAM • 1GB SCSI-2 hard drive 
•1S"Micron1SFGx, 1280NI,.28mm 

J,HHH (Business Lease $l36/month) 

B • 32MB RAM • 2GB SCSI-2 hard drive 
•15"Micron15FGx,1280NI, .2Bmm 

*TfrmfmJmJ (Business Lease S170/month) 

• With second 133MHz Pentium processor....add $999 

• With Windows NT Workstation CD add $249 




P133 Home MPC Pro 

The Ultimate Home Office Performance System 



P133 Home MPC Pro 

• Intel 133MHz Pentium* processor 

• 256K Micron SyncBursf cache, Flash BIOS 

• 16MB EDO RAM, 1.2GB EIDE hard drive 

• 4X EIDE CD-ROM drive, 3.5" floppy 

• SoundBlaster 16 stereo sound & speakers 

• 14.4 Fax/Modem, speakerphone, voice mail 

• PCI 64 -bit graphics accelerator (2MB) 
•17" Micron 17FGx,1280NI,.28mm 

• Tool-Free mini-tower or desktop 

• Microsoft Mouse, 101 -key keyboard 

• MS-DOS & Windows for Workgroups CD 

• MS Office Pro 4.3 & MS Bookshelf CDs 

• Microsoft Scenes: Sports Extremes; 

Microsoft Bob CD; Microsoft Encarta 95 CD; Quicken 
Deluxe Edition CD; Microsoft Dangerous Creatures 
CD; Microsoft Golf Multimedia CD; Trial Subscriptions 
for CompuServe, America OnLine & Prodigy. 



™mtc 



EDITORS' 
CHOICE 

May 16, 1995 
P90 HOME MPC 



EBB 



c© 



July 1995 
P90 HOME MPC 



%499 




P75 Home MPC 

• Intel 75MHz Pentium processor 

• 256K write-back cache, Flash BIOS 

• 8MB EDO RAM, 850MB EIDE hard drive 
•4X EIDE CD-ROM drive, 3. 5" floppy 

• SoundBlaster" 16 stereo sound & speakers 

• 14.4 Fax/Modem, speakerphone, voice mail 

• PCI 64 -bit graphics accelerator (2MB) 
•15" Micron 15FGx,1280NI,.28mm 

• Tool-Free mini-tower or desktop 

• Microsoft Mouse, 101 -key keyboard 

• MS-DOS & Windows for Workgroups CD 

• Microsoft Works Multimedia CD 

• Microsoft Scenes: Sports Extremes; 

Microsoft Bob CD; Microsoft Encarta 95 CD; Quicken 
Deluxe Edition CD; Microsoft Dangerous Creatures CD; 
Microsoft Golf Multimedia CD; Trial Subscriptions for 
CompuServe, America OnLine & Prodigy. 



%999 



pentium 



Micron Electronics, Inc., 900 E. Karcher Road, Nampa, ID 83687 • Mon-Fri 7AM-8PM Sat 8AM-5PM (MT) 
208-463-3434 • FAX 208-463-3424 • Purchase Order FAX 208-467-5384 



International Sales 
208-465-8970 



International FAX 

208-465-8993 



l&l fr°ro Mexico Call 



95-800-708-1755 



From Puerto Rico Call 1*1*1 From Canada Call 

800-708-1756 WtU 800-708-1758 



© 1995 Micron Electronics. Inc. All rights reserved. All prices and specifics I ions subject to change without notice. Micron Electronics. Inc. cannot be responsible tor omissions and/or 
errors in typography or photography. "Mart; Your Place With The Leaded is a service mark ot Micron Electronics. Inc.. Intel, Intel Inside, and Pentium are registered trademarks of 
the Intel Corporation. Mcrosoft is a registered trademark and Windows. Windows NT and the Windows logos aro trademarks ot Microsoft Corporation. AD other company trademaiks 
aro trade names ot each respective company. Prices do not inducts shipping and handling. 30-day risk-free money back guarantee does not include return freight and original ship- 
ping/handli ng charges, applies only to Micron brand products, and begins from date of shipment. All returns require RMA numbers and must be shipped j n the original condition pre- 
paid and insured. Lease prices based on 36-month lease. 



• With 90MHz Pentium processor. add 5100 

• With 100MHz Pentium processor. add S200 



Its Your Call! 

800-233-7027 

MICRON 

ELECTRONICS, INC. 



The Future of 
Windows 





Tm Micron Millennia 



"Buyers looking for the fastest 
system money can buy will find it 
in the Micron Millennia. " 

PC Week, May, 1995 

And the reason for the Micron 
PI 20 Millennia's amazing 
ability to far outperform the com- 
^^^— petition? It's exclusive 
jPtPpR dynamic combina- 
tion of Microns 
EDO (Extended 
Data Out) 
Memory and SyncBurst™ cache, 
providing signif- 
icant perfor- 
mance gains 
over previous 
memory designs. Once again, 
another major breakthrough in 
computing performance innova- 
tion from Micron, the technology 
leader. 




P120 Millennia 

• Intel 1 20MHz Pentium® processor 

• 256K Micron SyncBurst cache, Flash BIOS 

• 4X EIDE CD-ROM drive, 3.5" floppy drive 

• SoundBlaster 1 " 1 6 stereo sound & speakers 

• PCI 64-bit graphics accelerator (2MB) 

• Tool-free mini-tower or desktop 

• Microsoft® Mouse, 101 -key keyboard 

• MS-DOS® & Windows® for Workgroups CD 

A • 8MB EDO RAM, 850MB EIDE hard drive 

• 15" Micron 15FGx,1280NI, .28mm 

• Microsoft Works Multimedia CD 

A/^T«r«r (Business Lease SB9/month) 

B • 1 6MB EDO RAM, 1 .2GB EIDE hard drive 

• 15" Micron 15FGx,1280NI, .28mm 

• Microsoft Office Pro 4.3 & MS Bookshelf CDs 

A/wr«r«r (Business Lease $107/month) 

C • 32MB EDO RAM, 1 .6GB EIDE hard drive 
•17" Micron 17FGx,1280NI, ,28mm 

• Microsoft Office Pro 4.3 & MS Bookshelf CDs 

fr/ \J*JZ? (Business Lease $1 40/montti) 

. P133 Millennia add*f 00 ; 



Circle 98 on Inquiry Card. 



"The Millennia is nothing 
short of the best all-around PC 
available on the Market today " 

PC Magazine, April 25, 1995 




According to PC 
Magazine's most recent 
Windows based tests, 
EDITH the Micron P120 
CHOICE Millennia is a star per- 
May3o,i995 former." The Millennia 

P120 MILLENNIA 

garnered the 
highest Graphics 
WinMark score ever 
seen, in addition to a 
top-notch Winstone 
score. 



pentium 



MICRON 

I ELECTRONICS, INC. 

800-233-7027 



This yard with V\0 f enCgS ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ Mjcrosoft 

ifflStart] 



Microsoft 

WHERE DO YOU WANT TO GO TODAY?" 




- - i~*—^£m£.*~mm 



nouhcing new Micfosoflf Office for Windows® 95.- 
, ' I Software that doesn't hold you back. Software that presents fewer obstacles. 

Five integrated applications, one entirely new approach to the way they work. 

it's not merely an "upgrade:' It's not just about new features and new buttons. 

It's about easier, more intuitive access to capabilities old and new. 

Software that speaks your language, that answers your questions. 

Now you have ja suite of productivity programs designed to take advantage of Windows 95. 

Programs that let you focus on your work, not on your software. 




Office 



LTeKgrieClWWJnckwsr95... 




S- L 1 IE £ li M LS i£ U II 

Message from the Editor 53 

Top 20 Small Systems ^k: ■ ■ ■ ^ 

Top 20 Software Products 64 

Most Important Chips. ................ . . 74 

Most Important Networking Products/. . 79 

The Best Things On-line ^Ji^ 

Most Important Companies. .... . . Wrf. 99 

Top 20 Technologies .............. ... 10! 

Notorious Bugs. I 

The 20 Most Important People . 

20 Spectacular Failures 

Noted and Notorious Hacker Feats. . ... 151 



Features 



MANAGEMENT 



.37 



Assets on the Line 

BY SALVATORE SALAMONE 

You can cut support costs if you've got an inventory of hardware and 

software. 

REMOTE ACCESS 

You Can Take It with You 41 

BY JEFFREY FRITZ 

So you're working in Hooterville and that file you need is on a server at the 
home office in Chicago. No problem. With digital services like ISDN, and 
even analog technology, you can connect to the corporate network. 




State of the Art 



COMPUTER TELEPHONY 

Collision! 199 

BY RUSSELL KAY 

Tying together telephones and computers is a great concept. New tech- 
nologies, products, and standards are finally taking computer telephony 
beyond the concept stage and into your office. 




■ ■ ■ i§> 1 




Standard Issue 201 

BY JAMES BURTON 
When there was just one phone 
company, standards and inter- 
operability weren't even ques- 
tions. Now we've got multiple 
answers. 

Strategic Industry Alliances — 203 

A Checklist for Making CTI 
Decisions— 206 



Building Telephony 
Applications 211 

BY JAMES BURTON 
As more organizations use com- 
puter telephony, those that don't 
may be at a competitive 
disadvantage. Here's a guide to 
development tools you'll need to 
construct computer telephony 
systems. 











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Us 


MimWwS^^^^ 


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Telephony's Killer App 215 

BYJOHNP.MELLOJR. 
It's going to take unique software 
to make telephony a gotta-have-it 
resource. Here are some of the 
contenders that might be natural- 
born killers, including PhoneNotes, 
FastCall, and VoiceView. 

Wildfire: One Wild and Not-So-Crazy 
Helper— 216 



II 



Web Search 223 

BY JON UDELL 
Why wait for the Web 
equivalent of the Dewey 
decimal system? You can 
index your Web 
collection now. Here are a 
couple of ways to do it. 
Plus tips on naming, hot 
links, and the answer to 
the question, "What 
About WAIS?" 



News & Views 



PROCESSORS 

P6 Weakness Revealed 24 

People who buy the first computers 
based on Intel's P6 processor will be in 
for a surprise when they run 1 6-bit DOS 
and Windows applications. According to 
benchmarks, a Pentium runs 16-bit 
DOS/Windows programs faster than a 
P6 at the same clock speed, even though 
the next-generation P6 is supposed to be 
a "faster" CPU. 

LITTLE THINKING MACHINES 

PC Power Comes to the Calculator. . . 25 

Texas Instruments plans to release a 
new calculator that's a whole lot smarter 
than its predecessors. 

WINDOWS DEVELOPMENT 

Delphi and VB Turn 32 26 

New versions of Borland's Delphi and 
Microsoft's Visual Basic have stronger 
client/server and OLE development 
capabilities for 32-bit programs. 



BYXE SEPTEMBER 1995 



Reviews 



ON-LINE SERVICES 

Gateways to the Internet 229 

BY GEORGE BOND 

A veteran Internet roamer finds that the Big 
Three on-line services offer adequate but pricey 
gateways to the Net. 

Convenience, but at What Price?— 229 

MSN: Desktop Internet— 231 

NOTEBOOK COMPUTERS 

Presentation Quality 233 

BY EDMUND X. DEJESUS 
IBM's slick new screen technology turns the 
ThinkPad 755CV into a remote-control color 
presentation panel. 

OPERATING SYSTEMS 

Networking at Warp Speed 235 

BY BARRY NANCE 

If OS/2's technical advantages don't wow you, 

maybe Warp Connect's networking goodies 



will. This 32-bit OS bundle includes peer 
services, LAN requesters, a slick approach to 
over-the-wire installation, and a passel of handy 
programs. 



COLOR PRINTERS 



.239 



To Print a Rainbow 

BY TOM THOMPSON 

Second-generation color lasers from Apple 
and Tektronix set new standards for print 
quality, network connectivity, and ease of 
maintenance. 



GRAPHICS ACCELERATORS 



.243 



3-D Graphics Go Zoom 

BY GREG LOVERIA 
Intergraph and Omnicomp offer two 
different routes to the land of glorious photo- 
realistic images — a workstation and a plug-in 
PC card. 



DISK ARRAYS 


Lab Report: 

16 Fast, Reliable 

RAID Subsystems 248 


We test a wide array of disk subsystems 
that minimize network downtime and 


maximize storage space, then pick the best 
RAIDs for database servers and audio/ 


video applications. 


How Error Correction 
Works— 250 


■ 


fP 




File Servers with 
RAID— 252 




In 




How We Tested— 254 


p 






Software RAID 
Solutions— 256 




; 




Honorable 
Mentions — 259 


I 




Helpful Hints— 259 


■■'■^..^^^ 











Core lectinol 

CPUS 

Endian Issues 263 

BY WILLIAM STALLINGS 
Different processors have incompatible memory- 
storage arrangements, but the PowerPC can handle 
them all. 

PROGRAMMING 

TheJoyofJ 267 

BYD1CKPOUNTAIN 

Successor to APL, the J language extends its 
ancestor's expressiveness and power. And you don't 
need a special keyboard. 



PROCESSOR TRENDS 

New 486 Chips Deliver Inexpensive Power 30 

The 486 might be reaching the end of its life, but it 
isn't dead yet. AMDhas developed twonew chips that 
shatter 486 speed barriers and offer Pentium-level 
performance at low-end prices. Meanwhile, Cyrix has 
developed an unusual new CPU that's a cross between 
a 486 and a 586-class chip. 



MULTIMEDIA 



.32 



Interactive Music Videos Arrive for Macs and PCs 

New interactive CDs, such as Todd Rundgren's 
"multimedia album" The Individualist, will bring the 
humble audio CD into the era of i nteractive content 
delivery using desktop multimedia systems. 

NEW PRODUCTS 

What's New 286 

Dell's new Latitude XPi P90T notebook combines 
low-voltage Pentium power with impressive battery 
life. Plus, Micro Energetics' Nightware provides 
power management for printers; Horizons Tech- 
nology's LAN record meters software for NetWare 
LANs; and more. 



OPERATING SYSTEMS 

Springtime at Sun 271 

BYDOUGTAMASANIS 

Many of the concepts in Sun's experimental Spring 

system will bloom in Solaris. 

NETWORKS 

Tuning In to ISDN 273 

BY JEFFREY FRITZ 

Satellite and radio technology are breaking the earthly 

limits of terrestrial ISDN. 



Opinion: 



.275 



Pournelle: Of COM Porte & Digital Frogs . 

BY JERRY POURNELLE 

Jerry explores painless dissection with Digital Frog, 
then settles down for more bloodless surgery as he 
tries to make communications software work under 
Windows 95. 

Books & CD-ROMs: 

How to Optimize Your PowerPC Code 33 

BY TOM THOMPSON, ALAN JOCH, AND 

RICH FRIEDMAN 

Writing faster native code; plus, commerce on the 

Internet, and pool and nostalgia CD-ROMs. 

Commentary: Dreaming of the Future .... 330 

BY DOUGLAS ENGELBART 
Can digital technology make a better world? 
Improve our collective IQ? In the dreams of this 
visionary inventor it can. 

Editorial by Raphael needlem an 10 

Letters 18 

Readers' comments on the BYTE Network Project, 
Internet censorship, and the trouble with Microsoft. 



Reader Survey 282 

READER SERVICE 

Editorial Index by Company 328 

Alphabetical Index to Advertisers ...324 

Index to Advertisers by 

Product Category 326 

1 nquiry Reply Cards 132A, 326A 

BUYER'S GUIDE 291 

Mail Order 

Hardware/Software Showcase 
Buyer's Mart 

PROGRAM LISTINGS 

FTP: ftp to ftp.byte.com 

From BIX: Join 

"Hstings/frombyte95" and select 
the appropriate subarea (i.e., 
"sep95." 

From the BYTE BBS at 1200-9600 
bps: Dial (603) 924-9820 and 
follow the instructions at the 
prompt. 



Bulk Rate 

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PAID 

McGraw-Hill 



Third class mail enclosed, edition 
codes: W1C, W1D, W1E, W1F, 
WIG 

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COVER IMAGE: BRIAN DAY ©1995 



SEPTEMBER 1995 BYTE 



BYT Contents by Platform 



Index 



This page presents the articles in 
this issue according to computing 
platform. 



DOS/WINDOWS 



P6 Weakness Revealed 24 

There's something weird about running 
16-bit DOS and Windows applications 
on Intel's new-generation P6 CPU. The 
software would actually run faster on an 
old-time Pentium PC. 

Delphi and VBTurn 32 26 

Upcoming versions of visual develop- 
ment tools from Borland and Microsoft 
will let you build 32-bit programs that 
take advantage of new features and in- 
terface elements in Windows 95. An- 
other 32-bit bonus is NT compatibility. 

New 486 Chips Deliver 
Inexpensive Power 30 

You don't have to buy a Pentium to get 
better-than-486 performance. AMD and 
Cyrix have designed new high-speed 
CPUs that blow Intel's 486 out of the 
water. Systems based on these new 
chips promise to be inexpensive. 

Interactive Music Videos 
Arrive for Macs and PCs 32 

The new CD Plus format will bring 
multimedia music discs you can play in 
your PC. 

Assets on the Line 37 

Keeping track of all the hardware and 
software in an organization can be a 
full-time job. Vendors are designing 
products that can help. 

Building Telephony 
Applications 211 

New development tools, many of them 
based on Visual Basic, can help you 
construct a voice-processing system. 

Telephony's Killer App 215 

What's it going to take to make tele- 
phony a technology everybody's got to 
have? Some of these PC applications 
might do it. 

The BYTE Network Project: 
Web Search 223 

Windows NT tools help index the 
BYTE Web site. 

Gateways to the Internet. ... 2 2 9 

Which on-line service has the best Web 
browser — America Online, Compu- 
Serve, or Prodigy? 

Presentation Quality 233 

IBM's innovative display technology 
sharpens up the ThinkPad. 



TO Print a RainbOW 239 1 2/600 and Tektronix's Phaser 540. The 



New color lasers from Apple and Tek- 
tronix give you better output, and 
they're easier to maintain than last 
year's sub-$l 0,000 color lasers. 

3-D Graphics Go Zoom 243 

We review two different ways to get 
glorious graphics on a Windows 
machine. One's a complete system, 
one's an accelerator board. 

Pournelle: Of COM Ports 

and Digital Frogs 275 

Jerry goes to Microsoft for another 
Windows 95 dog and pony show. Back 
home, he uncovers more anomalies in 
the new operating system. 

Preview: Impressive 
Battery Life in a Laptop 
Pentium PC 286 

Dell's new Latitude line of lightweight 
computers — based on the new low- 
voltage Pentium — really knows how to 
wring the juice out of a battery. 



Building Telephony 
Applications 211 

Want to construct a voice-processing 
system? You don't have to abandon 
your favorite operating system to do it. 
Several telephony development tools 
run under OS/2. 

Networking at Warp 

Speed 235 

IBM has made its 32-bit operating sys- 
tem even more enticing by adding peer- 
to-peer networking, LAN requesters, 
and a ton of communications goodies. 
Plus, the new configuration process 
makes network installation a breeze. 

Pournelle: Of COM Ports 

and Digital Frogs 275 

Jerry checks out "nifty" Warp Connect 
and likes the way it handles multiple 
tasks and windows. 



MACNT0SH 



Interactive Music Videos 
Arrive for Macs and PCs. ..... 3 2 

New discs in the CD Plus format will 
mean you can play "multimedia 
albums" on your Macintosh. One of the 
first comes from longtime Mac user 
Todd Rundgren. His new CD will even 
let you play video director. 

To Print a Rainbow 239 

Tom Thompson reviews two new color 
laser printers: Apple's Color Laser 



output, he finds, could mean bad news 
for makers of dye-sublimation printers. 



Building Telephony 
Applications 211 

OmniVox (from Apex Voice Communi- 
cations), Apprentice (from CTI Informa- 
tion Services), and 1VS Builder/Server 
(from MediaSoft Telecom) are Unix- 
based tools for telephony. 

Springtime at Sun 271 

Wondering what future versions of 
the Solaris operating system will be 
like? SunSoft's new Spring, an OS 
equivalent of the "concept car," will 
give you someclues. Many of the 
features ofSpring will eventually 
migrate to SunSoft's commercial 
system. 



NETWORKS 



Assets on the Line 37 

New products and collaborative efforts 
will help you keep track of your enter- 
prise's hardware and software. 

You Can Take It with You 41 

Accessing the corporate network from 
afar no longer requires magical incanta- 
tions and good-luck charms. Here are 
some tips on picking the right mix of 
access technologies. 

Standard Issue 201 

Here's a guide to the various standards, 
APIs, technologies, and industry politics 
that you need to know about before you 
plug your phone system into your LAN. 

Telephony's Killer App 215 

A survey of the software that could 
make the integration of telephones and 
networks an essential business resource. 

Networking at Warp 

Speed 235 

IBM adds peer-to-peer capabilities to 
OS/2 and throws in a bunch of other 
goodies. 

Lab Report: 

16 Fast, Reliable RAID 

Subsystems 248 

Looking for storage systems that cut 
down network downtime? This review 
will help you find the right stuff. 

Tuning In to ISDN 273 

ISDN Radio is cutting the copper 
umbilical cord and offering users real 
communications freedom. 



Asset management 37 

ATM 41 

Calculators 25 

CD-ROM 32, 275 

CPUs 24, 30, 263 

Display technology 233 

Education 275 

Frame relay 41 

Graphics 239, 243 

Indexing 223 

Internet 223, 229 

ISDN 41, 273 

Macintosh 32, 239 

Multimedia 3 2 

Networks.... 37, 41, 235, 273 

Notebooks 233, 286 

On-fine services 229 

Operating systems ...235, 263, 
271, 275 

OS/2 21 1, 235, 275 

P6 24 

PowerPC 263 

Printers 239 

Programming 33, 201, 

21 1, 267 

RAID 248 

Remote access 41 

Security 41 

Servers 201 , 248 

Storage 24 8 

Telephony 199, 201, 

211, 215 

Unix 21 1, 271 

Videoconferencing 235 

Windows 24, 201, 211, 

215, 275 

Wireless 273 

World Wide Web 33, 223, 

229 



BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 



BACKUP 



THE #1 SELLING RECORDABLE 
CD SYSTEM BY PINNACLE MICRO 




2 out of 3 
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p "»nac/es! 



T^ 



THE PINNACLE RCD-1000 IS 3 DRIVES IN 1! 

Recordable CD System 



1. 



2. Double-speed CD-ROM Player 

3. Tape Backup Replacement 

The RCD- 1 000™ is virtually 3 drives in I - making 
it the ultimate storage device for only $ 1 295. 
With the flexibility of Pinnacle's RCD- 1 000, the 
applications are endless. It's even plug-and-play 
compatible with Windows 95! As a CD Recorder, 
the RCD- 1 000 allows you to master your own CD 
that can be easily transported across town - or 
across the globe. As a double-speed CD-ROM 
player, it can read virtually thousands of educa- 
tional, multimedia or audio CDs. And with 
Pinnacle's new Backup Utility, you can now 
replace your tape drive with a system that pro- 



TAPE IS OUT. OPTICAL IS IN. 





• Tape is slow 

• No random access 

• Five-year shelf life (Avg.) 

• Too many different formats 

• Reliable? 



• Recordable CD is fast 

• Random access 

• One hundred-year shelf life 

• CD-ROM standard format 

• Very reliable 



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RCD- 1 000™ internal with 
SCSI controller & software 

$1295 



RCD- 1000™ extern! u>M 
SCSI controller & software 

$1495 



Includes: Recordable CD software, valued at over $500, 

as well as the new UP! Multimedia CD with 100 

Startup Motivational Videos, a $59.95 value, and 

2 pieces of FREE Recordable CD media! 



vides a more reliable solution and fast random 
access to your data for only $ 1 9 per disc, or 3 cents 
per megabyte. Each disc boasts 650 MB of data, 
audio, and video storage capacity. 

The RCD- 1 000 is perfect for creating and 
mastering your own 



multimedia titles, 
interactive games, or 
even mixing your own 
audio CD of favorite 
tunes. You can back 
up accounting records, 



(u- L<»i <:l>U»!HJ (> l!.ir> 

maoBBsmmmz 



f 



1 



RCD Backup Utility 



business plans, charts and graphs, or confidential 
information on CDs for decades - safe and secure. 
The RCD-1000 system is simply the best way to 
store, archive, distribute and create information. 
Best of all, it's now affordable - it's recordable! 

*PC internal version 



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/A 



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COMPANY* 



All Trademarks and Registered Trademarks of Their Respective Owners. 



Tel: 714-789-3000 Fax: 714-789-3150 

Circle 81 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 82). 



New Back-UPS: $ II9 
blackouts, brownouts 



"*%' i I J ust don't have the time for power problems on 
"ISpJ your PC? Don't worry. They'll always make the 
Microsoft time for you. It's not if a power problem will 
Compatible occur? but when. Due to household appliances, 
poor wiring, bad weather or even other office equipment, 
power problems are as inevitable as death and taxes. 
You can't run, but you can hide, behind APC protection. 
That's why we've just introduced new models in our 
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protection for just $119. 






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LIFETIME 




EQUIPMENT 
PROTECTION 




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In the next three months, more 

THAN 30,000,000 PCS WILL BE HIT BY 
POWER PROBLEMS... 

Who needs power protection? If you use a 
computer, you do. A study in a recent PCWeek 
showed that the largest single cause of data loss is bad 
power, accounting for almost as much data loss as all 
other causes combined. Every PC plugged into an 
outlet is vulnerable. In fact, you have better odds of 
winning the lottery than of escaping the sting of 
power problems. One study found a typical PC is hit 
over 100 times a month, causing keyboard lockups, 
hard drive damage, and worse. 

Simply put, if power problems are the least of your 
troubles, you've got one chance to keep it that way. 
You insure your car and home with the best policy 
you can afford. It just doesn't make sense to leave 
your PC (which is at far greater statistical risk) 
vulnerable to loss or damage. 



Why a $ 1 1 9 APC UPS costs less 

THAN A $9." "SURGE PROTECTOR"... 

Contrary to most people's belief, a PC alone already has 
more protection built into it than a low- 
end "surge suppressor," which is -. :;■ V 
usually nothing more than a well- « 
packaged extension cord. In other ^ 
words, going without any protection 
is just as good as underspending on 
one of the most important PC 
decisions you'll make. 

And since sags and blackouts 
represent more than 90% of power problems likely to hit your 
computer, even quality, high-performance surge suppressors are 
iterally powerless to protect you from data loss. 

That's why you need instantaneous battery backup power 
from an APC Uninterruptible Power Supply to prevent 



For extended 

brownout protection 

for advanced PC 

workstations call 

about APC's New 

Back-UPS Pro! 



PC World 

Top 20 
Upgrade 



"Don't take chances. Get the 
ultimate protection... from APC. ' 
-PCWorld 



" it it it J* Back-UPS should be standard on 
every desktop... effective, affordable, designed to 
last..." --PC Computing 

'*/\ UPS can pay for itself the first time it saves 
your data." — MacUser 

'The clear winner in price performance... 
a f] it's unbeatable..." -PC Magazine UK 



rsiicmarks of AIT. 



protection against 
and other trials by fire 



More than 3,000,000 satisfied customers count on APC reliability that goes above and beyond the call of duty 



After a raging fire which took 18 trucks to 
subdue, Michael Benolkin, director of the 
Systems Division at Correa Enterprises, 
Inc. didn't expect much. "While 
rummaging through the ashes, we heard 
something beeping. Our four APC units 
were still in action, while two UPSes from 
another brand were history. We're still 
using these same APC units at our new 
office location - they still work like a 
charm! We're impressed with the 
ruggedness, reliability, and product support 
offered by APC." 





Brian Krause, Network Manager for 
Goodyear Airship Operations, knows how 
critical APC protection can be." The night 
of the All-star game a tornado came 
through our blimp hanger and took out our 
roof. Our airships demand absolute 
communication so I protect our local and 
remote servers with the most reliable 
protection I can find: APC. APC's 
PowerChitte software shut our server down 
in an orderly way... closed out all files nice 
and neatly. When we reconnected, 
everything came back up perfectly, without 
a hitch. " 



Free 60 - page Power Handbook 

What are the myths and musts of PC protection? What are the 10 most 

IT^ciTyZr fS~;S S to " tips /0 " aM " s re "<"' l,lS '° y™ 

DYES! Send me my FREE Power Solutions Handbook. 
DYES! Please call me about your Trade-UPS Program. 
□ Please send me specific information regarding: 

□ Back-UPS/Pro □ Smart-UPS/v/s 

□ Matrix-UPS DLine-R 

□ SurgeArrest DPowerChute 

□ PowerManager □ PowerNet 

□ ProtectNet 

Name 




. Title:. 



Company 

Street: 

City: 

Plione:{ } 

Brands or" UPS used?- 



. State: . 
. Fax:( 



- Zip:, 



# servers/PCs to be protected? 



Dept. A2 



"LAN signaling allows simple shutdown with 
interface kits for automatic data protection 
(400 and above) 

"User replaceable, hot swappable batteries 
insure uptime safe disposal. Batteries will 
last 3-5 years under normal use. 

"$25,000 lifetime Equipment Protection 

-10 minute runtime with specified applications. 
For longer runtimes choose next largest unit. 



Model 


Application S 


jgg.List 


200 NEW 


"Green" PCs 


$119 


280 NEW 


LAN Nodes 


$139 


400 


Desktop 486/386 systems 


$199 


450 


Tower 486/386 systems 


$254 


600 


CAD/CAM workstations 


$359 


900 


Longer runtime 


$529 


1250 


Multiple systems 


$689 


France: (+33)1.64.62.59.00 Germany: (+49)89 958 23-5 



ment, and are available to suit any 
application, from network servers and 
PCs, to fax and satellite systems. 

Protect yourself or 
kick yourself... 

It's been said that there are two types 
of computer users: those who have lost 
data, and those who are about to. Prevent the 
single largest cause of computer problems and 
join a fast-growing third category: those who 
protect their PC's with the most reliable 
protection they can buy: APC UPSes. So ask 
for APC at your favorite reseller. At just $119 
an APC UPS is serious protection no serious 
computer user should be without. 



Readers 
qop 



Trial by Water 



VisitAPC's 
NEW 

PowerPage' on 
the Internet 

www.apcc.com 



s won more awards for reliability 
other UPS vendors combined... 

ResdierlNews 




*m* 



Readers Choice 




AMERICAN POWER CONVERSION 

Call 800-800-4APC 

Tel: (401)789-5735 

Fax: (401)788-2797 

CompuServe: GO APCSUPPORT 

Internet: apctech@apcc.com 

please reference Dept. A2 



UK: (+44) 753 511022 Ireland: (+35)391 702000 Latin America: (+1)401.789.5735 Japan: (+83)5295 1988 

Circle 344 on Inquiry Card. 



EDITORIAL I ! 



aphael Needleman 



Old Enough to Know Better 





You'd think that 
after 20 years 
o-f writing about 
com puters, 
we'd have 
learned a thing 
or two 



With this issue, BYTE celebrates its twentieth an- 
niversary. Like most of you, we've been studying the 
microcomputer business for a long time. I like to think 
that in 20 years we've learned a lot — not just about 
computers and the computer market, but about how 
new markets grow. And most important, how events in 
the various technology markets can be used as lessons 
for other industries. 

Computers don't cost jobs. If you look at specific mar- 
kets or companies (say, for example, Smith Corona's 
typewriter business), you will of course see the elimina- 
tion of jobs and even entire markets. But the computer in- 
dustry as a whole is growing rapidly and is a key engine 
behind job growth in several service industries, such as 
banking and medicine. 

Thanks to advancing technology, many industries are 
changing more quickly than they ever have. With change 
comes disruption, competition, and the decline of com- 
panies and people who don't track the change. But change 
also carries opportunity and growth for those who can 
adapt to it. 

Preemptive marketing works. Just ask Adam Osborne, 
who preannounced his Osborne Model II portable com- 
puter while still sitting on a warehouse of Model Is. An- 
ticipation of the Model II killed what was left of the 
Model I's sales. In the process, it killed Osborne Com- 
puter itself. Of course, giving the market a whiff of vapor 
can work to your great advantage — witness the hypefest 
that preceded the Windows 95 launch. Auto manufac- 
turers have been preannouncing products and vague "con- 
cept cars" for years. Sure, it's slimy. And it can bite you 
if you manage it wrong. But that's the way marketing 
works today. 

Technology doesn't always fix problems. Boys will 
have their toys, but sometimes they have been known to 
get carried away. Witness Denver International Airport, 
which is otherwise known as the world's largest bug. 
The problem: Airline baggage handling is slow, expen- 
sive, and error-prone. Denver's solution: A computer- 



ized baggage system that avoids the evidence of mis- 
routed luggage by ripping it to shreds. Hint: If the process 
is fouled up, a computer won't fix it — it will just automate 
the problems. 

The paperless office? Yeah, right. Paper grows on 
trees — and also in your office. There's a tale that when 
NASA used to receive satellites from the manufacturer, 
they came on two trucks: one for the space vehicle and 
one for the documentation. Now, we have made great 
strides in indexing and document retrieval in the last 20 
years, but people still want their books — and their mag- 
azines, thank goodness. Electronic distribution is an ad- 
ditional channel for information, but it cannot replace 
all other media. 

There's always one more bug. There is no such thing 
as a bug-free computer product. It's the unfortunate na- 
ture of the beast. Therefore, if you 're going to release a 
product into the market, you should know ahead of time 
what you will do if the worst happens. Of course, this 
applies to all industries, not just technology. Intel didn't 
realize this until too late, and confidence in its Pentium 
took a serious dive for a long while. But when Intuit 
found out about the bug in its TurboTax program, it fol- 
lowed the L.L. Bean model: The company took the prod- 
uct back and fixed it. People still trust Intuit. Be honest 
with your customers. 

Support your customer. Thanks in no small measure to 
the golden era of free telephone support for computer 
products (now gone, alas), a whole generation of con- 
sumers now expects companies to offer telephone help- 
desk support. From refrigerators to mutual funds, if a 
product can possibly confuse somebody, it will. But if 
confused customers can call you, in their darkest hour 
of need, and you can rescue them, you'll have built a 
stronger relationship — and improved your chances for 
future business. 

It's a Webbed world. You say you can't possibly think 
of another feature to add to your widget? Put Web func- 
tionality in it. Everybody else is, after all. Warning: This 
may not work for the home appliance industry. But then, 
you never know. ■ 



&■ 




Raphael Needleman, Editor in Chief 
(rafe@well.com) 



lO BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 



s and Counting... 







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©1995 WinBook Ccmpuler Corporation All tights reserved. WinBook is a registered trademark c! Micro Eledrcnics, Inc. 
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E-MAIL 



FOR PEOPLE 



THINGS 




I 



t 



PL A C E S 




Stliedttle+'s alarm clock 

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send faxes right from your word processor. 
Whether you're in Microsoft Word, Microsoft 
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WITH 



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ft> J 



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Mail. Like Schedule+, the best-selling scheduler 
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even shows you when everyone is free. So you 
can schedule meetings without a lot of legwork. 
Microsoft electronic forms let you speed 
expense reports, vacation requests and other 
important forms through your office at the 
speed of light. And with electronic forms you 
can track them easily. 

Finally, with Mail Remote you can stay con- 
nected and work just like you do in your office 
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matically when transmission rates are lowest. 



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Highly Integrated with 
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WHERE DO YOU WANT TO GO TODAY? 




\MB 



EDITOR IN CHIEF 

Raphael Needleman 



PUBLISHER 

David B. Egan 



Editor in Chief's Assistant: Linda Higgins 

EXECUTIVE EDITORS 

Rich Friedman, Jon Udell 

MANAGING EDITOR 

Lauren Stickler Thompson 

NEWS 
Peterborough: 

News Editors: David L. Andrews, 
Martha Hicks 

New York: 

News Editor: Salvatore Salamone 

San Mateo/West Coast: 

Senior Editor: Tom Half hill 
Frankfurt: 

Senior Editor: Rainer Mauth 

PRODUCT REVIEWS 

Director: Stanford Diehl 

Senior Technical Editors: Rick Grehan, 

Douglas Tamasanis 

Technical Editors: Rex Baldazo, 

Susan Colwell, David Essex, 

Dave Rowell 

Reviews Assistant: Lisa O'Neil 

STATE OF THE ART/FEATURES 
San Mateo: 

Features Editor: John Montgomeiy 

Peterborough: 

Senior Editor: Alan Joch 

Technical Editor: Russell Kay 

Lexington: 

Senior Editor: Edmund X. De Jesus 

SENIOR TECHNICAL EDITOR 

At Large: Tom Thompson 

SENIOR RESEARCHER 

Rowland Aertker 

ASSOCIATE TECHNICAL EDITORS 

Dennis Barker, Cathy Kingery, 
Mark Reynolds, Warren Williamson 

SENIOR CONTRIBUTING EDITOR 

Jerry Pournelle 

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS 

Stephen Apiki, Dick Pountain 

CONSULTING EDITORS 

Nicholas Baran, Raymond GA Cote, 
Trevor Marshall, Stan Miastkowski, 
Barry Nance, Roberta Pournelle, 
Ellen Ullman, Peter Wayner 

EDITORIAL ASSISTANTS 

Tammy Grenier, June Sheldon 

DESIGN 

Design Director: Charles Dixon III 

Associate Design Director/Design & 

Photography: Sharon Price 

Associate Design Director/Graphics: 

Joseph A. Gallagher 

Production Manager: David R. Anderson 

Desktop Prepress Manager: 

Virginia Reardon 

Designers: Barbara Busenbark, Jan Muller, 

Donna Sweeney 

Design Assistant: Cindy Sands 

EDITORIAL INTERN 

Jeff MacClay 



BIX Interactive On-line Service 



MANAGING EDITOR 

Christine Taylor 

EXCHANGE EDITORS 

Amiga Exchange: Joanne Dow 
Entertainment and Leisure Exchange: 
Rich Taylor 

IBM Exchange: Barry Nance 
Programmers Exchange: Bill Nicholls 
Professionals Exchange: David Reed 
Tojerry Exchange: Jerry Pournelle 
WIX Exchange: Karen Kenworthy 
Writers Exchange: Wayne Rash Jr. 



20TH ANNIVERSARY SECTION 
CONTRIBUTORS 

Art Director: Brian Day, Fisher & Day 
Copy Editor: Ellen Bingham 
Best Books & CDs Photography: 
Dennis Bettencourt Photography 
Page Headers, Digital Imaging, 
and Manipulation: John Lund Studios 
Staff Photograph: Britain Hill 



FINANCE AND OPERATIONS 

Director: Claudia Flowers 

ADVERTISING PRODUCTION 

Advertising Production Manager: 

Linda Fluhr 

Senior Advertising Services 

Representative: Lyda Clark 

Advertising Services Representatives: 

Dale J. Christensen, Karen Cilley, 

Rod Holden 

Operations Assistant: Lisa Jo Steiner 

Advertising Graphics Manager: 

Susan Kingsbury 

Graphics Production Coordinator: 

Christa Patterson 

FINANCE 

Senior Financial Analyst: Kathleen Deguise 
Systems Administrator: Peggy Dunham 
Junior Financial Analyst: Diane Henry 
Production Assistant/Purchaser: 
Agnes Perry 

MARKETING AND PLANNING 

Director: L. Bradley Browne 

Administrative Assistant: Ar ja Neukam 

Marketing Communications Manager: 

Rob Mitchell 

Marketing Art Director: 

Stephanie Warnesky 

Market Research Manager: William Zhao 

Copyrights Manager: Faith Kluntz 

Assistant Manager, Marketing Events: 

Carol Sanchioni 

Marketing Services Administrator: 

Meredith Bickford 

CIRCULATION 

Circulation Manager: Paul Ruess 

International Circulation Manager: 

Barbara Copcutt 

Subscriptions Manager: 

Lynn Lagasse 

Subscription Source Specialist: 

Christine Tourgee 

Newsstand Manager: Vicki Weston 

Assistant Manager: Karen Desroches 

Back Issues: Jill Wood 

Direct Accounts Coordinator: Ellen Dunbar 



Publisher's Assistant: Donna Nordlund 

ADVERTISING SALES 

VP/Sales: 

John M. Griffin (212) 512-2367 
Peterborough, NH (603) 924-2663 
Administrative Assistant: 
Terry Ouellette (603) 924-2635 

NEW ENGLAND 

Sanford L. Fibish (617) 860-6344 
Merle Model (617) 860-6221 

MID-ATLANTIC 

Michael Feinberg (212) 512-4811 
Susan Rastellini (617) 860-6265 

SOUTHEAST 

Mary Ann Goulding (404) 843-4782 
Margot Swanson (603) 924-2651 

MIDWEST 

Lori Silverstein (614) 899-4908 

Ed Ware (603) 924-2664 
SOUTHWEST, ROCKY MOUNTAIN 

Jennifer Walker (214) 701-8496 
Kevin Lary (603) 924-2527 

SOUTH PACIFIC 

Beth Dudas (714) 753-8140 
Mark Speros (714) 753-8140 
Brad Dixon (603) 924-2574 

NORTH PACIFIC 

Roy J. KopS (415) 513-6861 

James Bail (603) 924-2662 

INSIDE ADVERTISING SALES 

Director of Sales Operations: 

Diane Lieberman 

Assistants: Susan Monkton, Vivian Bernier 

THE BUYER'S MART (1 x 2) and 
HARDWARE/SOFTWARE SHOWCASE 

Ellen Perham (603) 924-2598 
Mark Stone (603) 924-2695 

REGIONAL 

Brian Higgins (603) 924-2596 

BYTE DECK 

Brian Higgins (603) 924-2596 

EURO-DECK 

Joseph Mabe (603)924-2533 

INTERNATIONAL ADVERTISING SALES STAFF 

See listing on page 325. 

PERSONNEL 

Human Resources Administrator: 
Patricia Burke 
Assistant: Fran Wozniak 
Receptionist: Beverly Goss 



TECHNICAL ASSOCIATE 

Mark Lavi 



MEMBER SERVICES MANAGER 

Kevin Plankey 



BIX, owned and operated by Delphi Internet Services Corporation, is a worldwide, low-cost, 
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How to Contact the Editors 



We welcome your questions, comments, 

complaints, kudos, and submissions. 

main office: One Phoenix Mill Lane, 

Peterborough, NH 03458, (603) 924-9281. 

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02173,(617)863-5100. 

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officers of the MCGRAW-HILL companies, inc.: Founder: James H. McGraw (1 860-1948). 

Chairman and Chief Executive Officer: Joseph L. Dionne; President and Chief Operating Officer: Harold W. McGraw III; Senior Executive 
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14 BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 







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Introducing the IBM Super Clients, the new PowerPC-based 
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There is a difference™ 



LETTERS 



The BYTE Network Project 

I enjoyed Jon Udell's article on 
establishing a World Wide Web site 
("Hello, World," July), especially the 
sidebar titled "Don't Dis the Host." I, too, 
use and prefer text-based Internet access. 
Udell called himself a "knuckle-scraping 
Neanderthal" for preferring text browsers. 
Thanks for affirming that there are still 
some fellow Paleolithic types out on the 
Internet. 

Erik Farquhar 
forcfithar@ocsit.bitjfolo.eclu 

Nice to see you guys on the Web. I noticed 
at the end of your "Hello, World" piece 
that you mentioned eventually 
trying out OS/2 and Unix 
servers. I would find a 
comparison of Mac vs. other 
operating systems useful. The 
freeware MacHTTPd and its 
commercial incarnation, 
WebStar from StarNine, are the 
obvious choices, and Apple 
offers bundles with all the 
necessary Internet server 
software. If you are going to 
give the other platforms a shot, don't pass 
over the Mac. 

Mark Eaton 
morke @ n wlink.com 

Point taken. I tend not to think of the Mac 
as a heavy-duty server platform since the 
OS still lacks robust memory protection 
and preemptive multitasking. But serving 
up HTML documents, at least on a mod- 
estly trafficked Web site, need not be a 
particularly demanding server applica- 
tion. Thanks for the reminder. — Jon Udell 

I was told that the BYTE Web site would 
be operational within a couple weeks. Is it 
ready yet? 

Gene Belanger 
Houston, TX 

Yes, our Web site is up and running, and 
it provides a link to our FTP server from 
which you may download BYTE's bench- 
mark source code and executables. Our 
URL is http://www.byte.com/. — Eds. 



MacThanks 

I just wanted to thank you for Tom 
Thompson's expertly written and in-depth 
article about Apple's upcoming Copland 




operating system ("Apple's New Operat- 
ing System," June). Your articles about 
Macintosh technology have always been 
excellent, and I look forward to reading 
them. See if you can sneak some more in. 
In a world holding its collective breath 
for Windows 95 (or 96), it was refreshing 
to read about the state of the next MacOS. 
Christopher Gervais 
cgervais @ e world, com 



Free the Net 

I was much interested in Arun Mehta's 
Commentary on "freedom" of the Internet 
("Radio Free Usenet," July). My daughter 
is in Croatia, my sister is in 
Tennessee, and I am in Atlanta, 
and we all communicate through 
E-mail transmitted via the 
Internet. And now I can send 
messages to Mr. Mehta in India. 
He was correct that the old 
U.S.S.R. had to choose between 
the benefits of PC technology 
and the risk of losing control 
over information. The world is 
racing ahead toward a global 
system, and yet some people are still in 
the dark ages. 

Shelia Perkins 
Atlanta, GA 

I agree wholeheartedly with Mr. Mehta's 
assessment of the Usenet system. I am 
particularly concerned about the threat 
posed to Usenet by the ignorant and 
misguided efforts of some members of the 
U.S. legislative bodies. 

Richie Trenthem 

Memphis, TN 

trenthem® rhocles.edu 

I want to thank Arun Mehta for his Com- 
mentary. I share his concerns about the 
Exon amendment in particular and Net 
censorship in general. 

Dave Parker 
dlparker@dlpincOO.com 

Eighty-six U.S. Senators voted to 
approve a legislative measure that could 
make people liable for statements they 
make in E-mail messages that would be 
protected in a conventional letter. 
Senator Hatch (R-Utah) characterized 
the proceedings as "a game, to see who 
can be the most against pornography 
and obscenity. It's a political exercise. " 
— Arun Mehta 



Tsunami Benchmarks 

Your news story about the Power Macin- 
tosh 9500 ("Apple's Tsunami: PCI Pow- 
er," July) includes a table of benchmark 
results. The floating-point results for a 
Power Mac 8100/100 are just one-third 
(.375) as fast as the 90-MHz Pentium base- 
line. If this were really true, I'm sure Intel 
would not have downplayed the Pentium's 
floating-point performance. 

Steve Willie 
sfw@mcs.com 

The Power Mac 8100/100 used an older 
floating-point library that was much less 
optimized than the library shipping with 
the PowerMac 9500. An update to 
System 7.5 provides this new library to 
existing 60] -based Power Macs. 

— Tom Thompson 



Not Building for Windows 95 

I read your sidebar about Microsoft's 
Windows 95 Migration Planning Kit 
("How Best to Migrate to Windows 95," 
July). Any search tool that requires you to 
already have Excel, Word, and Power 
Point installed will be "cluttered and 
counterintuitive." And I think you were 
too easy on Microsoft when you called 
their Windows 95 payback spreadsheet 
"an incomplete business-analysis tool." 
It's not incomplete, it's totally useless. I'll 
stick to Windows 3.11 while this first wave 
of Windows 95 drowns all the early 
adopters. 

George Morgan 
Syracuse, NY 

Hey, I think you guys down at BYTE are 
a little biased toward Windows. You praise 
Windows 95 when it had not even been 
delivered. Don't talk about how good it is 
and just totally ignore a real 32-bit oper- 
ating system like OS/2. 

Michael Bernstein 

Rockford, IL 

insanity® rockford. com 

We don 7 ignore OS/2. See this month 's 
review of Warp Connect ("Networking 
at Warp Speed, " page 235). — Eds. 

We want to hear from you. Address correspon- 
dence to Letters Editor, BYTE, One Phoenix 
Mill Lane, Peterborough, NH 03458; or you 
can send E-mail via the Internet or BIX to edi- 
tors @ bix.com. Letters may be edited. 



18 BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 



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LETTERS 



The Trouble with Microsoft 

Microsoft "could reshape the Internet" 
("The Greatest Show on Earth," July)? I 
hope not. They reshaped the 
world of operating systems and 
look what good they did to it. 
Thanks to Microsoft, we need a 
486 to efficiently edit a plain 
ASCII file, so we can expect to 
need a direct Tl connection to 
The Microsoft Network to send 
E-mail. Fortunately, Microsoft 
won't reshape the Internet so 
easily. MSN is not exactly 
loved by many Internet users, 
and it won't exactly be welcomed into the 
Internet community. 

The trouble with Microsoft is that speed 
and bugs don't really affect their products' 
success. Windows is the best example. The 
same could happen with MSN. 

Petros Raptis 

Athens, Greece 

prapti @ leon.nrvps. cuiaclne-t. gr 



ISDN Lives 

I want to compliment you on Sal Salam- 
one's wonderful Core Technologies article 
"ISDN and Analog Access in One Pack- 
age" (July). The entry of all of these mo- 
dem manufacturers into the ISDN market 
will be good for ISDN. Salamone correct- 
ly pointed out that ISDN products are dif- 
ficult to configure. I believe that these new 
ISDN product manufacturers will become 
instrumental in forcing the industry to 
adopt a simplified "plug and play" ap- 
proach to ISDN. 

Keep up the good work. 

Paul D. Cook 

Pa/tine, IL 

p.cook@ computer, org 



I'd Never Be Without You, But... 

Yours is the one computer magazine I'd 
never be without. That said, I suggest you 
reconsider comparative product reviews. 
Printers, monitors, and VGA cards are ma- 
ture products, and even if we don't own 
the best laser printer under $5000 or the 
best 17-inch monitor, the ones we have 
are good enough. 

On the other hand, the review of tele- 
phony products in the May issue ("Small- 
Scale Telephony") was worthwhile be- 
cause the field is very immature and 
products often differ significantly or have 




significant flaws. These are the types of 
products we need to know about. 

Andrew Mayo 
andre\\>@ geac .co.nz 



Arithmetic 101 

In your review of the Tadpole 
PI000 ("Red-Hot 100-MHz 
Portable Pentium," June), you 
claim it is " 1 1 percent to 1 20 
percent faster" than your refer- 
ence machine. That would 
make the Tadpole over twice as 
fast as your 90-MHz baseline. I 

think you meant " 1 percent to 20 percent 

faster." 

John Smythe 
Gainesville, FL 

Mr. Smythe is absolutely correct; we 
apologize for the error. — Rex Baldazo 

In "Break Up Your Network" (June), the 
author multiplies bits/second times 
bits/byte to arrive at a bandwidth in 
bits/second. I must be missing something 
here because I end up with a result of bits- 
squared/byte-second. 

Andy Feibus 

VP Technology 

Process Systems and Integration Inc. 

amf@psi2.com 

The arithmetic is correct, but the units 
got scrambled. The error is in the label 
"Kbps, " which is kilobits/second. It 
should have been "KBps, " which is kilo- 
bytes/second. With that substitution, the 
units will cancel correctly. 

— Brett Husselbaugh 



FIX 

We regret the following errors from our 
June roundup review of SQL tools ("Sim- 
ple SQL"): 

We stated that IQ Software's IQ for 
Windows does not provide a facility for 
resolving ambiguous join paths. IQ pre- 
vents ambiguous join paths by supporting 
rule-based table joins. The rules are stored 
in its repository. In reporting the print 
speed of IQ for Windows, we timed the 
speed of a query and print, instead of print- 
ing directly from the query screen. IQ's 
print speed is much faster than represent- 
ed in the report. And IQ will indeed let 
you insert criteria from a static list. 

Because of incomplete information sup- 
plied by IQ Software, the features table 
on page 220 contained errors. It should go 
like this: 



Add descriptions for 
column/table names 


Yes 


Define dialog boxes for 
user queries 


Yes 


Start multiple instances 
of programs 


Yes 


Permits direct entry of SQL 


Yes 


Replace retrieved values with 
defined text/values 


Yes 


Generate partial reports 


Yes 


Insert criteria from static list 


Yes 


Add calculated fields without 
resubmitting query 


Yes 


Report on stored results 


Yes 


Define dialog boxes for 
user-query entry 


Yes 



IQ Software released version 5 of IQ 
for Windows soon after we completed our 
review of version 4.0. Version 5 adds sig- 
nificant enhancements and features. ■ 



COMING UP IN OCTOBER 



YOUR NEXT PC 

Current PCs are built on a 15-year-old architecture. We look at the technologies that 
are going to bring computer hardware into the 21st century. 

WINDOWS 95 

The rubber meets the road as we test Windows 95. Plus, we'll look at some of the 
upcoming 32-bit applications especially designed for Windows 95. 

LOTUS WORDPRO REVIEWED 

Lotus has upgraded Ami Pro, added groupware features, and renamed it WordPro. 
We test this new addition to SmartSuite. 

CATCH THE WAVE 

A close look at the Power Mac 9500, code-named Tsunami, which finally weds PCI 
and the PowerPC. 

FAXES ARE SERVED 

Fax servers are no fun to install, but the payback makes it worth the hassle. 



20 BYTK SEPTEMBER 1995 



FOR THE LAST TWO YEARS 

WE'VE WORKED WITH MICROSOFT 

TO MAKE SURE WINDOWS 95 USERS 

GET WHAT THEY NEED. 







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First, Windows 
95 doesn't have any 
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protection built in. 

And on the 

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a virus are far greater 

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But you need more than just 
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Norton Antivirus also 
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A 32-BIT OPERATING 

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And the utilities included in 
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The first thing Norton Utilities 
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1995. "Trade-up editions will run only when specified Symantec, Centra! Point, McAfee and 
Norton Navigator is a trademark of Symantec Corporation. All other brand manes or trademarks 



And if something does go I 
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So from the day you install 
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THE MORE WORK YOU DO, 

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Windows 95 has lots of terrific 
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Norton Utilities keeps 
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You can plug into your 
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And copy a file anywhere on 
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AND PRODUCTIVITY FOR 
FROM DAY ONE. 



But what about getting even 
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With Norton Navigator, 
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Be more productive with 
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Norton Navigator also 
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Norton Folder Navigator 
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you loads of other time-saving tools 
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Dr. Solomon's products are already installed. Check with your sofiware store for qualifying versions. Price does not include shipping and handling or any applicable sales tax. Symantec, 
are the property of their respective owners. ©1995 Symantec Corporation. All rights reserved. Visit us on the Internet at hit pill 'www.symantec.com. In Canada, call 1-800-365-8641. 

Circle 93 on Inquiry Card. 




16-BIT SOFTWARE STALLS THE P6 

P6 Weakness 
Revealed 

When running legacy applications, a fast Pentium may outperform the first P6 processors 



Why Legacy 

The Pentium currently outperforms 
the P6 when running 16-bit programs 
under Windows 3.1 due to a comb/na- 
tion of factors. They include the de- 
sign of the P6 and the hangover of 
legacy DOS and Windows code. 

As described in "Intel's P6" (April 
BYTE), instructions passed to the P6 
are converted into equivalent micro- 
operations that are loaded into a 40- 
element circular buffer. Instructions in 
the buffer pass to the execution unit, 
which processes between three and 
five instructions simultaneously, if the 
data for the specific instruction is 
available. 

If instruction B references a partic- 
ular register, and instruction A, which 
precedes 8 in program flow, also 
writes to that register, B must wait for 
A to complete. Therefore, the fewer 
the dependencies, the faster the 



TOM R. HALFHILL 

Trick question: When is a Pentium faster than a P6? Surprise 
answer: When it's running 16-bit software, including DOS and 
Windows 3.1. 
Intel's latest benchmark testing reveals that a 133-MHz Pentium con- 
sistently outruns a 150-MHz P6 when executing the 1 6-bit code found 
in today's most popular software. Even a 100-MHz Pentium runs 
neck and neck with a 1 50-MHz P6. 

Theoretically, the sixth-generation P6 chip should blow the fifth-generation Pen- 
tium out of the water. The P6 has three-way superscalar superpipelines, speculative 



P6 Faster in Raw Performance but Slower for 16-bit Applications 



SPECint92 



SPECfp92 




Windows 31 



Windows 95 



Windows NT 



250 



The P6 outruns the fastest Pentiums when measured by low-level 32-bit 
benchmarks, as seen in these SPECmark estimates from Intel. Although 
Intel initially planned to introduce the P6 at 133 MHz, it's now likely the 
chip will debut this fall at speeds of 133, 150, and 166 MHz. 




'Intel estimates. All numbers are based on a 256-K8 secondary cache. 

Pentium 100 MHz 31 Pentium 133 MHz 



Although the P6 outruns the fastest Pentiums in low-level 32-bit benchmarks, 
a 150-MHz P6 is outraced by a 133-MHz Pentium and matched by a 100-MHz 
Pentium when running 16-bit programs under Windows 3.1, as seen in these 
preliminary benchmarks from Intel. With 32-bit Windows 95 or Windows NT, 
however, the P6 meets expectations. As of this writing, Intel has not 
permitted BYTE to run our own benchmarks on the P6. 



I P6 150 MHz 



execution, out-of-order execution, addi- 
tional registers, 2.2 million more transis- 
tors, more headroom for higher clock 
speeds, a closely coupled secondary cache, 
and a higher price tag (see "Intel's P6," 
April BYTE). But some of those fancy 
features actually slow down the P6 when 
running 1 6-bit code. 

The problem, says Intel, is with today's 
installed base of software, not with the 
chip. The P6 is optimized for 32 bits. 
When Intel engineers began de- 
signing the P6 about four years 
ago, they figured everyone would 
be running 32-bit software by 
now. After all, Intel's first 32-bit 
x86 processor (the 386) dates back 
to 1985. But the industry hasn't 
moved quite as fast as Intel and 
others expected: Most PCs today 
run 16-bit Windows. When Intel 
ran the SysMark application-level 
benchmark programs on a P6, old- 
generation software embarrassed 
Intel's next-generation chip. 

It's certainly not unusual for a 
new processor to deliver less-than- 
optimum performance unless old 
software is recompiled to take ad- 
vantage of the new design. That's 
especially true of RISC proces- 
sors. While the P6 is still a CISC 
chip, it adopts several RISC-like 
techniques. However, it's defi- 
nitely unusual for a new CPU to 
run old software slower than ex- 
isting CPUs that share the same 



24 HVTE SEPTEMBER 1995 



Code Snags the P6 



instructions can be delivered to the 
execution units. 

To conserve on the P6's transistor 
count, Intel decided to shadow (i.e., 
allow multiple independent instances) 
the "true" registers as full 32-bit enti- 
ties only. The result is that any in- 
struction that alters any part of a reg- 
ister will hold up a following 
instruction that uses any part of the 
same register, even if the instructions 
are logically independent. An ADD 
AL, 6 holds up a MOV BX.AX. 

If this were a completely 32-bit 
world (as Intel's engineers had hoped 
it would be by now), any instruction 
referencing a register would be held 
up by, at most, one preceding instruc- 
tion, and the P6 would "fire on all 
cylinders." Similarly, if all programs 
manipulated the CPU registers only 
16 bits at a time, the P6 would per- 



form well. Unfortunately, a great deal 
of code, especially in the DOS and 
Windows world, manipulates registers 
as 8-bit entities here, 16-bit entities 
there, and sometimes 32-bit entities. 
This "mixing" of data sizes bogs the 
P6 down, because it has to spend so 
much time "piecing" the 32-bit regis- 
ters together from 8- and 16-bit sub- 
units. 

Another source of friction for the P6 
arises from the ever-dreaded segment 
registers often manipulated in 16-bit 
DOS and Windows programs. Again, 
to skirtwhatwould have been a 
tremendous multiplication of complex- 
ity, the P6 engineers elected not to 
virtualize the segment registers. So, 
whereas general CPU registers can be 
shadowed, only one global instance 
exists for each segment register. The 
result is that the arrival of a segment 



register load instruction "serializes" 
the CPU: No other instructions can 
proceed until the load completes. 

Furthermore, any instructions that 
had already been started but appear 
in the program flow after the segment 
register load instruction must be 
dumped and restarted. The "tear it up 
and start from scratch" tactic is nec- 
essary because the source for all in- 
structions and data following the seg- 
ment load is in question. 

Ironically, none of this would be of 
any significance if the designers of 
the P6 hadn't made a few excusable 
miscalculations. In one of the larger 
mispredicted branches we've ever 
seen, the P6 engineers in 1990 esti- 
mated that most code today would be 
32 bits, and that the standard for 
chip technology, including the Pen- 
tium, would be at 0.6 micron running 



at around 100 MHz. However, hard- 
ware again outpaced software. To- 
day's typical PC runs a mixture of 16- 
bit code on 32-bit OSes. Meanwhile, 
the latest Pentium is produced on a 
0.35-micron process and soon will 
run at 150 MHz. 

The first P6 will not be manufac- 
tured on a 0.35-micron process, how- 
ever. Instead, Intel says it will make 
the first P6 chips on a more conserva- 
tive 0.6-micron process. Once it has 
worked the bugs out at 0.6 microns, 
Intel says it will move to a more ag- 
gressive 0.35-micron process. The 
company estimates there will be an 
eight-month period when a similarly 
clocked Pentium will outpace the P6 
in the special circumstances we've 
described. But once Intel moves to 
0.35-micron manufacturing, the P6 
will race ahead. — Rick Grehan 



basic architecture. (For more information 
on why this is, see the text box "Why 
Legacy Code Snags the P6.") 

The P6 lives up to expectations with 32- 
bit code. Intel's benchmarks show that it 
easily outperforms the fastest Pentiums 
when running 32-bit applications on a 32- 
bit OS, such as Windows 95 or Windows 
NT. Interestingly, however, the P6 does 
much better with NT than it does with 
Windows 95. Intel says that there are ves- 
tiges of 16-bit code in the Windows GDI 
(Graphical Device Interface), while 
NT is thoroughly 32-bit. 

The P6's poor showing with 16-bit 
software is probably not as serious as it 
seems. High prices will initially limit the 
P6 to servers and workstation-class desk- 
top systems, whose performance-minded 
users will almost certainly be running 32- 
bit OSes and applications. If the P6 fol- 
lows an adoption curve similar to the Pen- 
tium's, it will not appear in mainstream 
PCs until 1997. By then, 80 percent of new 
PCs will ship with a 32-bit OS, according 
to International Data (Framingham, MA). 
And Windows 95 should accelerate the 
migration to 32 bits. 

Intel says the P6 will get a performance 
boost when the company moves from its 
current 0.6- to 0.35-micron process. That 
raw performance boost should let the P6 
outperform the Pentium in running legacy 
16-bit software. Until then, anyone who 
is contemplating the purchase of a P6 
should be forewarned: If you're running 
1 6-bit software, the Pentium delivers more 
bang for fewer bucks. 



CALCULATORS 



PC Power Comes 
to the Calculator 



. o\ 



v^ 



£;■ 



.»^ 



The TI-92 has a 240- by 128- 
pixel display. You can split the 
display to view two 
applications simultaneously. 
It includes a QWERTY 
I keyboard and an I/O port for 
1 data transfer. It's about the 
I size of a videocassette tape. 
Ti ((800) 842-2737; 
fax (817) 774-6074; 
ti-cares@ti.com) says 
1 the TI-92 will sell for 
about $200. 



Iigh-end math capabilities such as 
symbolic calculus and Euclidean 
geometry are migrating from PCs to $200 
calculators. Texas Instruments (Dallas, 
TX) says it will release a new calculator 
called the TI-92 later this year. This cal- 
culator delivers interactive geometry, sym- 
bolic manipulation, statistics, and even 3- 
D graphing with an easy-to-use graphical 
interface. 

TI collaborated with the creators of the 
Cabri Geometry II software at the Uni- 
versite of Joseph Fourier as well as the au- 



thors of the De- 
rive algebra 
that's published 
by Soft Ware- 
house in adding 
the interactive- 
geometry and 
symbolic-ma- 
nipulation fea- 
tures. Thanks to 
those joint ef- 
forts, you can 
not only deter- 
mine the integral (that's the area under a 
curve for those of you who haven't been to 
calculus class lately) of a curve, you can 
also get the formula that's used for finding 
the integral (e.g., the TI-92 will tell you 
that the formula for determining the inte- 
gral of x2+2x+2 is xV3+x2+2x). 

TI says that the new calculator (see the 
photo) lets teachers equip a math lab much 
less expensively. The reaction from BYTE's 
college interns to the new calculator was 
universal: "I want one." 

— Dave Andrews 



SEPTEMBER 1995 BYTE 25 



NEWS & VIEWS 



WINDOWS 95 DEVELOPMENT TOOLS 

Delphi and VB Turn 32 



Visual development tools 
from Borland and Mi- 
crosoft will soon let you cre- 
ate 32-bit programs that take 
advantage of the new features 
and UI (user interface) ele- 
ments in Windows 95. In mid- 
September, Microsoft (Red- 
mond, WA) plans to release 
32-bit Visual Basic 4.0. Bor- 
land International (Scotts Val- 
ley, CA) says it will release a 
32-bit version of Delphi within 
90 days of the commercial 
availability of Windows 95. 
These products add stronger 
support for client/server de- 
velopment and OLE integra- 
tion. Another 32-bit bonus is 
Windows NT compatibility. 
Windows NT 3.5 can be both 
the host and the target of VB 
4.0 and Delphi. 

Although the 32-bit code 
these tools generate will not 
run on 16-bit Windows 3.1 or 
Windows for Workgroups, Mi- 
crosoft and Borland will con- 
tinue to support their 16-bit 
versions. Both VB 4.0 and Del- 



T Visual SourceSafe, a source code 
management tool that Microsoft recently 
acquired from One Tree Software, helps 
programming teams using the Enterprise 
version of Visual Basic 4.0 create 
complex, distributed applications. 



phi make the migration to 32- 
bit Windows development rel- 
atively simple. In many cases, 
you can recompile existing 16- 
bit code. 

Perhaps the biggest obstacle 
to Windows 95 migration will 
be the transition to OLE-based 
custom controls. You can't use 
16-bit VBXes (Visual Basic 
custom controls), which played 
a major role in VB's success, to 
build 32-bit software. Instead, 
you'll use 32-bit OLE controls 
(formerly called OCXes) that 
improve on VB's component 
architecture. Fortunately, many 
third-party developers have 
started migrating their VBXes 
to the OLE model. 

Borland's new version of 
Delphi, when used with Mi- 
crosoft's Control Development 
Kit, can create custom controls. 
However, VB 4.0 cannot do 
this. This gives Delphi an ad- 
vantage over VB. 

Because VB 4.0 still relies 
on a run-time interpreter, Del- 
phi will also maintain its per- 



formance lead. VB's interpreter 
is the same Object Basic en- 
gine that's found in Microsoft 
Office's VBA (VB for Appli- 
cations), but interpreted VB 
programs generally are not as 
fast as programs created with 
Delphi's Object Pascal com- 
piler. In fact, the new version 
of Delphi will share Borland 
C++'s 32-bit optimizing com- 
piler. 

Although VB cannot build 
OLE controls, both VB 4.0 and 
the new version of Delphi will 
let you create OLE automation 
objects. These are stand-alone 
code libraries that expose their 
routines to other OLE-aware 
programs. 

In VB, you create these ob- 
jects with a new type of mod- 
ule called a class module, con- 
taining as few as three lines of 
code. Public variables in this 
module become properties, and 
public subroutines and func- 
tions become methods. Other 
OLE-aware programs can 
browse these modules, modify 




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▲ The new 32-bit Delphi lets you create programs that have 
Windows 95 UI (user interface) elements, such as tabbed dialog 
boxes. For maximum performance, these features are 
implemented as Delphi-native controls, not OLE controls. Also, 
note the Pentium-Safe FDIV compiler option. 



their properties, and call their 
methods. This lets VB create 
distributed objects for three- 
tiered client/server systems. 
You can isolate business rules 
in OLE objects, separated from 
both the front-end client appli- 
cation and the back-end enter- 
prise server. 

Also new to VB 4.0 is an 
add-in architecture that's sim- 
ilar to Adobe Photoshop plug- 
ins. Previously, outside devel- 
opers had to hack VB to add 
design-time utilities, such as 
code formatters and debugging 
tools. Microsoft now formal- 
izes that architecture by letting 
OLE-based add-ins appear on a 
VB menu. 

A new IF... THEN state- 
ment in VB conditionally com- 
piles blocks of code. If a pro- 
gram calls functions available 
only in the full Win32 API 
(e.g., OpenGL graphics), you 
can tell VB to ignore that code 
when targeting the Winl 6 API. 

Client/server developers will 
appreciate the new 32-bit data- 
base engines in Delphi and VB. 
Delphi will have 32-bit asyn- 
chronous I/O, new drivers for 
DB2, deferred updates for 
transactions on multiple tables, 
and the ability to execute trans- 
actions against local dBase and 
Paradox files. The new Enter- 
prise Edition of VB 4.0 will in- 
clude the Jet 3.0 database en- 
gine and other client/server 
features. 

Of all the 32-bit improve- 
ments, however, perhaps the 
most important one is the move 
to 32-bit OLE controls. Unlike 
VBXes, which are closely tied 
to the VB architecture, OLE 
controls will be supported by 
a number of development tools. 
This will give visual program- 
mers much more power at their 
disposal. — TRH 



26 BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 




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NEWS & VIEWS 



PC PROCESSOR TRENDS 



New 486 Chips Deliver 
Inexpensive Power 



The 486 is reaching the end 
of its life, but it isn ' t dead 
yet. Advanced Micro Devices 
(Sunnyvale, CA) has devel- 
oped two chips that shatter 486 
speed barriers and offer Pen- 
tium-level performance at low- 
end prices. Meanwhile, Cyrix 
(Richardson, TX) has devel- 
oped an unusual CPU that's a 
cross between a 486 and a 586- 
class chip. 

Although AMD's new pro- 
cessors run internally at 120 
and 133 MHz, they use clock- 
divided buses to remain com- 
patible with existing mother- 
boards. The 120-MHz 486 has 
a 40-MHz bus and delivers in- 
teger peiformance comparable 
to a 75-MHz Intel Pentium (see 
"AMD's 120-MHz 486: Bar- 
gain Power"). It began ship- 
ping this summer. 

AMD's 133-MHz 486 chip, 
which is due later this year, has 
a 33-MHz bus and a 16-KB 
unified write-back cache, 
which is twice as large and 
more efficient than the 8-KB 
write-through caches found on 
most 486 chips. However, due 
to its slower bus and the di- 
minishing returns of pushing 
an older design to higher clock 
speeds, the 133-MHz 486 will 
offer only marginal perfor- 
mance improvement over the 
120-MHz chip. 

Cyrix is trying to get around 
the problem of the 486's di- 
minishing returns by introduc- 
ing a hybrid design called the 
5x86 (formerly known as the 
Mlsc). The 5x86 will likely 
ship in volume by the end of 
this month. 

Depending on your point of 
view, the 5x86 is either a 
souped-up 486 or a stripped- 



down version of the Ml, 
Cyrix's 586-class processor. 
Gone are the most advanced 
features that are supposed to 
make the M 1 perform 30 per- 
cent to 50 percent faster than 
a Pentium: superscalar pipe- 



up the Pentium and the sixth- 
generation P6? One reason: 
Both AMD and Cyrix are late 
in delivering their fifth-gener- 
ation chips (neither the AMD 
K5 nor the Cyrix M 1 will ship 
in quantity before 1996). 



AMD's 120-MHz 486: Bargain Power 



USA Flex 

(120-MHz 486) 

Zeos Pantera 

(60-MHz Pentium) 

Dell 


B- I 














=. I 


^^ 


i i 

M Integer Index 

■ FPU Index 

□ bbbi* 

■ BBBF* 


L- 








(90-MHz Pentium) 


^_ 




I I 




r i 


C 


1 : 


i : 


j 


4 5 6 



'Note: The BBBI (integer) and BBBF (floating-point) indexes compare pert onnance per dollar 
and are not pure performance indexes. They are calculated by multiplying each system's 
respective integer and floating-point index by 1000 and dividing by the cost of the chip. 
Higher numbers are better. Prices of the chips are subject to change. 



BYTE's native-mode benchmarks indicate that a system from USA Flex ((800) 872- 
3539) based on AMD's 120-MHz 486 processor achieves integer performance 
comparable to that of the more expensive 60-MHz Pentium. The system lacks the 
FPU performance of a Pentium, however. The USA Flex desktop PC with 8 MB of 
RAM, no monitor, a 545-MB hard drive, a 354-inch floppy drive, a 256-KB write-back 
cache, a mouse, and a 1-MB DRAM video accelerator card costs $1049. — DA 



lines, speculative execution, 
extra registers, and a 64-bit 
data bus. Retained are several 
features typically found only 
in fifth-generation microarchi- 
tectures: branch prediction, 
data forwarding, an indepen- 
dent load/store unit, an 80-bit 
FPU, 64-bit internal data paths, 
and a 16-KB unified write-back 
cache. 

Internally, Cyrix's 5x86 runs 
at 100 MHz. Bus speeds can 
be 25, 33, or 50 MHz. Like a 
Pentium OverDrive, the 5x86 
fits in a 32-bit 486 socket. Fu- 
ture versions will fit into 64- 
bit Pentium sockets and attain 
core speeds of as high as 200 
MHz. 

Why bother with sub-586 
designs when Intel is ramping 



Several vendors, including 
Cybermax, Liuski Systems, 
USA Flex, and Vobis, say they 
will use AMD's 120-MHz 486. 
However, at press time, major 
system vendors such as Com- 
paq, which already uses AMD 
processors in some systems, 
had not committed to using 
AMD's new 486 chips. One 
vendor, which requested ano- 
nymity, said it would not use 
the 120-MHz 486 because it 
thinks Pentium prices will drop 
dramatically this fall. 

Prices to PC manufacturers 
for these crossover chips range 
from $120 for AMD's 120- 
MHz 486 to $147 for the Cyrix 
5x86 (in quantities of 1000). 
That means complete systems 
can sell for under $ 1 500, which 



Whatever^ 1 i 
Happened |£3H 

TPs Rio Grande Chip? 

(see "Tl Charges Into the 
Notebook CPU Wars," April 
1994 BYTE, p. 36) 

Texas Instruments hoped 
that manufacturers of sub- 
notebooks would flock to its 
Rio Grande chip, a 486SX- 
class processor that inte- 
grated a PCI (Peripheral 
Component Interconnect) 
bus interface and memory 
controller with aggressive 
power management and low 
power consumption (3.3 V). 
But two factors helped 
shelve the chip. 

One was that as Tl was 
preparing to release the 
486SX-class chip (it had no 
FPU), the company's note- 
book partners were shifting 
to higher-performing 486 
processors. Also, it turned 
out that customers weren't 
buying a lot of subnotebooks 
at the time because note- 
books that weighed less 
than 4 pounds had too many 
compromises. 

Tl is back in the notebook 
and consumer markets with 
an 80-MHz 486-class proces- 
sor called the TI486DX2, 
which should enter volume 
production this month. Tl 
cites the first-quarter 1995 
Storeboard Channel Tracking 
Service, which reported that 
57 percent of PCs sold 
through retail channels in 
the U.S. were based on 
486DX-class processors. 

—DA 

is a key price point in retail 
channels. 

The pumped-up 486 chips 
should prosper in low-priced 
desktops and notebooks. For 
corporate and technical users, 
however, true 586-class chips 
look like a better buy. They're 
a safer long-term investment, 
and they offer superior perfor- 
mance, especially for floating- 
point tasks. — TRH 



30 BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 




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&COREL 9 

^ m custserv@corel.ca 
Call now for faxed literature! 
1-61 3-728-0826 ext. 3080 



Circle 64 on Inquiry Card. 



NEWS & VIEWS 



INTERACTIVE COMPACT DISCS 



Interactive Music Videos Arrive for Macs and PCs 




When you play Todd Rundgren's The 
Individualist interactive CD in a multimedia 
desktop system, you get the equivalent of a 
music video accompanying each song. Yost 
can instantly cue to any audio track chorus 
or verse by highlighting an interactive lyric 
text. The CD also has footage of a live 
performance taken from Rundgren's vidoo 
No World Order Tour. This lets you play 
video director by choosing among foar 
different camera posit 
custom music videos of the show. 



CD-ROM Notebooks Proliferate 



Imagine listening tu glorious digital stereo on your car's CD au- 
dio system. But when you arrive home and put the same CD 
into your computer's CD-ROM drive, you can listen to the audio, 
plus view interactive music videos, lyric sheets, artist biogra- 
phies, and interviews. The CD+ (also known as Enhanced Music 
Compact Disc) format lets you do all the above and brings the au- 
dio CD into the era of interactive content delivery using desktop 
multimedia systems. 

CD+ addresses the problem 
with today's interactive CDs, 
in which the lyrics, photos, 
graphics, and video are stored 
on track I . When you play track 
1 of current interactive CDs on 
a standard audio CD player, the 
resulting grating, buzz-saw 
sound can damage the speak- 
ers. The new CD-I- format elim- 
inates this problem. CD+ is a 
two-session format that works 
on current-generation multises- 
sion CD-ROM drives and all 
standard audio CD players. 

CD-l- lets content producers 
put audio tracks of first^session \ 
audio as standard CD-DA (Red 
Book Compact Disc Digital Au- 
dio) alongside CD-ROM com- 
puter data that was recorded in a 
second session An audio CD 
player that encounters the lead- 




out end of the audio session won't try to play the computer data. 
Todd Rundgren, a well-known cybertainer in the music in- 
dustry, is making his new CD, The Individualist, available only 
in CD-I- format. Rundgren describes The Individualist (see the 
screen), which should be available by the time you read this, as 
a "multimedia album" designed to run on both PCs and Macs. 
With the CD in a multimedia desktop system, you get the equiv- 
, ~, alentof a music video with each song. 

Major industry players — including Apple, 
Microsoft, Philips Electronics, Sony, and the 
Recording Industry Association of America, 
which is the trade group that represents U.S. 
record labels — have endorsed the CD+ Blue 
Book specification. Microsoft is also backing 
CD-I- with its release of Symmetry, a CD-I- de- 
velopment and authoring tool that supports 
WinG graphics acceleration, WinToon cartoon 
animation, and Surround Video. Macromedia 
(San Francisco, CA) also expects to release its 
Director Enhanced CD Toolkit for the Mac and Windows this fall. 
However, CD-I- is not the only interactive CD format. Con- 
tent producers are also using ActiveAudio's Track Zero format, 
which was announced last year. Track Zero has advantages over 
CD+. Unlike CD+, which requires a multisession CD-ROM 
drive, Track Zero works on single-session CD-ROM drives as 
well. And although Microsoft says it 
will include full CD+ Blue Book 
support in Windows 95, the com- 
pany hasn't said if it will support 
the format in Windows 3.1 or NT. 
ActiveAudio already has drivers for 
the Mac, as well as the three ver- 
sions of Windows. 

Whether they use Track 
Zero, CD+, or another for- 
mat, these new interactive 
CDs are another example 
of how PCs and Macs are 
becoming entertain- 
ment appliances. 

— Greg Loveria 



WebAddr 
interactive COii 



For more information on 
Microsoft's latest lists of 
CD+-compliant multisession 
CD-ROM drives for Windows, 
goto: 

http://www.eden.com/ 
cdplus/index.html. 

Mac and PC users can view 
ActiveAudio releases at 
http://quicktime.apple.com/ 
qtmusic.html and get 
additional information on the 
Track Zero specification at 
http://quicktime.apple.com/ 
AAJv1ENU.HTM. 



• Multimedia presentations 

• Distributed databases 

• Entertainment to go 



• Increased weight 

• Shorter battery life 

• Higher cost 



The number of notebooks with integrated CD-ROM 
drives will almost double in the next year, according 
to InfoTech, the international CD-ROM consultancy 
(Woodstock, VT). At the Computex show in Taipei, 
which should portend what you'll see in retail 
outlets this fall, practically every notebook 
vendor showed at least one CD-ROM- 
equipped portable. Sales of CD-ROM- 
equipped hand-held models will probably 
be less than notebook PCs, although 
InfoTech says gaming machines could 
change that forecast. 



is V ' 1 K S i i J i I -. M li I ■ R I 995 



If l(bu re Buying A Modem At Present, 
Get One With A Future. 




Why put off buying the new standard in PCMCIA 
(PC Card) modems for tomorrow if you can enjoy its 
advantages today? 

The new standard: Our 28.8 with the X JACK® Connector 




In the PCMCIA slot, XJACK* pps out for use and back in for trtvel. 

The Megahertz 28.8 modem lets you establish 
high-speed, dial-up Internet and on-line service 
connections right now. Which means faster downloads 
and lower phone bills. 

And connecting couldn't be easier. Our built-in 
XJACK® connector pops out for standard RJ-11 phone 
cord connections, giving you one less cable to carry or 
lose. Independent tests have also proven it the most 



durable PC Card connector around. Plus, intelligent 
installation, with plug-and-play support, gets users up 
and running fast. 

Our focus on mobile users' needs has made 
Megahertz the PC Card modem leader. It's helped us 
eliminate notebook compatibility problems and simplify 
upgrades with Flash DSP and Flash ROM. 

The Megahertz Digital Line Guard feature 
protects the modem from damage caused by accidental 
connections to higher-voltage PBX or digital lines. 
And adherence to the V.34 industry standard ensures 
improved perf ormance, compatibility and reliable, 
high-speed connections. 

So don't just buy a modem that solves your needs 
now. Buy the modem with the future built in. The 
28.8Kbps, V.34 modem from Megahertz. 

For details, call 1-800-LINKING, ext. 4324, or visit 
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Ether net 'Modem 
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Linking ISmr Worlds 



The XJACK connector is U.S. Patent Nos. 5,183,404, 5,336,099 and 5, 338,210, property of Megahertz Corporation. ©1995 Megahertz Corporation. Megahertz, the Megahertz logo, XJACK and Linking Your Worlds are all registeredtrademarks of 
Megahertz Corporation. Megahertz is a wholly owned subsidiary of U.S. Robotics Corporation. Megahertz is licensed by Spectrum Cellular Corporation. All other product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders. 

Circle 107 on Inquiry Card. 



NEWS & VIEWS 



NOTEBOOK TRENDS 

Bigger LCDs Mean 
Better Images to Go 



Bigger screens, more pix- 
els. That's the trend in 
notebook screens as LCD man- 
ufacturers satisfy consumers' 
desire for bigger displays, es- 
pecially for users whose note- 
book is their primary computer. 
The 10.4-inch VGA AMLCD 
(active-matrix LCD) is com- 
mon in notebooks today, and 
some notebooks with bigger 
1 1.3-inch passive-matrix dis- 
plays such as the Austin Vista 
notebook from IPC Technolo- 
gies (Austin, TX) are already 
available. Expect more 1 1.3- 
inch AMLCD notebooks to 
reach the market this year and 
next as screen manufacturers 
such as Hosiden, Sharp, NEC 
Electronics, Hitachi, and oth- 
ers achieve volume production. 

Notebook displays that are 
larger than 1 1.3 inches diago- 
nal will require a new notebook 
format. Apparently, that is what 
notebook vendors have in 
mind. Display manufacturer 
Mitsubishi Electronics Ameri- 
ca (Sunnyvale, CA) is work- 
ing to redesign its existing 
12.1-inch XGA (Extended 
Graphics Array) display to 
make it more suitable for note- 
books. 

"Various companies have 
informed us that there may be a 
new notebook size coming out 
in the next year or so that will 
take a 12.1 -inch display," says 
Dale Maunu, product market- 
ing manager at Mitsubishi. He 
declined to name specific com- 
panies. Screen manufacturers 
that will or already have 12.1- 
inch displays include Hosiden, 
Sharp, NEC Electronics, IBM, 
Hitachi, and Toshiba. 

Because the 12.1 -inch dis- 
play offers about the same 
viewing area as a 14-inch CRT 
monitor, manufacturers also 
hope to sell some of these 12.1- 



inch displays with 
desktop computer 
systems. Expect to see 
these larger LCDs 
with high-end worksta- 
tions where desk space 
is limited or mobility is 
important. 

Displays that are 12.1 
inches and larger are not a new 
item. Most display makers 
have made prototypes or are in 
limited production of larger- 
size displays. However, 12.1- 
inch displays are costly, power- 
hungry, and heavier than 
10.4-inch displays. Screen 
manufacturers are working to 
reduce the cost and weight of 
the displays and improve per- 
formance. And notebook man- 
ufacturers are investigating 
ways to make their laptops 
lighter and thinner to accept the 
new large displays. 

One way display makers 
hope to reduce the prices of 
their larger displays is through 
improving their manufacturing 
efficiency. Most manufactur- 
ers say larger motherglass sizes 
are the best way to improve ef- 
ficiency, because more displays 
can be processed at the same 
time. To reduce weight, dis- 
play makers plan to use thin- 
ner glass, more compact elec- 
tronics that drive the video, and 
smaller backlight tubes. 

"While the market demands 
smaller and lighter notebooks, 
it also wants the largest screen 
available," says Greg Gonza- 
les, who is director of portable 
products at IPC Technologies 
((800) 338- 1 57 1 ). "Our weight 
target is still under 6 pounds." 
Given those parameters, Gon- 
zales says, the current strategy 
is to design notebooks that are 
wider, but about 1.5 inches 
thick, or about 0.5 inch thinner 
than today. —Chris Chinnock 




Microchip's fuzzy Tech-MP 
Explorer includes 
hardware (shown) and 
software that lets you 
explore fuzzy-logic 
programming. 



The fuzzyTech-MP Explorer ($295) is a combination 
of software and hardware for learning how to de- 
velop a fuzzy application. Though I have seen 
fuzzy logic applied to decision-making systems 
such as fuzzy-logic-based spreadsheets, the 
fuzzyTech-MP Explorer from Microchip Tech- 
nology (Chandler, AZ, (602) 786-7200; fax 
(602) 899-9210) concentrates on using fuzzy 
logic in system control applications. 
The hardware side of the Explorer is the fuzzy- 
Lab, a small circuit board powered by an AC 
adapter and populated with LEDs, push but- 
tons, a pair of potentiometers, RS-232 cir- 
cuitry, a socketed PIC-family processor, and 
a thermistor/resistor pair (bonded together in a plastic sheath). One out- 
put pin of the PIC processor is connected to the resistor. By varying the 
duty cycle of a pulse wave outthat pin, you can heat the resistor. Via an- 
other I/O pin, the PIC processor reads the thermistor's temperature. The 
processor on the fuzzy Lab "talks" through the serial port to the Win- 
dows-based fuzzyTech development system. The idea is to produce a 
fuzzy-logic control program that can heat the thermistor to a target 
temperature and keep it there. 

This sounds simple, but fuzzyTech 's tuto al will show you that this is not 
the case. In the tutorial, you operate the heating manually. I quickly dis- 
covered that when you turn the heater up too quickly, you overshoot the 
optimum temperature. If you back off too fast, it undershoots as it 
cools down. (I discovered that I would make a lousy thermostat.) 
The next step is to activate the fuzzyTech development system. You 
define "crisp" values: real-world inputs and outputs (e.g., tempera- 
ture and duty cycle). The crisp inputs are read into the system and 
"fuzzified" into linguistic terms: A temperature of 30°C might "fuzzify" 
into the linguistic term too cold. Linguistic terms pass through a set of 
IF...THEN statements that you construct. These statements determine 
output linguistic terms. The output is "defuzzhled" into a crisp output 
value that controls the amount of current going into the resistor. 
All this lime, you're learning fuzzy-logic fundamentals: how Id define lin- 
guistic terms, how crisp input values convert ita membership, within 
linguistic terms, how output linguistic terms convert to crisp output 
values, and so on. Best of all, you can see if what you've learned works 
using the included fuzzyTech Software. 

The fuzzyTech development system provides a visual IDE (integrated de- 
velopment environment). Your system's details are all saved in an FTL 
(fuzzy technology language) source code file. Once your program works 
properly, you can output PIC16xx-compatible source code. (You need 
a separate product to assemble the source code into executable code.) 
You can even build a simulation in C and use fuzzyTech to control it The 
product uses Windows messages as the communications route. Source 
code for this interface is provided. Microchip includes a sample program 
that uses this technique. It simulates using a crane to unload boat 
cargo and uses fuzzyTech to control the crane's motor. If you want to 
get your fuzzy feet wet, I can think of no better way than this. 



32NA 2 BYXE SEPTEMBER 1995 



DELL LATITUDE 

Dependable Notebooks 
With Superior Battery Life 



DELL* LATITUDE™ LX4100D 

100MHz 1NTELDX4™ PROCESSOR 

* 10.4" Dual Scan Color Display 

* 4MB RAM (20MB Max RAM) 

* 128KB L2 Cache 

* 420MB Upgradeable Hard 
Drive (810MB Max) ■ 

* $99 More for 2nd NiMH Battery 
(Slides into floppy drive to 
achieve extended battery life) 



• 32-bit Local-bus Video, 
1MB Video RAM 

• 2 Type 11/1 Type III PCMCIA Slots 

• Preloaded Communications 
Software 

• 6.2 Pounds 

• 1 Year Warranty* 

• 30 Day Money-back Guarantee* 

• Double your RAM for only $200 more. 
Business Lease : $74/Mo. 

Order Code #800020 



Our New 

100MHz Latitude LX 

Notebook 

$1999 



FITS IN SMALL BUDGETS AS 
WELL AS SMALL BRIEFCASES, 





With the versatile Dell Latitude LX, you 

can put $3500 worth of notebook in your 

briefcase, but pay only $1999. 

You've always nil 

NEW lO 4" 

wanted a 10.4" STN ™ B¥W T^T) 

color display, ""jjISP^Y^ 

a speedy 100MHz 

processor, and l_2 cache right there on the 
motherboard. Now you've got it all. 

The Dell Latitude LX notebook's floppy 
drive bay accepts a second battery for 
double the battery life. And our notebook 
is covered by a guaranteed* 1 year next- 
business-day, at-your-desk service 
contract? 

So, if you don't getthe Dell Latitude LX 
now, you better have something examined. 
And we don't mean your briefcase. 



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TO ORDER. CALL 



800-247-5519 

In Canada* call 800-668-3021 

Mon-Fri 7am-9pm CT • Sat10am-6pmCT 

Sun 12pm-5pm CT • http://www.us.dell.com/ 



Keycode #01041 



Promotional pricing on featured system is not discountable. "Guarantees available in the U.S. only for registered owners of Dell Latitude systems purchased after 8/8/94. *Fora complete 
copy of our Guarantees or Limited Warranties, please write Dell USA LP.. 2214 W. Braker Lane, Building 3, Austin, TX 78758. ^On-site service provided by BancTec Service Corp. On-site 
service may not be available in certain remote locations. ^Business leasing arranged by Leasing Group, Inc. *Prices and specifications valid in the U.S. only and subject to change without 
notice. The Intel Inside logo is a registered trademark and lntelDX4 is a trademark of Intel Corporation. ©1995 Dell Computer Corporation. All rights reserved. 



NEWS & VIEWS 



ALL-IN-ONE COMPUTERS 



Computer-TV Hybrids Invade the Den 



Front View 



This fall, look for a wave of new PCs and Macs that inte- 
grate TV, stereo, and CD-ROM. At the fifteenth annual 
Computex Taipei exhibition, numerous vendors, including Acer, 
EliteGroup, Mitac, and Tatung (all from Taipei, Taiwan), showed 
PCs that typically integrate a 14- or 15-inch monitor, 
a 486- or Pentium-class CPU, a PCI (Peripheral Com- 
ponent Interconnect) bus, a TV receiver card, video in 
ports for VCRs, stereo, a dual- or quad-speed CD- 
ROM drive, 16-bit sound, integrated amplified stereo 
speakers, and, naturally, remote control. Apple, which 
already sells an "all-in-one Mac" for 
the education market, will release a 
system for the home this summer, the 
Performa 5200 CD series, which will 
include a PowerPC 603 processor run- 
ning at 75 MHz. 

Richard Chen, who is the product 
marketing director for Elite- 
Group Computer Systems 
(Taipei and Fremont, 
CA), which developed ac power 
the Vertos system (see 
the figure), says these 
all-in-one computers 
will appeal to people in 
homes with limited 

Space (e.g., in Japan) Keyboard/mouse 




Volume 
H-phase 
Brightness 
Contrast 



Power 
LED 



Phone tines 

(Digital answering 
machine and 
speakerphone 
are included) ^ 



m< w 1 

Ports Line 



and to college students who are living in small dormitory rooms. 
He also says the all-in-one systems (aka monoputers) should be 
sold as the second, not the first, TV someone buys. " If retailers 
try to sell these as if they were a TV, people would wonder why 

they should have to pay $2500." 
Combining a TV, stereo, 
telephone answering ma- 
ts-inch monitor chine, and other appliances 
taier'thfs'year) 01 ' in a pc presents a challenge 
for the interface designer, 
says Karen Stein wachs, group 
product manager at Epson 
(Torrance, CA), which plans 
to release a monoputer this 
fall. "It will be interesting to 
see how the GUI and the re- 
mote control converge," she 
says. 

"Vendors will have to in- 
tegrate PC functionality with 
the normal home/audio way of 
interacting with devices." She also 
predicts that as all-in-one systems 
get 3-D graphics and 3-D sound, 
they will become even stronger 
competition to stand-alone games 
platforms such as Sega. — DA 




Remote-control 
sensor 



Microphone 
Headphone 

Expansion slots 

EliteGroup's all-in-one PC 
typifies the type of machines 
you should see this fall. 



BEST OF COMPUTEX 

TAIPEI — The fifteenth annual Computex Taipei show held in June 
featured a wealth of PC, notebook, peripheral, and component 
introductions, many of which will reach the world's retail shelves this 
fall. Editors at BYTE and 0&1 BYTE, which is the Chinese-language 
version of BYTE, surveyed the show to find the best hardware and 
software products. Here's what they found: 



Best System (system mother- 
board or chip set) 

Winner: The Flexus (+886 2 782 7292; fax +886 2 
788 3862) 586F57, which is a high-speed Pentium 
motherboard that supports Pentiums running at up to 
170 MHz internally. 

Runners-up: Via Technology (+886 2 218 5452; fax 
+886 2 218 5453), for its green PC chip set, and 
AsusTek (+886 2 894 3447; fax +886 2 894 3449), 
for its P/I-P55TP4XE, which supports a variety of 
Pentium processors. 

Best Portable: 

Winner: Acer (+886 2 545 5288; fax +886 2 545 
5308), for its AcerNote 950, which includes a 10.4- 
inch active-matrix screen, a built-in CD-ROM drive, a 
touchpad mouse, and an Intel Pentium chip. 
Runners-up: Dual (+886 2 788 3919; fax +886 2 
783 0023), for its 100-MHz Pentium-based PMD 
5500 Pentimedia II with a built-in CD-ROM drive, and 
Kapok (+886 2 298 2651; fax +886 2 694 8787), 
for its notebook PC, which also has a CD-ROM drive. 



Best Peripheral: 

Winner: Up-Safe (+886 2 694 8181; fax +886 2 
694 8787), for its DS-500 disk-size UPS (uninterrupt- 
ible power supply), which fits inside a PC server's ex- 
pansion slot. 

Runners-up: ViewSonic ((909) 869-7976; fax (909) 
869-7958), for its 15GA 15-inch multimedia monitor 
with built-in microphone and speakers, and Mi- 
croTek's (+886 35 772155; fax +886 35 772598) 
PageWiz 300-dot-per-inch scanner. 

Multimedia Hardware: 

Winner: Umax (+886 2 517 0055; fax +886 2 517 
2017), for its 192-bit MaxMedia CD/Pro graphics ac- 
celerator card, which uses three 64-bit graphics 
chips. 

Runners-up: Acer's Vuego six-speed CD-ROM drive; 
Aver (+886 2 226 3630; fax +886 2 221 4538), for 
its live-video frame-grabber board for PCs, and Lead- 
Tek (+886 2 248 4101; fax +886 2 248 4103), for 
its Proview GD 400 3D graphics card, which uses 
Nvidia's NV1 multimedia accelerator chip. 



Multimedia Software: 

Winner: U-Lead (+886 2 764 8599; fax +886 2 764 
9599), for Media Studio Pro 2 integrated multimedia 
editing software for Windows. 
Runners-up: Prolab (+886 2 517 0750; fax +886 2 
517 0760), for Media Folio, which is an image-pro- 
Gessing, video-processing, atfd authoring tool you 
use with Windows; and Far Stone's (+886 2 777 
2435; fax +886 2 777 1720) SmartCD Instant soft- 
ware, which is a plug-and-play CD player for all CD- 
ROIvJ drives. 

Connectivity: 

Winner: D-Link (+886 2 916 1600; fax +886 2 914 
6299), for its DFE-812TX100Base Hub and DFE 
500TX 10/100-Mbps PCI (Peripheral Component In- 
terconnect) Fast Ethernet Adapter. 
Runners-up: CNet (+886 35 785158; fax +886 35 
785159), for its CN9100 Ethernet-to-ATM (asynchro- 
nous transfer mode) switching hub, and Moxa (+886 
2 910 1230; fax +886 2 910 1231), for its asyn- 
chronous terminal server. 

International Product: 

Winner: Logitech (+886 2 746 6601; fax +886 2 
762 1943), for its Fotoman Pixtura digital camera. 
Runner-up: Miro (+886 2 999 8116; fax +886 2 999 
8140), for its miroVideo DCI TV multimedia special- 
effects system. 

—Katie Sung 



32NA 4 BYXE SEPTEMBER 1995 



DELL DIMENSION 

Reliable PCs For High 
Performance Computing 



DELL" DIMENSION™ P75 

75MHz PENTIUM' PROCESSOR 

• Mini Tower Model 

• 8MB RAM (128MB Max RAM) 

•256KB Writeback Cache 

• 540MB Hard Drive (12ms) 

14LS Monitor (14" CRT, Nl) 
■• 64-bit PCMMB DRAM Video 

• 3.5" Diskette Drive 



• Spacesaver Keyboard/Mouse 
•MS-DOS F '6.2/Microsoft® 

Windows® 3.1/30 Days 
Free Support 

• Add a 14.4 Fax/Modem for 
only $79 more. 

Business Lease : S52/M6. 



$1399 



Order Code #500115 




AT $139% 
YOUR P75 JUST 

CAME IN. 




Dell's featured digital artist is Sanjay Kothari of New York, NY. 



You can now be the proud owner of a 
75MHz Pentium processor-based system 
for less than you or our competition ever 
thought possible. 

Our Dell Dimension P75 includes a 
robust 540MB hard drive, 8 megs of 
RAM, and a crisp color monitor. Then, for 
multimedia and graphics skills, the P75 
has 64-bit PCI video performance with 
1MB of DRAM. 

So.theysaygoodthingscometothose 
who wait. And when you call and order 
today, your wait will be over. 



D0LL 



TO ORDER, CALL 



800-247-5X4 

In Canada* call 800-668-3021 

Mon-Fri7am-9pmCT • Sat10am-6pmCT 

Sun 12pm-5pm CT • http://www.us.dell.com/ 



Keycode #01042 



Business leasing arranged by Leasing Group. Inc. *Prices and specifications valid in the U.S. only and subject to change without notice. The Intel Inside logo and Pentium are registered trademarks 
of Intel Corporation. MS-DOS, Windows and Microsoft are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. ©1995 Dell Computer Corporation. All rights reserved. 




The new Compaq Contura notebooks. Powerful DX4 and keyboard. All in one remarkably affordable, elegantly 
processors asjast as 100MHz. Up to 720MB of storage capacity. efficient little package. Finally, a line of notebooks that ex- 
A docking base that lets you use an external monitor, mouse eel in the oddest of places. Like wherever you happen to be. 




nmrn Reuisiv-iv.l U.S. 




The new Compaq Contura. 

With an optional docking base, 
you gain easy network access 
and connection to peripherals. 



Affordable 



Powe RFUL 



Porta b le 



Pick Three. 



COMPAQ 



NEWS & VIEWS 



STORAGE TRENDS 



Coming: Better Data Management Tools 



The demand for increased 
storage capacity never 
seems to end. And this ever- 
increasing demand brings a 
need for tools to better manage 
the data. 

The growing use of client/ 
server applications and the 
downsizing of legacy applica- 
tions to LANs are two promi- 
nent contributors to increased 
storage requirements. Today, 
companies typically store about 
18 GB of data on their LANs 
(seethe figure "Growth of Cor- 
porate Storage Needs"), ac- 
cording to Strategic Research 
(Santa Barbara, C A). 

Additionally, data-storage 
requirements are increasing as 
users download files from the 
Internet. The size of down- 
loaded files is also increasing 
as users download graphical 
files from the World Wide 
Web as well as WAV and AVI 
files, which can be large. About 
42 percent of users say they 
typically download files that 
are 2 to 5 MB in size, 19 per- 
cent say they typically down- 



Growth of Corporate 
Storage Needs 

1995 



1996 



1994 



13G0 18G0'**G0 



load files between 5 and 10 
MB, and 9 percent say the typ- 
ical file size is between 50 and 
100 MB. This is according to a 
survey of 300 users conducted 
for 3M by Fleishman-Hillard 
Research. 

All this downloading and 
downsizing has sparked a de- 
mand for integrated data back- 
up, restoration, and migration 
tools. Typically, PC and net- 
work utility software vendors 
developed such tools. But now, 
companies known for their 
data-storage hardware products 
are getting into the act. 

Within the last year, Seagate 
Technology (Scotts Valley, 



NEW 4.6-GB OPTICAL DRIVE CHALLENGES MAGNETIC 



Pinnacle Micro (Irvine, CA) expects to release a new MO (magneto-optical) 
drive this month that's less expensive than magnetic hard drives. Also, it 
offers performance improvements over previous MO drives. Pinnacle says that 
with the new performance improvements, its 4.6-GB Apex drive will compete di- 
rectly with magnetic hard drives as a primary storage medium. The Apex features 
removable storage cartridges and is also compatible with current 2- and 2.6-GB 
MO drives. 

One improvement Pinnacle made is in data transfer speed. The company uses 
the same high-speed read-channel ICs (with some tweaking to support the optical 
format) found in magnetic hard drives to gain a respectable 6-MBps data transfer 
rate. The higher 4.6-GB data density is achieved by slightly increasing the record- 
ing area on the disk (without increasing the actual size of the 5VS-inch disk), using 
smaller-size bits to store data, and using smaller heads. The smaller heads also 
helped lower the seek time to between 15 and 17 milliseconds. And Pinnacle 
lowered the time required to write data to the drive by implementing direct over- 
write instead of the two-pass write operation used in other MO drives. 

The Apex may prove popular as a stand-alone storage device for power users 
as well as in optical jukeboxes. At a list price of $1695 (which includes a 4.6-GB 
cartridge), the drive offers a cost per megabyte of 37 cents compared to 58 
cents per megabyte for a $2500 4.3-GB magnetic hard drive. 

Ray Freeman, an analyst at storage consultant Freeman and Associates (Santa 
Barbara, CA), says the Apex drive will be "immensely attractive" if it lives up to its 
advance billing. Says Freeman, "The Apex should stimulate additional demand 
for optical storage and generally give optical storage a shot in the arm." 

—DA 



CA) has acquired 
Palindrome (which 
sold data backup and 
management sys- 
tems) and Frye Com- 
puter (which sold 
network and system 
management soft- 
ware). And 3M's 
Data Storage Tape 
Technology Division 
(St. Paul, MN) is 
working with developers to 
bring simpler data management 
tools to the desktop user. 

Seagate's actions illustrate 
the trend to integrate data man- 
agement with network man- 
agement. Other companies, no- 
tably IBM and Microsoft, are 
also active in this field with 
their systems management ef- 
forts. Combined data/network 
management tools yield nu- 
merous synergies. One exam- 
ple is that you can link an HSM 
(hierarchical storage manage- 
ment) system to a network traf- 
fic-analysis product so that a 
large-scale file migration is de- 
layed if a traffic-analysis tool 
senses the network is stressed. 
Additionally, if the two types 
of tools are linked, your back- 
up program could monitor hard 
drive capacity and send an alert 
to a network management con- 
sole when a disk approaches a 
threshold level. 

In some ways, the 3M ef- 
forts target the other end of the 
scale: the desktop user. For ex- 
ample, one alliance 3M has is 
with Chili Pepper Software 
(Atlanta, GA), developers of 
Infinite Disk, an HSM-based 
file management package used 
with 3M's Travan minicar- 
tridge tape technology. 

Most HSM packages on the 
market are designed for net- 
work administrators to use and 
are fairly complex. But because 
Chili Pepper designed its pro- 
gram for the desktop user, In- 



finite Disk is easier to use than 
other programs. For example, 
one feature lets you designate 
how much hard disk space you 
need freed up when loading a 
large application. The program 
lets you enter the amount of 
disk space required by the ap- 
plication and then lets you 
specify how to move files off 
the hard drive. For example, 
you can specify TIFF and BMP 
files not used in 30 days. 

Another desktop data man- 
agement software product that 
will be available later this year 
comes from a 3M alliance with 
PGSoft (Pacific Grove, CA). 
The new utility lets you trans- 
fer, record, and play back data, 
audio, video, and other types 
of multimedia files without 
having to move them onto a 
hard drive. 

Essentially, a tape drive ap- 
pears as a "T" drive to the sys- 
tem, letting you click on a tape 
icon in File Manager to see 
what files are on tape or to drag 
and drop files in either direc- 
tion (tape to hard disk or vice 
versa). You can open any file 
on the tape as you normally 
would (as if it were on the hard 
drive). This feature is handy 
for CAD users who don't want 
to make room for a large file 
every time it's needed. Open- 
ing files off the tape drive is 
slower than opening a file on 
the hard drive, but 3M uses 
caching techniques to reduce 
the performance hit. 

Data backup, restoration, 
and migration tools have been 
around for many years. But the 
complexity of many of the 
products and the continuing ex- 
plosion in the amount of data 
that must be managed are 
prompting the industry to de- 
velop easier-to-use tools for 
both the network administra- 
tor and the desktop user. 

— Salvatore Salamone 



32NA 8 BYTE SEPTEMBER 1 995 



soothing less \!m>j\ 

the fastest, most poweM 

III 
personal computer in the world. 

W.W. still all boils down 

X.o one thing. 










Imagine having the power to do all the things that a Macintosh 
does so well, at workstation-plus speeds. The power to push not 
only the limits of your computer, but the limits of your creativity 
as well. To accomplish in minutes what once took hours. To have 
a tool on your desk flexible enough to change when your needs 
do. Giving you the freedom to grow. The freedom to adapt. It's 
the power that comes with the Power Macintosh 9500. The heart 
of the most powerful desktop publishing solution ever created. 




^Assvr\ess Professiona/s, 

Vwancial Consultants,. 

tabling Directors. 

Communicators, 

FKccountanfs, 

You. 




Imagine having the power to use your computer for videoconfer- 
encing from one city to another with just a few clicks of a mouse. 
To see video run as smoothly onyour computer screen as it does 
on your television screen. To create documents and presentations 
that contain photos, music and film, as well as words, numbers 
and graphics. It's why Macintosh is more popular than ever with 
businesspeople. And why now, with the Power Macintosh 7000 
series, you have the power to take your ideas farther than ever. 




i 



% 




^ferfulthe ^ 



? AW 



^e compute^ 





Now the only thing more 

powerful than a Macintosh 

is your imagination. 

Introducing the new family of Power Macintosh computers. 

Vision, meet reality. Introducing the new family of Power Macintosh" 
personal computers. The professional Macintosh" family. Faster than a 
speeding brainwave. More powerful than a burst of inspiration. And more 
flexible than any computer in the world. 

Your ideas have never been given so much room to grow. 

At the core of these machines lies the rocks-like-a-hurricane PowerPC" 
processor. It's so fast that the new, ultrahigh-performance 604 RISC chip 
tested up to twice as fast as a dual 100 MHz Pentium chip? It's also built onto 
a replaceable daughterboard, ensuring you an easy upgrade path. 

But as far as we're concerned, the true test of a computer's power is what 
you can actually do with it. And in the case of these machines, it may very 
well be anythingyou can imagine. 

The Power Macintosh 9500 is the heart of the most powerful publishing 
solution ever to land on a desktop. Your favorite software runs faster than ever 
before, which means you produce results faster than ever before. And we've 
moved to industry-standard PCI architecture for even greater flexibility. 

In terms of raw horsepower, the Power Macintosh 8500 flies through 
processing-intensive jobs like CAD/CAM, 3-D modeling and 3-D rendering. 
It features NTSC/PAL video-in/video-out capabilities, as well as CD-quality 
stereo sound. It's never been easier to create on-line movies in minutes. 

High-end performance. Low-end price. It's what makes the Power 
Macintosh 7000 series perfect for any size business. Like all Power Macintosh 
computers, they come with built-in high-speed Ethernet networking. 

The power of RISC means more power for everything you do: searching 
a database, pulling together a videoconference, updating a spreadsheet 
created in the Windows OS. Everything. 

It all happens faster on a new Power Mac'." So you spend more of your time 
exploring results, and less time waiting foryour computer to catch up with you. 

After all, it's really not about how powerful the computer is. It's about 
how powerful the computer makes you. The power to turn inspiration into 
solutions. Ideas into products. Vision into reality. The power to be your best! 



Engineers, 

Architects, Scientists, 

Research Analysts, Educfc 

Explorers, Theorists, 

You. 




f*''' : sj -■<&'<*■ "•>'*. 



JT ■ ..- < -^ rr^s: ■■ r- _ . *£&*■" ."■■ - 




Imagine having the power to take an idea and actually turn it 
into something you can see in minutes.To manipulate sound and 
video as easily as you now handle text. To spend your energy explor- 
ing creative solutions, rather than waiting for your computer to 
perform them. Now factor in the practical simplicity and built-in 
functionality of a Macintosh, and you've got a machine that can 
maximize your most valuable resource: time. The PowerMacintosh 
8500. The shortest distance between inspiration and reality. 





The Power Macintosh 9500. 






1 20 or /32 MHz PowerPC 604 RISC processor 




Processor upgradable via daughterboard 




6 PCI slots 




3 expansion bays 




12 DHAM sockets 


^M 


16MB to 768MB of DRAM 


m 


1GB or 2GB Fast SCSI bard disk 


El 


» j 


Built-in lOBase-'f and mil Ethernet 


^i 


The Apple Color 
LaserWriter 12/600 PS. 


%£ 


s J 



True 600 dpi 

Apple' Color PholoGrade 

ColorSync 2.0 

12ppm black, 3/>pm color 

Windows 3-1 compatible 

Motor PostScript* Level 2 

Built-in Ethernet for Novell 
Applelalk or TCP/IP networks 



The Power Macintosh 8500. 

120 MHz PowerPC 604 RISC processor 

Processor upgradable via daughterboard 

3 PCI slots 

3 expansion bays 

8 DRAM sockets 

16MB to 512MB of 'DRAM 

1GB or 2GB Fast SCSI hard disk 

Built-in video-in/video-oul capabilities 
up to 30 frames per second 

Built-in 10Base-7 and Mill Ethernet 




The Power Macintosh 
7200 and 7500. 

3 PCI slots 

Built-in lOBase-T and MUI Ethernet 

7500 

100 MHz PowerPC 601 RISC processor 

Processor upgradable via daughterboard 

3 expansion bays 
8 DRAM sockets 

16MB to 512MB of DRAM 

Built-in vieleo-iii 

7200 

75 or 90 MHz PowerPC 601 RISC processor 

4 DRAM sockets 



For more information, visit us §u the Internet al http://wicw.apple.com. 



The power to be your best. 



'I'eijorimtme bencb»t<trh Imsal <m Market Presence Incs "Nmr Madnlusb 'J50D lists Jur I'liblishiirijuitv 1995. %l')')5 Ajijik Cwti/mler. Inc. All rights re.sencd. Apple, th>Aj; ColorSync, LaserWriter, Macintosh aud "'Ik' jnmvr to beyuitr lifsf'w 

rcgUteml trmlvimtrte nj Apple Computer. Inc. fairer Mac unit I'ou er ibu s and max Ik ngiitercd in certain jiirisitictittis. I'ouerl'C is 

a Imthmirk of international Husmess Maclmies Curponilioii. used under license tk-refmrii, ,-W Apple products arc designed to be accessible to indinduals with dimlnliiy To lairu more (l ! .S. only), aill H00776-2Jii or TDD SOO S.tU>22i 



BOOKS & CD-ROMs 



OPTIMIZING 
CODE 



Gary Kacmarcik 



How to Optimize 
Your PowerPC Code 



TOM THOMPSON 



The PowerPC market is growing, and many books covering the programming of this 
processor are being published. Optimizing PowerPC Code by Gary Kacmarcik tells 
how to write faster native code. The book starts with functional descriptions of the 
PowerPC 601 's architecture and instruction set. The author describes such features 
as cache operation and branch prediction logic. 

Once this groundwork is complete, Kacmarcik moves on to optimization tricks. 
Some of these are standard fare: using right shifts to replace multiply operations and 
multiplication to replace expensive divide operations (for numerous divide opera- 
tions, multiplying with a reciprocal is faster). Other tricks involve mixing the instruc- 
tion stream so that all the execution units are kept busy and avoiding pipeline stalls by 
modifying certain code structures, such as loop unrolling and code pasting (i.e., plac- 
ing code-block duplicates elsewhere in an algorithm to increase the number of inde- 
pendent instructions that can be sent to execution units). Finally, there are nitty-gritty 
details about specific register dependencies and what can be done to avoid them. 

It's important to note that this subject is discussed at a fairly high level. For exam- 
ple, the loop-unrolling examples are in C, although certain sections are peppered with 
assembly language output. Also, there's no treatment of development tools or a specific 
machine environment (e.g., the Power Mac's code implemen- 
tation). However, the broad treatment Kacmarcik uses lets 
these techniques be applied to all PowerPC systems. 



OPTIMIZING POWERPC CODE 



Tom Thompson is a BYTE senior technical editor at large who is the 
author o/Power Macintosh Programming Starter Kit (Hayclen Books, 
1994). You can reach him on AppleLink as T. THOMPSON or on the 
Internet or BIX at tom_thompson@bix.com. 



Gary Kacmarcik 
Addison-Wesley 
ISBN 0-201-40839-2 

$39.95 




ESTABLISH A WEB BEACHHEAD 

MARKETING ON THE INTERNET: MULTIMEDIA STRATEGIES FOR THE WORLD 
WIDE WEB by Jill H. Ellsworth and Matthew V. Ellsworth 

John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 0-471-1 1850-8, $24.95 

In the search to find yet another angle for an Internet book, the Ellsworths key off the 
current hot topic: commerce on the Net. Unfortunately, the book never addresses the 
question of how profitable on-line companies are. Instead, the authors quote gee-whiz 
statistics about how fast the Net is growing and imply that growth equates to profits for 
companies on the Net. Buying studies have yet to prove that's true, however. 

But if you're a true believer in Net commerce, or are afraid that you're letting a busi- 
ness opportunity slip by, this book provides a handy starting point for establishing 
your company on the Net. At its best, the book offers practical advice on what makes 
a homepage attractive and easy to navigate. At its worst, it's a rehash of Net introductory 
material that you'll find in dozens of other books. 

Most appealing are the step-by-step examples of HTML (Hypertext Markup Lan- 
guage) code that show you how to format ASCII text and embed hypertext links for doc- 
uments you want to publish on the Net. The authors also show how the same HTML 
text appears when viewed by different Web browsers. The core of Marketing on the In- 
ternet: Multimedia Strategies for the World Wide Web offers solid advice for busi- 
nesspeople itching to establish a Web site. But, like the Net itself, you'll have to sift 
through some extraneous material to get to the good stuff. ■ — Alan Joch 




SHOOT POOL 

AND/OR 

RELIVE THE SIXTIES 



VIRTUAL POOL Interplay Productions, 
17922 Fitch Ave., Irvine, CA 92714, 
(714) 553-6655, $39.95 

If you like to play pool, you'll love the 
Virtual Pool CD-ROM. Its developers 
really sweated the details. All the physics 
of the real game are there, such as friction, 
cushion response, and cue ball spin. You 
can line up a shot by "walking" around 
the table, move closer, back away, and 
even attempt a trick masse shot. 

In addition to eight-ball, you can play 
nine-ball, rotation, straight pool, and 
snooker. You can play against your com- 
puter, against a friend, or with other play- 
ers via a modem or over a network. Vir- 
tual Pool runs under DOS 5 or higher on 
PCs with at least a VGA card, 2 MB of 
RAM, 2 MB of hard disk space, and a 
Sound Blaster-compatible sound card. 



HAIGHT-ASHBURY IN THE SIXTIES 

Compton's NewMedia, 2320 Camino Vida Roble, 
Carlsbad, CA 92009, (619) 929-2500, $49.95 

During the 1 960s, the San Francisco 
district of Haight-Ashbury was a cen- 
ter for youth rebellion, the antiwar move- 
ment, and major 
cultural and artis- 
tic experimenta- 
tion. Free love, 
flower power, hip- 
pies, and great 
music flourished. 
Haight-Ashbury 
in the Sixties cap- 
tures many of the 
personalities of the time, including Allen 
Ginsberg and Timothy Leary, as well as 
music from the Grateful Dead and Jef- 
ferson Airplane. There's even an adven- 
ture game that lets you explore Haight 
St. The CD-ROM runs on an MPC with 
Windows 3.1 or a Mac with System 7.0. 
— Rich Friedman 




A time of youth rebellion. 



SEPTEMBER 1995 BYTE 33 




You know how applications look. 



VI 



•£&&■ 



You know how to click a mouse. 





You know how to draw a line. 




You know how to watch 



T 




:X 




a computer do all the work, 



w^-^ •■■ I ■"'• .%, ^V 



bl 



Client 10 



DatabaseQuery 






Result Table 



This concludes your training in 
00 programming with VisualAge. 



No one's debating the benefits of object- 
oriented programming. The only question is 
whether it's worth the time and money it 
would cost to implement. 

With VisualAge^ the question may be 
irrelevant. Because its simplicity can easily 
remove the barriers between you and the fast 
development of 

object-oriented Can your softw 

applications. 

VisualAge is light years beyond mere GUI 
builders. It's a graphical environment that takes 
you through the entire process, from interface 
design to working application. As InfoWorld 
puts it, "a masterpiece of visual programming." 

With the C++ edition, you work with 
"parts" from IBM's Open Class 
Library, creating visual links 
between them. They're easy to 
modify and compliant with stan- 
dards, so they can be used across 




platforms, from PCs to the biggest servers. 

When your project is complete, you've 
created an application with industry-standard 
code (C++ or Smalltalk). And in a fraction of 
the traditional development time, you're ready 
to deploy a true object-oriented application, 
with solid components that can easily be used 

over and over in 
are do this? future projects. 

Of course, your 
full 00 solution requires even more. That's 
why IBM offers more 00 products, consulting, 
education and services than any other software 
company. To quickly take advantage of 00 
technology, call 1 800 IBM-3333 ext. GA 070 
or visit http://www.software.ibm.com. You'll 
find that you've been in training for 
VisualAge all your life. 



Solutions for a small planet 



In Canada, please call 1 800 565-SW4U. Outside North America, please contact your local IBM office. The IBM home page is located at hltp^/www. ibm.com. IBM is a registered trademark and VisualAge and Solutions for a small planet are trademarks of the 
International Business Machines Corpor ation.AII other company and/or product names are tiademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies. © 1995 IBM Corporation. All rights reserved. 




(((I 



Sound 




To really see and hear all of 
Windows 95, you will need the best 
next generation hardware. 

Like the affordable Sound 
Blaster® 32. This next generation 
Sound Blaster features 
wave-table synthesis, CD 
quality, 16-bit digital audio 
and incredible 3D sound 
capabilities. And, because 
it's a genuine Sound 
Blaster, you know it works with all 
your favorite multimedia titles. 

Then there's Modem Blaster™ 
28.8. Wire yourself into the internet 
and play the hottest games modem 
to modem with 
the fastest modem « 
available. 

Of course, your system wont be 
complete without Blaster CD™ 4x. Use 
the power and performance of quad- 
speed CD-ROM to take full advan- 
tage of the latest multimedia titles. 

For more information on these 
next generation products, see your 
Creative Labs dealer. 
Do it now. And make 
Windows 95 all it was 
meant to be. 

CREATIVE 

CREATIVE LABS, INC. 



multimedia 'iSSss Creative 



© I 995 Creative Technology l.tii. Sound Bluster and the Sound Blaster Logo tire registered trademarks and Bluster CI), Modem Blaster, the Creative and Sound Blaster Compatibility Logos arc trademarks of Creative Technology Ltd. 
U.S. inquiries: Fax Back Service 408-428-2389, World Wide Web (http://www.creaf.com.), Creative Labs Customer Response Center 1-800-998-5227. All other trademarks arc the property of their respective holders. All rights reserved. 





Circle 95 on Inquiry Card. 



Assets on the Line 



SALVATORE SALAMONE 






r ou're planning a big vaca- 
tion trip, so you call Human 
Resources to see how many 
vacation days you have. "Well, we 
don't know exactly — somewhere be- 
tween 10 and 20." Makes it somewhat 
hard to plan, wouldn't you say? 

Strangely enough, IS managers try- 
ing to support end users are in a similar 
situation. They often lack accurate — 
and essential — information about the 
quantity and types of hardware and 
software their users are working with. 

The vendor community has re- 
sponded to the demand for such inven- 
tory information with a multipronged 
approach. Some software utility ven- 
dors, such as Frye Computer Systems 
(recently acquired by Seagate), Hori- 
zons Technology, McAfee Associates, 
Microsoft, Microsystems Software, 
Saber Software, Symantec, and Tally 
Systems, offer asset management soft- 
ware that performs hardware and soft- 
ware inventory of network-attached PCs, 
Macs, workstations, and servers. 

The DMTF (Desktop Management 
Task Force), which is an industry con- 
sortium of hardware and software ven- 
dors, has developed a specification that 
provides a standard way to inventory 
computer equipment over a network. 
Today, DMTF-compliant products are 
finding their way to market. 

Server and PC manufacturers, such 
as AST, Compaq, Dell, and NEC, are 
beefing up their products by adding 
firmware that performs a hardware in- 
ventory and makes this information available to network man- 
agement programs. 

Finally, if you don't want to do it yourself, outsourcing firms 
that specialize in network management, such as NetSolve and 
Hewlett-Packard's service organization, shrewdly offer config- 
uration and asset management services as well. 

Counting the Beans 

All these alternatives aim for the same goal: a more accurate pic- 
ture of the hardware and software throughout an organization, 
based on the detailed inventory information they collect. Tradi- 




Computer asset management, 
using automatic hardware 
and software systems, 
can simplify administration 
and save money 



tionally, such inventories have 
been performed by hand — 
with a screwdriver — going 
from desktop to desktop. But 
such manual inventories have 
countless drawbacks. 

Labor is required to per- 
form an inventory, typically 
half an hour per PC, accord- 
ing to the PC Asset Management Institute. For one or two PCs, 
that's OK. But for a less modest collection of 2000 PCs, that 
means 1 000 hours, or half a year for a full-time IS staffer doing 
nothing but inventory. Major snore, major expense. 

A second disadvantage to manual inventory is that the infor- 
mation collected quickly becomes outdated. The once-a-year in- 
ventory becomes obsolete as soon as a user installs a sound card. 
It's little wonder that most organizations either have no in- 
ventory or use an outdated one. As a result, they are constantly 
performing ad hoc inventories every time they need accurate in- 
formation — whether buying memory to upgrade PCs or merely 



SEPTEMBER 1995 BYTE 37 



Assets on the Line 



Looking Under the Hood 



The DMTF ( Desktop Management Task Force) has fi- 
nalized its DMI ( Desktop Management Interface) 
specifications that, once adopted by equipment manu- 
facturers, will make hardware inventory easier. Over 
vendors have already pledged support for the standard. 

Basically, DMI defines a format of a management agent 
for desktop systems. Its layered-model architecture (see 
the figure) allows a wide range of software and hardware com- 
ponents to pass information about themselves to an asset man- 
agement system. The layers include an MI ( Management In- 
terface), a Service Layer, a CI (Component Interface), and 
MIFs (Management Information Formats). 

The MI passes requests for information ( I ) from the asset man- 
agement system to the device. Each component has a vendor- 



Desktop Management Interface 



DMI 




supplied MIF that 
describes the de- 
vice. The Service Layer (2) uses the device information stored in 
an MIF database (3) to interpret what is being requested. The CI 
(4) makes calls to component management software routines, 
which, when run, yield the inf ormation (5) requested by the as- 
set management system. 



troubleshooting a problem on a single PC. 
Whatever the reason, according to a sur- 
vey of 106 network managers conducted 
by Infonetics Research (San Jose, CA), 
companies spend an average of 40 hours 
per month performing asset and inventory 
management. Put another way, a week's 
salary is spent every month for such im- 
promptu inventories. 

Enter the Robot 

For these reasons, it makes sense to auto- 
mate as much of the inventory process as 
possible. That's most often what the prod- 
ucts from software utility vendors do. Typ- 
ically, asset management programs, such 
as Norton Administrator for Networks 2.0 
from Symantec and NetCensus from Tally 
Systems, automatically collect detailed hard- 
ware and software inventory from servers 
and nodes on a network. 

These products run in different net- 
working environments (see the table "As- 
set Management Software"). 
Some are NLMs (NetWare load- 
able modules) and run only on 
Novell NetWare LANs. Others 
are NOS-independent (network 
operating system). 

Programs that inventory hard- 
ware collect information about a 
wide range of hardware compo- 
nents (see the screen on page 40). 
This includes processor type, disk 
drives, BIOS, serial and parallel 
ports, installed RAM — even the 
network adapter card, and whether 
a mouse or game port is installed. 

Programs that inventory soft- 
ware collect information about the 
system files, drivers, and applica- 
tions installed on machines, in- 
cluding version number and the 



date and time applications were created. 

Automatically collecting hardware and 
software inventory information has typi- 
cally required proprietary approaches. Of- 
ten, hardware inventory programs use a 
custom-developed TSR program running 
on each PC that queries the machine's 
hardware and passes this information to a 
server-based inventory program. 

For software inventory information, 
most vendors take a brute-force approach 
and simply compile lists of hundreds to 
thousands of common programs, typically 
including the name of each executable file 
as well as its size and date. The inventory 
program simply looks for executable files 
and compares the name, size, and date to 
the list to determine what versions of what 
programs are installed. A number of tricks 
make sure the version number is correct, 
including checking the time stamp, be- 
cause many applications set that time to 
the version number. For example, the ex- 



ASSET MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE 



ecutable files for Norton Desktop for Win- 
dows 3.0 carry a time stamp of 3:00 a.m. 
While these techniques instantly inven- 
tory equipment attached to a network, lap- 
tops and stand-alone computers typically 
run a separate program. It saves inventory 
information on a floppy disk that can be 
sneakernetted and incorporated into the 
corporate inventory database. 

Stand and Deliver 

These methods for taking inventories of 
hardware and software work fine to a 
point. If only these products would be- 
come more assertive and tell asset man- 
agement systems more about themselves. 
For example, hardware components should 
be able to identify themselves to an asset 
management system, rather than having 
to run a TSR on every machine. 

Two industry initiatives are tackling this 
goal. For software inventory, LSAPI (Li- 
censing Service API) includes program 



COMPANY 


PRODUCT 


NOS SUPPORT 


CLIENTS 
SUPPORTED 


INTEGRATED WITH 
UPPER-LEVEL 
MNGT. SYSTEM? 


Frye Computer Systems, Inc. 


Smart 


NetWare 


DOS, Windows, 
OS/2, Macintosh 


Yes 


Horizons Technology, Inc. 


LANauditor 


NOS-independent 


DOS, Windows, 
OS/2, Macintosh 


No 


McAfeeAssociates, Inc, 


LAN Inventory 


NetWare 
NT, NetWare 


DOS, Windows, 
OS/2, Macintosh 
DOS, Windows, 
OS/2, Macintosh 


Yes 


Microsoft Corp. 


Systems Management 
Server 


Yes 


Microsystems Software, Inc. 


Software Sentry 


NOS-independent 


DOS, Windows 


No 


Novell and Intel 


Managewise 
Saber Enterprise 
Application Manager 
and LAN Workstation 


NetWare 
NetWare 


DOS, Windows 


Yes 


Saber Software Corp. 


DOS, Windows, 
OS/2, Macintosh 


Yes 


Symantec Corp. 


Norton Administrator 
for Networks 


NOS-independent 


DOS, Windows 


Yes 


Tally Systems Corp. 


NetCensus 


NOS-independent 


DOS, Windows 


No 



38 BYXK SEPTEMBER 1995 



Saies-O-Gnim 

-to AU Sales Representatives 

From: Kenton O'Keefe 
Sales Manager 
Subject: Pe^lvepo-rofcolorp^senW 




Color is color, unless 
it's brilliantly practical. 



It's the business printer you've been waiting for. 

Professional color so reliable, inexpensive and easy to use, 
it's a practical office tool. Speed? It's the world's fastest 
desktop color printer at 4 color pages per minute. Cost? 
Full text pages on plain paper at 3tf each. Color for lie on 
office papers. Simplicity? If you can load a stapler, you've 
mastered this machine. Reliability? Add 700 sheets and let 



it run overnight. That's robust. Price? At $4,995, 
nothing in its performance range even comes 
close. Best of all, it's from Tektronix, an industry 
leader, making world-class 
color printers for 13 years. 
The Phaser 340 Color Printer. 
So practical, it's brilliant. 



w 



Call 800/835-6100, Ext. 1037. 
http://www. tek.com/CPad?1037 



© 1995 Tektronix, inc. All rights reserved 



Tektronix 

/ 

Circle 90 on Inquiry Card. 



Assets on the Line 



^ta 


Pari 


Description 


*l 


* 


10 


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Asset management programs, such as Saber's LAN Workstation (shown 
here), typically display a wide variety of configuration information. 



calls that provide a common way for ap- 
plications to pass licensing information to 
an inventory or metering function. The in- 
ventory function itself can be either part of 
a NOS or a third-party utility program. 

Microsoft and Novell plan to include 
LSAPI in their OSes. Other interested ven- 
dors include Apple Computer (Cupertino, 
C A), Banyan Systems (Westborough, MA), 
Digital Equipment (Maynard, MA), Lotus 
Development (Cambridge, MA), McAfee 
Associates (Santa Clara, CA), Oracle (Red- 
wood Shores, C A), and WordPerfect (Orem, 
UT). As with most standards, adoption of 
LSAPI has been a slow process. However, 
once LSAPI is commonly deployed in ap- 
plications, it will be easy for administrators 
to identify software on their networks. 

On the hardware inventory front, the 
DMTF is leading the way with the DMI, 
which specifies a common way of ac- 
cessing the hardware and software com- 
ponents in a desktop PC. DMI lets man- 
agement systems access the information 
about a PC's internal components. The 
DMTF's CAPI (Common API) will sim- 
plify writing applications that access in- 
formation about a machine's innards (see 
the text box "Looking Under the Hood" on 
page 38). 

Heavyweight members of the DMTF 
include Digital, HP, IBM, Intel, Microsoft, 



Novell, and SunConnect. Most 
major PC manufacturers, in- 
cluding AST, Compaq, Dell, 
and NEC, are incorporating 
DMI-compliant components 
into their PCs. 

The fourth inventory method, 
as mentioned above, involves 
outsourcing vendors who are 
gearing up to provide inventory 
and asset management services. 
Such companies say they will charge be- 
tween $3 to $8 per box per month for in- 
ventory services. For an organization with 
2500 PCs, that translates to $90,000 to 
$240,000 per year. 

Benefits Aplenty 

That's a lot of money to pay outsiders just 
to take inventory. Why would anyone pay 
so much for something that simple? Prob- 
ably to save money in the long run. After 
all, a typical PC's purchase price accounts 
for only about 12 percent of the total cost 
of ownership over its lifetime, according to 
the Gartner Group. The other 88 percent 
covers administrative factors, such as in- 
ventory, training,andauditingcosts. A 1994 
survey of the Help Desk Institute found that 
82 percent didn'tknow how much each sup- 
port call cost them. Guesses ranged from 
$1 to $75. According to a survey of 180 
large user organizations conducted by B usi- 
ness Research Group (Newton, MA), LAN 
support costs $778 per user per year on Net- 
Ware LANs. A Forrester Research (Cam- 
bridge, MA) study found that, for a 5000- 
user network, it costs three times more to 
supportL AN usersthan it would to support 
those same users on an SNA (Systems Net- 
work Architecture) network. 

Only within the last few years have such 
recurring management costs become an 



issue. Before that, the true costs of man- 
aging PCs and LANs were hopelessly scat- 
tered among numerous departmental op- 
erating budgets. But as organizations have 
recently tried to regain control of depart- 
mental LANs, these costs have been con- 
solidated into one operating budget, and 
the magnitude of the expense has become 
horrifyingly apparent. 

Many companies can also reduce sup- 
port expenses by ensuring that products 
still covered by warranties are serviced by 
their vendors. And warranty information 
can easily be stored in a company hard- 
ware inventory database. 

Asset management information can iden- 
tify trends and head off problems before 
they occur. For example, by using equip- 
ment service histories (stored in an asset 
management database) to become proac- 
tive in preventive maintenance, a company 
can cut costs for emergency repairs. 

So, what's an effective asset manager to 
do? First, it is to your advantage to buy DMI- 
compliant products (and insist that vendors 
offer them). Second, you can simplify many 
lives by looking for inventory programs that 
link into help-desk systems or higher-level 
management systems. Third, despite the 
overt expense, consider outsourcing the pro- 
cess if your staffing levels are low. 

The bottom line is thatcosts to support 
computer software and hardware dwarf 
the purchase price. Asset management can 
provide information that is key to reducing 
those costs, and maybe make that vaca- 
tion happen after all. ■ 

Salvatore Salamone is a BYTE news editor 
based in New York and author of Reducing 
the Cost of LAN Ownership ( Van Nostrand 
Reinhold, 1995). You can reach him on the 
Internet or BIX at ssalamone® bix. com. 



LANaudltor $495 for 50 users 

Horizons Technology, Inc. 

San Diego, CA 

(800) 828-3808 

(619) 277-7100 

fax: (619) 292-9439 

Circle 1228 on Inquiry Card. 

LAN Inventory $699 for 100 
users; $999 for 250 users 
McAfee Associates, Inc. 
Santa Clara, CA 
(800) 866-6585 
(408) 988-3832 
fax: (408) 970-9727 
Circle 1229 on Inquiry Card. 

Managewlse $795 for five- 
user license; $6975 for 250 
users (combines Novell's 
NetWare Management System 
and Intel's LANdesk Manager) 



Novell, Inc. 
Provo, UT 

(800) 453-1267 

(801) 429-7000 
fax: (801) 429-5155 
Circlel230 on Inquiry Card. 

Intel Corp. 

Santa Clara, CA 

(800) 548-4725 

(408) 765-8080 

fax: (408) 765-1821 

Circle 1231 on Inquiry Card. 

NetCensus $10 to $20 per PC 

depending on the number of 

licenses 

Tally Systems Corp. 

Hanover, NH 

(800) 262-3877 

(603) 643-1300 

fax: (603) 643-9366 

Circle 1232 on Inquiry Card. 



Norton Administrator for 

Networks 2.0 $58 per node for 

100-user license; $44 per node for 

1000-user license 

Symantec Corp. 

Cupertino, CA 

(800) 441-7234 

(408) 253-9600 

fax: (408) 252-4694 

Circle 1233 on Inquiry Card. 



Saber Enterprise Application 

Manager $695 per server 

Saber Software Corp. 

Dallas, TX 

(800) 338-8754 

(214) 361-8086 " .'!)) 

fax: (214) 361-1882 

Circle 1234 on Inquiry Card. 



Smart $495 for 100 users; $3795 

for 1000 users 

Frye Computer Systems, Ina 

Boston, MA 

(800) 234-3793 



(617) 451-5400 

fax: (617) 451-6711 

Circle 1235 on Inquiry Card. 

Software Sentry $595 for 250 users 

Microsystems Software, Inc. 

Framingham, MA 

(800) 489-2001 

(508)879-9000 

fax: (508) 626-8515 

Circle 1236 on Inquiry Card. 



Systems Management 
Server $649 per server 
Microsoft Corp. 
Redmond, WA 

n T^^mmmmw ( 800) 426 - 9400 

^ffriL? '< (206) 882-8080 
*; t^-Z&L ^x: (206) 936-7329 
*■ Circle 1237 on 
Inquiry Card. 



5 ^ ^JP 




40 BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 



You Can Take It with You 




JEFFREY FRITZ 



emote access used to be 
'the lifeline you clung to 
in your hotel room after 
.you realized your pre- 
sentation was home alone on your hard 
drive 3000 miles away. But today, re- 
mote-access networks are the founda- 
tion for companies that don't see cor- 
porate headquarters as ground zero 
anymore. Just as much action is taking 
place in the field, on the road, or in 
branch offices. 

The trick is to select the right tech- 
nology or mix of technologies that can 
make it easy for far-flung workers to 
reliably connect to your company's 
main network. More and more, digital- 
service WAN technologies are becom- 
ing part of this mix because they're 
faster and more dynamic than T- 1 or 
56-Kbps leased lines. 

But even today, no one-size-fits-all 
solution exists for all companies, and 
venerable technologies still play a role 
in WAN connections. Your choices 
will depend on whether you need full- 
time point-to-point connections for a 
branch office, or more temporal con- 
nections for mobile workers or telecom- 
muters. Many companies require a 
combination of these two choices. 




ISDN and other digital 
services provide more 
ways to connect users 
to corporate networks 



Remote Gets Real 

The need for efficient remote access 
has grown in part because work can get 

done faster if you're closer to a customer site, or because work- 
groups are better if they're built on expertise rather than on geo- 
graphical proximity. Either way, employees throughout an en- 
terprise need to make business decisions with the same data that's 
available at headquarters. 

Alternately, people in the home office often need immediate ac- 
cess to the expertise of workers in the field, who may be able to 
spot business trends faster than those in a central location. In ad- 
dition, telecommuting is becoming a way of life for more and 
more people. LINK Resources Corp., a New York-based market 
research firm, says the U.S. work-at-home market grew to more 
than 40 million people last year. 

Digital technologies shine in those applications because of 



high throughput. Basic ISDN service, for ex- 
ample, provides for bandwidth of 128 Kbps, 
while a less commercialized technology such 
as ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) can 
scale up to more than 600 Mbps. Although 
128 Kbps can seem like a narrow pipe for 
LANs, WAN devices can make the most of it 
with compression and filtering. At the same time, network ad- 
ministrators can use protocol filtering to reduce superfluous traf- 
fic over the WAN, especially by eliminating multicast and broad- 
cast packets. Address filtering allows only packets addressed to 
the remote destination to pass across the WAN. If filtering and 
compression are not enough, digital devices, including those for 
ISDN, can provide additional bandwidth-on-demand by auto- 
matically allocating and binding extra channels based on cur- 
rent traffic requirements. 

Cutting Costs with Contention 

Digital dial-up connections make sense in another way: They 
reduce the amount of line-termination equipment a company 



SEPTEMBER 1995 BYTE 41 



You Can Take It with You 



must purchase. With leased lines, there is 
one-to-one correspondence between de- 
vices (such as bridges or routers) in the 
field and allocated ports in the central or 
hub site. Frequently, network managers 
use the ratio of devices in the field to avail- 
able ports at the hub as a way to size up 
their network connections. This ratio, 
called contention, is based on the as- 
sumption that all users will not simulta- 
neously try to connect to the enterprise. 

Contention reduces the amount of mon- 
ey you have to spend on lines and hub 
equipment. For example, a company might 
have 400 telecommuters, but no more than 
50 are expected to be on line at any given 
time. Rather than installing 400 network 
ports at the enterprise hub, the company 
can connect 50 ports in a "roll down" con- 
figuration — 8:1 contention. Users dial a 
common telephone number and connect 
to the first available port. When the fifty- 
first caller attempts to connect, he or she 
will get a busy signal and will need to at- 
tempt the connection later. (In some ad- 
vanced hubs, an administration program 
keeps track of call attempts. When a hub 



port opens up, the unit will call the remote 
user back.) 

Finding the optimal contention ratio is 
an iterative process. Setting contention too 
low wastes resources and is unnecessarily 
expensive. Setting contention too high re- 
sults in call blocking and user frustration. 
Typically, network administrators will 
make a conservative guess and monitor 
access requests to see if the contention 
threshold is realistic. Once an administra- 
tor has some feel for typical usage, con- 
tention can be fine-tuned as needed. 

Pennanent Connections 

Despite the performance advantages of 
digital technologies, it's not always easy to 
determine the price/performance cut-over 
point between leased lines or analog phone 
lines and digital links. T-l, at 1.544 Mbps, 
or 56-Kbps leased lines are the traditional 
ways to connect branch offices to a head- 
quarters' LAN. Leased lines are particu- 
larly advantageous if you can count on a 
stable level of communications activity, 
which will help you cost-justify this type of 
connection. That's because leased lines 



operate at a fixed monthly cost, no mat- 
ter how much data you're pumping 
through them. Leased lines are an eco- 
nomical choice if you can find a way to 
constantly use them; for example, by mak- 
ing them communications links during 
business hours and data pipelines during 
the night to update corporate databases. 

However, life isn't always predictable 
enough for leased lines. Your company 
may need connections to remote offices 
for only a few hours a day. In this case, 
high-speed modems (which we'll discuss 
later) or switched digital networks are bet- 
ter choices than leased lines. Switched net- 
works establish connections only when 
the need to communicate exists. When 
there's no communications, the line shuts 
down and charges are no longer incurred. 

ISDN's Promise 

In areas where it's available, ISDN is par- 
ticularly suited for remote access because 
it can build upon traditional dial-up strate- 
gies where users dial in with modems over 
analog phone lines. ISDN can handle 
everything from connecting a single user 



Remote LAN Access Examples 



Enterprise Network 



ISDN switch 



ISDN BRI 
orPRI 



Multiple PRI 
connections 



Modem 
pool 





ISDN BRI 



PRI ISDN 
hub 



Single-Workstation Telecommuters 
(ISDN and Analog) 



Communications 
server 



Analog line 



PC with internal 
ISDN bus card 



Modem 






Portable 
running 
PPPor 
SLIP 



Remote Office 
with Multiple 
Users 



1 0-Base-T 
concentrator 



Communications lines 
Ethernet cables 



Multiuser 
ISDN bridge/ 
router 



Giving remote users access to enterprise networks often 
involves a combination of dial-up analog and digital 
connections. Analog offers low-cost, ubiquitous service for 
transferring modest-size data files. Evolving digital services 
provide high throughput and, in some cases, scalable 
bandwidth. 



42 BYXE SEPTEMBER 1995 



You're ready to make the move to 
Microsoft's new 32-bit Windows 
95 operating system. 
The most powerful PC 
operating 
system 
you've 



background, monitoring your system 
and automatically launching tools 
to maintain system performance 
and prevent system crashes. 
Of course, if your, 
.system doev 



Norton Utilities for Windows 95 
keeps running to help you recover. 
That's the beauty of our 
/jmSpffi^ native, 32-bit utilities. 



No other 
utilities 
can 




NORTON UTILITIES PROVIDES THE ONLY 

AUTOMATIC DATA RECOVERY AND CONTINUOUS 

SYSTEM PROTECTION FOR WINDOWS 95. 



upgrade your utilities to Norton 
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IT'S A 32-BIT WORLD OUT THERE. 

You already know Norton 
Utilities is the best set of tools for 
system protection, hard disk 
optimization and data recovery. 

What you may not realize is 
that your current 16-bit utilities 
won't run under Windows 95. 

And the simple utilities found 
in Windows 95 itself don't offer 
sufficient data protection for life 
in a 32-bit world. 

Which is why you need the new 
Norton Utilities for Windows 95. 

The first thing Norton Utilities 
for Windows 95 will do for you is 
tune up your system for Windows 
95 by optimizing your hard drive 
and cleaning out all of the files 
you no longer need. 

Then Norton Utilities runs in the 



crash or you accidentally erase a 
file, Norton Utilities for Windows 95 
gives you the data recovery tools 
users have relied on from day one. 
Even if other applications crash, 

NORTON UTILITIES 
FOR WINDOWS 95 

PRE-INSTALLATION TUNE-UP 

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NORTON SYSTEM DOCTOR 

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Diagnoses potential conflicts and 

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PROTECT YOUR DATA 
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And like every software product 
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So you've got nothing to lose. 
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If yon own Norton 
Utilities, Norton 
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trade-up edition 
of Norton Utilities 
for Windows 95 today. To purchase, 
visit your software store or call us at 
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SYMANTEC. 




'Tnule-up editions will run only when specified Symantec and Central Point products are already installed. Check with your sofiwatr store for qualifying versions. Nee does not include shipping & handling or any applicable sales tax, Sptantec, Norton Utilities, Norton Disk Doctor and UnEmseate registered trademarks 
and Speed Disk is a trad mark of Spuintec. All other brand mimes or tnulemarks are the property oftlmr respeclivtowners. ©1995 Symantec Corporation. All rights reserved. Visit w on the Internet itthttp:(hvmvjymantec. com. In Canatbt, call !-8ti-365-8&1l. In Australia, call 2-879-6577- In Europe, call3!-7!-353lll ■ 

Circle 347 on Inquiry Card. 



You ^a/iTake It with You 



(at higher data rates than 
when using a modem) to 
providing enhanced connec- 
tions of LANs at different 
sites (see the figure "Remote 
LAN Access Examples" on 
page 42). In this situation, 
you establish connections on 
an as-needed basis rather 
than having to pay for an idle 
pipeline, as with a leased 
line. Also, the call setup time 
for ISDN can happen in mil- 
liseconds, which avoids un- 
necessary charges. 

Traditional modems es- 
tablish as-needed connec- 
tions, but modems must con- 
vert digital data into analog 
signals for sending over 
phone lines. The ISDN dif- 
ference is that every step of 
the communication is digi- 
tal. Basic Rate Interface, or 
BRI, is the baseline ISDN 
service. It offers two B 
(bearer) channels of 64 Kbps 
each for combined through- 
put of 128 Kbps. (Primary 
Rate Interface, or PRI, of- 
fers 23 B channels.) 

ISDN is a multiple-channel service with 
built-in packet capability, lending itself 
extremely well to WAN access. Unfortu- 
nately, ISDN's benefits don't always come 



Typical Configuration of a Hub Site ISDN Bridge 

h Configuration parameters: 



Switch type 
ISDN type 
Callback 
Line speed 
Protocol 

Address age time 
Connection type 
Packet time-out 
Retry delay 
Called number 
Ringback number 



5ESS- 

Custom 

OFF-*— 



64K/line 

COMPRES: :i- 

1001 

Auto on 

OFF 

30 

2935555 




Set up for AT&T 5ESS switch 
using custom translators 

Callback of remote user is off 

Compression is turned on 

Toss addresses older than 
1000 seconds 

Automatically call the remote user 

If call is unsuccessful, try recalling 
remote user every 30 seconds 

Remote bridge 



J^ Security parameters: 

F Access status ON - 

? System password 

Client password 
L Callback security 
\ Remote configuration 

5J Protocol filtering: 

I C806 ACCEPT 

| 809b ACCEPT-**- 

80f3 accept; 



Remote users can access 
the device 



Exists 
None 
OFF 

PROTECTED-^— Device configuration is 
password-protected 



Pass these Ethernet protocol 
types to the remote user; filter 
all other protocols 



Type of forwarding mode is ONLY 

Type of demand mode is ANY 

Number of Ethernet addresses: 20-< S^llT ab0Ut 2 ° '""^ 

Ethernet addresses 

% 



easily or inexpensively. Ordering ISDN 
service can be a nightmare. Some region- 
al phone companies are still developing 
expertise with the technology, and you 
have to make sure the service you receive 



matches the requirements 
of your ISDN hardware 
(for details on these two is- 
sues, see "Implementing 
ISDN," April BYTE). 

You may also find that 
ISDN rates in your area 
vary widely with what a 
branch office is quoted in 
another part of the country. 
Service prices vary de- 
pending on which ISDN 
service provider you use 
and if you are charged a flat 
rate or your usage is me- 
tered. You'll also pay dif- 
ferent rates for all-day or 
off-peak service. Expect 
baseline costs to run from 
$20 to about $70 per month 
for BRI. On top of this, 
some Regional Bell Oper- 
ating Companies charge an 
onerous extra fee just for 
the privilege of running lo- 
cal data over ISDN. (Some 
network administrators sar- 
castically refer to this as the 
ISDN Data Penalty.) 
On the bright side, prices 
for hardware are going down. Until re- 
cently, digital WAN devices were very 
expensive, costing more than $15,000 per 
location. But now, stand-alone ISDN 
bridges, supporting a number of remote 



COMPARING ACCESS TECHNOLOGIES 






■technology 


SPEED 


MONTHLY SERVICE COST 


PROS 


CONS ft 


P0TS/V.34 Modem 
T-l 

Switched 56 
ISDN (BRI) 

Frame Relay 


28.8 Kbps 


i 


• Worldwide network and proven technology 

• Ready availability for mobile workers 

• Relatively low cost for small transmissions 


• Slow speed 

• Poor line quality can slow transmissions 

• Flat-rate charges mean you pay even 
when you're not using the connection 

• Moving or adding connections requires 
work orders 


1 .5 Mbps 
56 Kbps 


$16,925 2 
$1585 2 


• Well-established technology 

• Widely available 

• High bandwidth for full-time connections 


• Relatively fast digital service 


• Costs can be uneconomical for low- 
traffic operations 


1 28 Kbps 


$350 3 


• Fast digital connections can handle data, 
voice, video 

• Increasing availability 


• Surcharges can be exorbitant 

• Not available everywhere 


2 Mbps 


$25,943 2 


• High bandwidth 

• Packets can shrink or grow to match 
file sizes 

• High, scalable bandwidth 

• Can handle data, voice, video 


• Service can be expensive 

• Connections to LANs require routers 

• Products, services not yet readily 
available 


ATM 


622 Mbps 


$34,650 2 


' Pricing is too variable to estimate. 

1 Prices based on a star topology network used by main headquarters with five branch offices. Source: TeleChoice Inc. 

3 Estimate for basic connection between a headquarters and five branch offices; does not include transmission costs or surcharges. 



BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 



Windows 95 is here. And it's 
really terrific. 

Except for one thing: it doesn't 
include any anti-virus protection. 
And your old anti-virus software 
won't work in Windows 95 either. 
But thousands of old viruses will. 

So that leaves you with a choice. 
Do nothing and hope you never 
come across an infected floppy or 
download an infected file. Or buy a 
new anti-virus software product that 




from the viruses 
everybody already, 
knows about. 
But also from 
the new 



virus* 
created" 



more, you get 
all this ironclad 



DETECTION, PREVENTION, DESTRUCTION. 

IF YOUR ANTI-VIRUS SOFTWARE DOESN'T HAVE ALL THREE, YOU'LL 

DE COMPLETELY EXPOSED TO VIRUSES IN WINDOWS 95. 



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Antivirus are registered ' trade marks of Symantec Corporation. M oilier brand names or trademarks art the property of their respective owners. ©1995 Symantec Corporation. All rights moved. Visit us on the Internet at http./fwww.tymamecxom. In Canada, call 1-800-365-8641. In Australia, call 2-879-6577. In Europe, call 31-71-353111. 

Circle 348 on Inquiry Card. 



You taflTake It with You 



workstations, are available for less than 
$2000. Single-workstation network de- 
vices, in the form of stand-alone units, typ- 
ically sell for less than $750. The price tag 
for an internal ISDN bus card can be as 
low as $250. That's comparable to some 
high-speed modems; however, an ISDN 
card offers significantly better throughput 
than even the fastest modem. 

ISDN PC cards — from companies such 
as DiGi International, ISDN*Tek, and oth- 
ers — act like a standard network interface 
card, which simplifies the network con- 
nection to a single RJ-45 cable plugged 
into the back of the user's computer. Some 
external and internal devices even contain 
the network terminator (also known as NT- 
1) required with ISDN lines. This can save 
money, and it can also make installation 
considerably easier. 

Along with single-user and multiuser 
remote devices, there is a crop of multi- 
ple-channel ISDN WAN hubs designed 
for use on the enterprise backbone. Hub 
devices support a number of remote users 



through multiple BRI or PRI connections, 
or a combination of both. Hub units that 
can serve 160 simultaneous users cost in 
the $6000 to $12,000 range. These units 
are ideal for variable-load WAN environ- 
ments. A hub site ISDN bridge can be con- 
figured to filter packets and compress data 
so that the link performance is optimized 
(see the table "Typical Configuration of a 
Hub Site ISDN Bridge" on page 44). These 
bridges can dial back a user for security 
purposes, and they can save money by 
consolidating phone charges and getting 
a volume discount for calls originating 
from the central site. 

Digital Alternatives 

ISDN isn't the only digital game going 
(see the table "Comparing Access Tech- 
nologies" on page 44). ATM handles tra- 
ditional and multimedia data at throughput 
speeds that scale from 50 Mbps to 622 
Mbps. This cell-switched technology 
breaks up data into neat 53-byte chunks 
at the sender. Each chunk carries the des- 



STRANGER DANGER 



As more people gain access to the enterprise, the risk to network security in- 
creases, and WAN administrators must constantly strike a balance between con- 
nectivity and security. No security measure is foolproof, but there are steps you 
can take to minimize the risks. 



As a rule, digital technologies are more se- 
cure than analog. Much to the chagrin of some 
federal agencies, the emergence of digital 
telecommunications technology has thwarted 
standard wire-tapping techniques. Recently, 
the FBI expressed frustration at its inability 
to tap ISDN circuits. 

Given time, there is little doubt that the FBI, 
and others perhaps less honorable, will devel- 
op methods to trap digital data. Meanwhile, 
corporate data running over digital links re- 
mains relatively secure. 

ISDN has additional security available 
through ICLID (Incoming Caller IDenthlcation). 
With ISDN, call setup messages contain the 
numbers of the calling and called parties. Net- 
work devices can be programmed to check 
the ICLID and reject connection attempts from 
unauthorized telephone numbers. LAN admin- 
istrators must realize that ICLID information 
only indicates that the correct line is being 
used — it does not validate the user. 

No matter what security measures are in- 
herent in the technology you choose, continue 



to take more mundane defenses seriously. 
Passwords are a good first line of defense for 
keeping unauthorized remote users away from 
network services. However, password protec- 
tion should be used only in combination with 
other security measures. 

Authentication, based on Kerberos or in- 
ternal codes created in WAN devices, is also 
valuable for WAN security. 

Callbacks are another popular form of se- 
curity for both analog and digital services. The 
user calls in, is validated, and is disconnected. 
The network then calls back the validated user. 
Besides providing security, callbacks can be a 
helpful tool for billing purposes. 

There is also the possibility of unauthorized 
access through a telecommuter's workstation. 
The solutions here are much the same as those 
for the corporate environment The workstation 
can be password-protected. Automatic log-ins 
should be prohibited. 

Restricting physical access to the worksta- 
tion at home is more difficult than in the office, 
but it can be done. 



tination address and is free to choose the 
path across the WAN that's quickest to 
the intended receiver. Once all the chunks 
arrive, the receiver reassembles the data 
into its original form. 

In time, ATM may be the technology 
that visually links remote sites via video- 
conferencing. While promising as a WAN 
technology, the commercial market for 
ATM remains nascent. In addition, ATM 
standards, including those that define how 
the technology will work with current net- 
work protocols, are still being developed. 
ATM should certainly be on your list of 
strategic technologies for the future, but 
to get actual work done now, rely on more 
traditional technologies. 

Switched 56, another digital WAN op- 
tion, can provide dial-up connections with 
up to 24 simultaneous channels. You'll 
need to install a CSU/DSU (channel ser- 
vice unit/data service unit) or a special 
modem, but call connection times are only 
a couple seconds, and throughput rates 
max out at 1.5 Mbps. 

Frame relay is a packet-switched tech- 
nology related to X.25. The difference is 
that frame relay jettisons the error-check- 
ing capabilities of X.25 to reduce over- 
head and achieve speeds of 2 Mbps. 
Frame-relay packets can be of variable 
sizes to dynamically handle larger files. 
To transform traditional LAN packetized 
data into frame-relay packets, you need to 
connect a router, bridge, or FRAD (frame- 
relay access device) to your local network. 
Pricing for frame-relay service varies de- 
pending on the number and the line speeds 
of the access points you set up on your 
network. Pricing may be a flat rate or it 
may be based on usage. Costs may run 
$500 a month or more. 

Don't Dis Modems 

Digital technologies may be the flashiest 
ways of making remote connections, but 
high prices and availability problems can 
dull their luster. You may never think of 
POTS (plain old telephone system) as be- 
ing flashy, but for ubiquitous service, fast 
connections for mobile workers, and low 
costs for modest-size data transfers, it's 
hard to beat a fast modem (see the figure 
"How They Work" on page 48). 

Today's V.34 modems offer more than 
top-end modem speed. The standard makes 
these modems more efficient than their 
predecessors ever were. For example, V.34 
devices can monitor line conditions 
throughout the duration of a connection, 
not just in the beginning. This means that 
a V.34 modem can slow down or speed 
up to match changes in line quality. Poor 
quality can lead to an initial connection of 



46 BYXK SEPTEMBER 1995 




Congratulations! You're the proud 
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Now try these ten easy exercises 
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r^T Tr^Tt^ 1 Fi rst > copy a file from one 
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5 Try a word search for 
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It's at least ten times 
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bigger the files, the 
more time you'll save. 
■? Save another minute 



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delete, move, zip, or encrypt from 



^g^^*^ 







9. 




With Norton 
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applications. Norton 
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The top io Reasons Why Norton navioator users 
work faster in windows 95. 



Hti Cwpett fo«« 



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3 Compress a file. Our built-in 
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SETUP t 
W0P,DCBT » 
STARTUP t 
TEMPLATE ■■» 




in one 
third 
the 



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with a separate application. 



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box. (Are you keeping count?) 

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(WfOoi M fl B 

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Norton Navigator puts file management 

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Norton Folder Navigator lets you open, 

copy, move or create a shortcut for any folder 

with just one mouse click. 

Norton Taskbar features multiple 

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and find your work faster. 

Norton FastFind performs specific 

text string searches at least ten times faster 

than Windows 95. 





for most 16-bit applications, too. 
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MAKE WINDOWS 95 AN EVEN 
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Well, there you have it. Our 
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Needless to say, it comes with our 
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If you own Norton 

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SYMANTEC. 



'Trade-up editions will run only whin specified 'Symantec am! Central Point products areatrendy installed. Chccl: with your sofluarc store for ijtialijyingeenions. Pricedoes not inclttdi fshipping& handlingor any applicable sales tax. Symantec is a registeredtrademark and Norton Ntwigdtorisi; trademark Oj 
Symantec Corporation. All oilier brand mimes or trademarks arc the property of their respcait'cowners. 91995 Symantec Corporation. All rights reserved. Visit us on the Internet at http://wuwsymantec.com. In Canada, call l-800-3(>5-864l. In Australia, call2-879-6577. hi Europe, call 3 1-7 1-3531 1 \ 

Circle 349 on Inquiry Card. 



You Can Take It with You 



How They Work 

Modems 




ISDN (BRI) 



Speed: 28.8 Kbps 

Time to send 1-MB file: 347.2 seconds (5.7 minutes) 



64-Kbps 
channels 




ISDN switch 



Speed: 1 28 Kbps (two 64-Kbps channels) 
Time to send 1 -MB file: 62.5 seconds 




Q 



J^s. 






Speed: scalable from 50-622 Mbps 

Time to send 1-MB file: .05 seconds (at 155 Mbps) 



TRANSPORT 
MECHANISMS 

Analog signal over 
traditional telephone 
networks; circuit- 
switched (a connec- 
tion is established 
between two sites for 
the duration of the 
transmission). 



Digital signal over 
phone network; 
circuit-switched. 



Digital signal over 
packet-switched net- 
work. Sender breaks 
data up into 53-byte 
cells. Each cell finds 
fastest route to the 
receiver. The receiver 
reassembles the 
data into its original 
form. 



less than 28.8 Kbps, but if quality improves 
during a transmission, a V.34 unit reacts by 
boosting throughput. Likewise, it can drop 
back to slower speeds if quality dissolves. 
Earlier modems connected at slower 
speeds or even broke the connection. 

Using protocols such as SLIP and PPP, 
modems can give remote users access to 
local networks. By specifying how data is 
encapsulated before it traverses a WAN, 
PPP provides a standard way for modems 
and servers to communicate, no matter if 
they're running Windows, Unix, the Mac 
OS, or OS/2. 

In addition to traditional single-user 
modems, some vendors, such as Micro- 
corn and Shiva, offer network modems 
that have been designed with remote access 
in mind. For example, Shi- 
va's NetModem/E is a V.34 
modem designed for dial-in 
connections and for con- 
necting LANs. The compa- 
ny' s LANRover/2E Plus is 
a router for remote-access 
applications; it uses a V.34 
modem and ISDN module. 

While modems provide 
an economical way to dial 
into a LAN, even 28.8 Kbps 
can seem slow if you're 
transmitting large files. Mo- 
dem manufacturers have be- 
come adept at incorporat- 



ing compression algorithms into their prod- 
ucts. However, there remains a through- 
put ceiling above which analog services 
cannot go. 

Nevertheless, modems will simply be 
the only way to provide enterprise access 
to a significant number of remote users. 
Modems are particularly effective if you 
need a roving link, or if you want to con- 
nect remote workers who need only E- 
mail or who occasionally upload or down- 
load files. Modems won't blind you with 
their speed, but they use time-proven tech- 
nology and they're readily available. 

Take the Long View 

As you're evaluating technologies to make 
your current WAN environment efficient 
and cost-effective, don't ne- 
glect to plan for the future. 
WAN connections tend to 
grow exponentially over 
time as more and more users 
require enterprise-wide ser- 
vices. As the WAN grows, 
the job of network man- 
agement can become com- 
plex and time-consuming. 
Network operators can 
minimize management 
overhead through WAN de- 
vices that support SNMP, 
Telnet, and TFTP (Trivial 
File Transfer Protocol). 



DiGi International Inc. 

Eden Prairie, MN 
(612) 943-9020 
fax:(612)943-5398 

ISDN*Tek 

San Gregorio, CA 
(415) 712-3000 

Microcom Inc. 

Norwood, MA 
(617) 551-1000 
fax: (617) 551-1021 

Shiva Corp. 

Burlington, MA 
(508) 788-3061 
fax: (508) 788-1539 



These tools allow net- 
work technicians to 
administer and up- 
grade devices without 
traveling to the re- 
mote site. Using 
SNMP or Telnet, net- 
work managers can 
monitor and config- 
ure remote devices 
from the network 
control center. Simi- 
larly, TFTP allows 
managers to install 
software upgrades 
over the network. 
These tools help im- 
mensely when the re- 
mote device is hun- 
dreds of miles away 
from the enterprise 
network. 

Also keep in mind 
that bandwidth does 
not buy you every- 
thing. Adequate band- 
width will help re- 
mote users feel 
comfortable access- 
ing their corporate 
network. However, access does not nec- 
essarily translate into efficient or func- 
tional usage. Don't confuse wide-area net- 
works with wide-area services. 

For a variety of reasons, WAN users 
might have restricted access to enterprise 
services. Certain file servers and printers 
might be unavailable to WAN users for 
security reasons. Remote users might have 
access to TCP/IP-based services, but not to 
NetWare or AppleTalk. Restricted services 
can be a cost, security, or bandwidth-con- 
servation issue. Remote users need to un- 
derstand that they will not necessarily have 
all the services they might be used to. 

Ad hoc WANs are no longer consid- 
ered some kind of far-out future computing 
environment. Telecommuting and remote 
office connections to enterprise networks 
are a growing reality in/business today. It 
takes extra resources, planning, and 
thoughtful deployment to provide secure 
and efficient WAN services. However, the 
benefits in getting beyond the LAN out- 
weigh the costs. ■ 

Jeffrey Fritz is a telecommunications engi- 
neer who designs and manages data com- 
munications for West Virginia University, 
including its ISDN applications lab. Fritz 
chairs the National Information Infrastruc- 
ture Working Group. You can contact him 
on the Internet at jfritz@wvnvm.wvnet.edu 
or on BIX c/o editors. 



48 BYXK SEPTEMBER 1995 



[MB 



ANNIVERSARY EDITION 





best 

COMPUTERS 



P. 54 



top 

PROGRAMS 



P.64 



biggest 

TECHNDLOGIES 



P.3.09 



most 
influential 

PEOPLE 



p.n.33 



recommenaHASP. 

"In all the products we tested, except the HASP, we 
could see through the encrypting and questioning 
procedures... and crack them." 
CT Magazine (Germany) 

"Of all the protection devices tested, [MemoHASP] 
is without any doubt the one which combines the 
best features." 
PCompatible (Spain) 

"Trying to crack a program... that was protected 
utilizing all of HASP'S features is like searching for 
the Holy Grail." 
Micro Systems (France) 

"PC dongles... come with varying claims as to their 
transparency. The majority suffer from problems 
when a printer is connected... the HASP-3 is not 
affected...." 
Program Now (Britain) 

"Of all keys tested, HASP is the most ambitious one... 
the quality of HASP manufacturing seems excellent." 
PC Compatible (France) 

"[MacHASP is] an easy to use software protection 
system for the Macintosh, which ensures an effective 
defense against software piracy... Life is difficult for 
pirates... MacHASP is an optimal protection method, 
for the programmers... and for the users...." 
Bit Magazine (Italy) 



Our Clients 

agree. 



"Aladdin's HASP has helped us increase our 
revenues by providing us with extremely reliable 
and user-friendly protection for our software. 
In addition, Aladdin's service and technical 
support are simply first class." 
Frank LaMonica, Chairman, 
Vibrant Graphics 



"Quark/QSS has chosen HASP and MacHASP 
to protect QuarkXpress® in our most demanding 
markets, because we believe that Aladdin's 
products meet the high standards of reliability, 
compatibility and security required for these 
markets." 

John MacMonagle, Purchasing Manager, 
Quark/QSS 



"Aladdin's HASP gives our customers the key 
to protecting their investment in software 
development." 

David Assia, CEO, 

Magic Software Enterprises Ltd. 



\ 




Tin 1 1'mfasiniiul Software I'mla'tiun S\su-m for \W Macinin^li 



Operating . 

Environments 

PC: DOS, Windows, Windows NT, 
Win32s, Windows 95, OS/2, SCO Unix, 
SCO Xenix, Interactive Unix, AIX, AutoCAD, 
DOS Extenders, IANs 

MAC: Mac, Power Mac, LANs (ADB port) 
NEC: DOS, Windows, Windows NT, IANs 
OPEN SYSTEMS: RS6000, Sun, HP, 
DEC Alpha, Silicon Graphics, and more. 
AMIGA 



"We have been most impressed with the quality 
of the HASP keys, as well as with the excellent 
support provided by Aladdin. We have tried a 
number of protection methods, but for ease-of- 
use, cost, and reliability, we keep coming back 
to HASP." 

Jeremy du Plessis, Director, 
Indexia Research 



Visit Our Web Site! 

http://www.hasp.com/ 



1-800-223-4277 



ALADDIN 



YEARS The Professional ] s Choice 



19 8 5-1995 



ai 



■ Aladdin Benelux 08894 19777 ■ Aladdin Japan 0426 60 7191 ■ Aladdin Russia 095 9230588 ■ Australia Conlab 3 98985685 ■ Czech Atlas 2 766085 

■ Chile Micrologica 2 222 1388 ■ Denmark Berendsen 39 577300 ■ Egypt Zeineldein 2 3604632 ■ Finland ID-Systems 870 3520 ■ Germany CSS 201 278804 

■ Greece Unibrain 1 6856320 ■ India Solutions 11 2218254 ■ Italy Partner Data 2 26147380 ■ Korea Dae-A 2 848 4481 ■ Mexico SiSoft 5 5439770 

■ New Zealand Training 4 5666014 ■ Poland Systherm 61 480273 ■ Portugal Futurmatica 1 4116269 ■ Romania Interactiv 64 153112 

■ South Africa D Le Roux 1 1 886 4704 ■ Spain PC Hardware 3 4493193 ■ Switzerland Opag 61 7169222 ■ Taiwan Teco 2 555 9676 ■ Turkey Mikrobeta 312 467 7504 

© Aiadum Knowledge Systems Ltd 1985-1 995 (7.95) HASP is a registered tracfemork ol Aladdm Knowledge Systems Lid, Alt older product names are trade nark; ol llicir respective mariulaeliiiurs Mac & the Mac OS logo are trademarks ol Apple computer, inc . used under license 

Circle 214 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 215). 



North Aladdin Software Security Inc. 

America Tel: (S00) 223 4277, 212-564 5678 
Pax: ? 12-S64 3377 
K-mail: saJes@hasp.com 
WWW: h tt | >:/A\ ww. hasp.com/ 

Intl Office Aladdin Knowledge Systems Ltd. 

Tel: 972-3-537 5795, Fax: 972-3-537 5796 
K-mail: aladdin@aladilin.co.il 



United 
Kingdom 



France 



Aladdin Knowledge 
Systems UK Ltd. 

Tel: 01753-622266, Fax: 01753-622262 
K-mail: aladdinuk@solo.pipex.com 

Aladdin France SA 

Tel: 1 40 85 9885. Fax: 141219056 

CompuServe: 100622.1522 



Each year, the illegal use of software consumes 
nearly 50% of your potential revenues. With 
the flames of piracy eating away at your profits, 
can you afford not to protect your software? 



MAGU 



Software Obtained Illegally, by region, 1993 vs. 1994 



Africa/Middle East 






S6 66 million 
S392 million 

$3.9 billion 
$4.3 billion 

$4.9 billion 
$6 billion 

S821 million 
$1.3 billion 

$2.4 billion 
$3.1 billion 

Source: BSA 




Asia 




Europe 
Latin Am erica 






: iP^ 


U.S./Canada 

Total for 1993: $12.8 billion 

Total for 1994; $15.2 billion 



Software 



Protection System 





It runs with 
NetWare 

I tell i| ier Med utily for os/2 




windows,, Ma r O^s 

COMIOTIBLE IVld-L \JO 



MICROSOFT 



HASP® is widely acclaimed as the 
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thousands of leading developers 
have used over one million HASP 
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worth of software. 
In fact, more developers are now 
choosing HASP than any other 
software protection method. Why? 
Because HASP'S security, 
reliability, and ease-of-use led 
them to a simple conclusion: 
HASP is the most effective software 
protection system available. 
To see for yourself how easily you 
can increase your revenues, call 
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HASP Developer's Kit. 



Software Developers: 



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Burns Your 



Profits 







IMEf 



lit 




essaqe 

from the Editor in Chief 



This special report marks the culmination 
of BYTE's twentieth year of publishing. 
Our magazine has changed a lot in 20 
years. So has the microcomputer industry. 
And so has the BYTE reader. 

Twenty years ago, a devoted cadre of 
hobbyists and home-brew computer engi- 
neers made up the readership of this maga- 
zine. We built computers with our bare 
hands and toggled programs via front-panel 
switches. A mouse was a rodent, a network 
was a collection of business acquaintances, 
and gooey and scuzzy were undesirable 
attributes of decaying vegetation. 

Now we're hurtling toward a future 
where computers are integral to all strata of 
business and society. In the pages of BYTE 
each month, we celebrate and explain our 
advancing technologies. We look to give 



you the information you need to plan for tomorrow. 

While no other group is as resolutely focused on the future 
as are technologists, it's valuable to look back at the people 
and achievements that have put us where we are now. Today's 
technology has evolved from the creative imagination of a 
core group of visionaries, realized in their companies, their 
products, and their successes and failures. 

This special report is a nostalgia trip; it puts us in the crotch- 
ety-old-man role of saying, "Yep, Sonny, I remember when 64 
KB was all the memory we'd ever need." Of course, 20 years 
from now, we'll be peering into history yet again, laughing at 
the previous generation's lack of horsepower, bandwidth, and 
integration — and, probably, once again remembering the "old 
days" with a peculiar fondness. 



&* 




Raphael Needleman, Editor in Chief 




CONTENTS 



AS A REWARD FOR HARD WORK. WE LET THE TWENTIETH ANNIVERSARY EDITORIAL CREW OUT OF THE BUILDING. BUT ONLY FDR A MOMENT. 



D 


TOP 20 SMALL SYSTEMS 


54 


D 


TOP 20 SOFTWARE PRODUCTS 


G4 


D 


TOP 20 CHIPS 


74 


D 


TOP 20 NETWORKING PRODUCTS 






& STANDARDS 


79 


H 


THE BESTTHINGS ON-LINE 


85 


D 


BEST BOOKS & CD-ROMS 


91 


D 


REMARKABLE NAMES OF REAL COMPUTER 






COMPANIES 


97 


D 


MOST IMPORTANT COMPANIES 


99 


□ 


TOP 20 TECHNOLOGIES 


109 


m 


PREOICTIONSFORTHEYEAR2000 


110 


m 


20 WORST ACRONYMS 


114 


m 


ABRIEFHISTORY OF PROGRAMMING 






LANGUAGES 


121 


m 


NOTORIOUS BUGS 


125 


m 


BESTC0MPUTER SHOWS 


128 


m 


20 C0NTRIBUTI0NST0 SOCIETY 


131 


m 


20 MOST IMPORTANT PEOPLE 


133 


ED 


20 SPECTACULAR FAILURES 


145 


ED 


NOTED & NOTORIOUS HACKER FEATS 


151 


m 


FAMOUS VAPORWARE PRODUCTS 


165 


EH 


TOP GARAGE START-UPS 


165 



SEPTEMBER 1995 BYTE 53 





From soldering irons to SparcStations, from MITS to Macintosh, 
personal computers have evolved from do-it-yourself kits for 
electronics hobbyists into machines that practically leap out of 
the box and set themselves up. What enabled them to get from 
there to here? Innovation and determination. Here are the top 
20 systems that made that rapid evolution possible. 



■ MITS Altair 8800 

There once was a time that you could buy a 
top-of-the-line computer for $395. The only 
catch was thatyouhad to build it yourself. 
Although the Altair 8800 wasn't actually 
the first personal computer (Scelbi 
ComputerConsulting's 8008-based Scelbi- 
8H kit probably took that honor in 1973), it 
grabbed attention. MITS sold 2000 of them 
in 1975 — more than any single computer 
before it. 

Based on Intel's 8-bit 8080 processor, the 
Altair 8800 kit included 256 bytes of mem- 
ory (upgradable, of course) and a toggle- 
switch-and-LED front panel. For amenities 
such as keyboards, video terminals, and 
storage devices, you had to go to one of the 
companies that sprang up to support the 
Altair with expansion cards. In 1 975, MITS 
offered 4- and 8-KB Altair versions of 
BASIC, the first product developed by Bill 
Gates'andPaul Allen'snew company, 
Microsoft. 

If the personal computer hobbyist move- 
ment was simmering, 1 975 saw it come to a 
boil with the introduction of the Altair 8800. 

■ Apple II 

Thoseof you who think of the IBM PC as 
the quintessential business computer may 
be in for a surprise: The Apple II (together 




"ANYBODY WHO COULO WRITE A G000 APPLICATION ON THE 
128K MAC DESERVES A MEDAL"-BILL GATES 




THE STORY GOES THAT THE CHAIRMAN OF IBM LOOKEOATTHE 
ORIGINAL PC AND SAIO THAT IT WOULD NEVER FLY-THAT 
MAINFRAMES WOULD DOMINATE FOREVER. TELL ME AGAIN 
WHY PEOPLE WERE BUYING STOCK IN THIS COMPANY. 



with VisiCalc) was what really made people 
look at personal computers as business 
tools, not just toys. 

The Apple II debuted at the first West 
Coast Computer Faire in San Francisco in 
1977. With built-in keyboard, graphics dis- 
play, eightreadily accessible expansion 
slots, and BASIC built into ROM, the Apple 
II was actually easy to use. Some of its in- 
novations, like built-in high-resolution col- 
or graphics and a high-level language with 
graphics commands, are still extraordinary 
features in desktop machines. 

Witha 6502 CPU, 16 KB of RAM, a 16- 
KB ROM, a cassette interface that never re- 
ally worked well (most Apple lis ended up 
with the floppy drive that was announced in 
1978), and color graphics, the Apple II sold 
for$1298. 

■ Commodore PET 

Also introduced at the first West Coast 
Computer Faire, Commodore's PET 
(Personal Electronic Transactor) started a 
long line of inexpensive personal comput- 
ers that brought computers to the masses. 
(The VIC-20 that followed was the first 
computer to sell 1 million units, and the 
Commodore 64 after that was the first to of- 
fer a whopping 64 KB of memory.) 

The keyboard and small monochrome 
display both fit in the same one-piece unit. 
Like the Apple II, thePETran on MOS 
Technology's 6502. Its $795 price, key to 
thePET'spopularity,suppliedonly 4 KB of 
RAM but included a built-in cassette tape 
drive for data storage and an 8-KB version 
of Microsoft BASIC in its 14-KB ROM. 

■ Radio Shack TRS-80 

Remember the Trash 80? Sold at local 
Radio Shack stores in your choice of color 



54 BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 




(Mercedes Silver), the TRS-80 was the first 
ready-to-go computer to use Zilog's Z80 
processor. 

The base unit was essentially a thick key- 
board with 4 KB of RAM and 4 KB of ROM 
(which included BASIC). An optional ex- 
pansion box that connected by ribboncable 
allowed for memory expansion. A Pink 
Pearl eraser was standard equipment to 
keep those ribbon cable connections clean. 

Much of the first software for this system 
was distributed on audiocassettes played in 
from Radio Shackcassette recorders. 

■ Osborne 1 Portable 

By the end of the 1970s, garage start-ups 
were passe. Fortunately there were other 
entrepreneurial possibilities. Take Adam 
Osborne, forexample. He sold Osborne 
Books to McGraw-Hill and started Osborne 
Computer. Its first product, the 24-pound 
Osborne 1 Portable, boasted a low price of 
$1795. 

More important, Osborne established the 
practice of bundling software — in spades. 
The Osborne 1 came with nearly $ 1 500 
worth of programs: WordStar, SuperCalc, 
BASIC, and a slew of CP/M utilities. 

Business was looking good until Osborne 
preannounced its next version while sitting 
on a warehouse full of Osborne 1 s. Oops. 
Reorganization under Chapter 11 followed 
soon thereafter. 

■ Xerox Star 

This is the system that launched a thousand 
innovations in 1981. The work of some of 
the best people at Xerox PARC (Palo Alto 
Research Center) went into it. Several of 
these — the mouse and a desktop GUI with 
icons — showed up two years laterin 
Apple's Lisa and Macintosh computers. 



The Star wasn't what you'd call a 
commercial success, however. The main 
problem seemed to be how much it cost. It 
would be nice to believe that someone shift- 
ed a decimal point somewhere: The pricing 
started at $50,000. 

■ IBM PC 

Irony of ironies that someone at mainframe- 
centric IBM recognized the business poten- 
tial in personal computers. The result was 
the 1981 landmark announcement of the 
IBM PC. Thanks to an open architecture, 
IBM's clout, and Lotus 1-2-3 (announced 
one year later), the PC and its progeny 
made business micros legitimate and trans- 
formed the personal computer world. 

The PC used Intel's 16-bit 8088, and for 
$3000, it came with 64 KB of RAM and a 
5!4-inch floppy drive. The printer adapter 
and monochrome monitor were extras, as 
was the color graphics adapter. 

■ Compaq Portable 

Compaq's Portable almost single-handedly 
created the PC clone market. Although that 
was about all you could do with it single- 
handedly — it weighed a ton. Columbia Data 
Products just preceded Compaq that year 
with the first true IBM PC clone but didn't 
survive. It was Compaq's quickly gained 
reputation for engineering and quality, and 
its essentially 100 percent IBM compatibil- 
ity (reverse-engineered, of course), that le- 
gitimized the clone market. But was it real- 
ly designed on a napkin? 

■ Radio Shack TRS-80 Model 100 

Years before PC-compatible subnotebook 
computers, Radio Shack came out with a 
book-size portable with a combination of 
features, battery life, weight, and price that 




1) SHUGART 5J4-INCH FLOPPY DRIVE 

Before PC hard drives were available, 
the floppy drive was the "mass" 
storage medium of choice. It killed 
papertapes and audiocassettes. 

2) EPSON MX-80 

Fastandinexpensive, and itcould also 
do graphics (with a later upgrade). 
What good is a spreadsheet chart if you 
can't print it out? The competing daisy 
wheel's advantage was typewriter text 
clarity. 

3) SEAGATE 5/4-INCH 5-MB 
WINCHESTER HARD DRIVE 

Nowthis wasmassstorage that could 
fit in a PC — once thepricecamedown. 
Alan Shugart was involved here, too. 

4) HAYES SMARTMOOEM 300 

The modem that launched the industry- 
standardAT command set. 

5) HEWLETT-PACKARD LASERJET 

Graphics, speed, and sharp text for less 
than$2000, thanks to Canon's 300-dpi 
laser engine. Using the same engine, 
Apple came out with its LaserWriter 
shortly thereafter. 



SEPTEMBER 1995 BYTE 55 







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is still unbeatable. (Of course, the Z80-based 
Model 1 00 didn't have to run Windows.) 

The $800 Model 100 had only an 8-row 
by 40-column reflective LCD (large at the 
time) but supplied ROM-based applications 
(including text editor, communications pro- 
gram, and BASIC interpreter), a built-in 
modem, I/O ports, nonvolatileRAM, and a 
great keyboard. Weighing under 4 pounds, 
and with a battery life measured in weeks 
(on f our AA batteries), the Model 1 00 quick- 
ly became the first popular laptop, especial- 
ly among journalists. 

With its battery-backed RAM, the Model 
100 was always in standby mode, ready to 
take notes, write a report, or go on-line. 
NEC's PC 8201 was essentially the same 
Kyocera-manufactured system. 

■ Apple Macintosh 

Whether you saw it as a seductive invitation 
to personal computing or a cop-out to 
wimps who were afraid of a command line, 
Apple's Macintosh and its GUI generated 
even more excitement than the IBM PC. 
Apple's R&D people were inspired by criti- 
cal ideas from Xerox PARC (and practiced 
on Apple's Lisa) but added many of their 
own ideas to create a polished product that 
changed the way people use computers. 

The original Macintosh used Motorola's 
16-bit68000 microprocessor. At $2495, the 
system offered a built-in high-resolution 
monochrome display, the Mac OS, and a 
single-button mouse. With only 128 KB of 
RAM, the Mac was underpowered at first. 
But Apple included some key 




applicationsthatmade the Macintosh 
immediately useful. (It was MacPaint that 
finally showed people what a mouse is good 
for.) 

■ IBM AT 

George Orwell didn't foresee the AT in 
1 984. Maybe it was because Big Blue, not 
Big Brother, was playing its cards close to 
its chest. The IBM AT set new standards for 
performance and storage capacity. Intel's 
blazingly fast 286 CPU runningat 6 MHz 
and a 16-bit bus structure gave the AT sev- 
eral times the performance of previous IBM 
systems. Hard drive capacity doubled from 
10 MB to 20 MB (41 MB if you installed 
two drives — just don't ask how they did the 
math), and the cost per megabyte dropped 
dramatically. 

New 16-bit expansion slots meant new 
(and faster) expansion cards but maintained 
downward compatibility with old 8-bit 
cards. These hardware changes and new 
high-density 1 .2-MB floppy drives meant a 
new version of PC-DOS (the dreaded 3.0). 

The price for an AT with 5 1 2 KB of 
RAM, a serial/parallel adapter, a high-den- 
sity floppy drive, and a 20-MB hard drive 
was well over $5000 — but much less than 
what the pundits expected. 

■ Commodore Amiga lOOO 

The Amiga introduced the world to multi- 
media. Although itcostonly $1200, the 
68000-based Amiga 1 000 did graphics, 
sound, and video well enough that many 
broadcast professionals adopted it for spe- 
cial effects. Its sophisticated multimedia 
hardware design was complex for a person- 
al computer, as was its multitasking, 
windowing OS. 

■ Compaq Deskpro 386 

While IBM was busy developing (would 
"wasting time on" be a better phrase?)pro- 
prietary Micro Channel PS/2 systems, clone 
vendors ALR and Compaq wrested away 
control of the x86 architecture and 




HELLO? TECHNICAL SUPPORT? I THINK 1 MISPLACED THE 
MONITOR FOR MY OSBORNE PORTABLE. IT DOES HAVE A 
MONITOR, DOESN'T IT? OH, THAT'S THE MONITOR. 




THE APPLE II GAVE A G000 NAME TO CLUTTERED 
GARAGES ALL ACROSS THE COUNTRY. AFTER ALL YOU 
COULD ALWAYS SAY THAT UNDER THAT MESS LAY THE 
COMPONENTS FOR THE NEXT GREAT COMPUTER. 




COME ON BABY. LIGHT MY FIRE. IT WASN'T TOO HARD 
TO DO WITH SUN'S SPARCSTATION I BACK IN 1989. IT 
WAS FAST. IT WAS CHEAP. THE ENGINEERS WHO LOVEO 
THEM LOOKED NO FURTHER FOR A VERY LONG TIME. 



58 BYXE SEPTEMBER 1995 






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Circle 241 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 242). 




WO20 




introduced the first 386-based systems, the 
Access 386 and the Deskpro 386. Both sys- 
tems maintained backward compatibility 
withthe286-basedAT. 

Compaq's Deskpro 386 had a further per- 
formance innovation in its Flex bus archi- 
tecture. Compaq split the x86 external bus 
into two separate buses: a high-speed local 
bus to support memory chips fast enough 
for the 16-MHz 386, and a slower I/O bus 
that supported existing expansion cards. 

■ Apple Macintosh II 

When you first looked at the Macintosh II, 
you may have said, "But it looks just like a 
PC." You'd have been right. Apple decided 
it was wiser to give users a case they could 
open so they could upgrade it themselves. 
The monitor in this 68020-powered 
machine was a separate unit that typically 
sat on top of the CPU case. 

■ Next Nextstation 

Unix had never been this easy to use, and 
only now, 10 years later, are we getting 
back to that level. Unfortunately, Steve 
Jobs' cube never developed the software 
base it needed for long-term survival. 
Nonetheless, it served as an inspiration for 
future workstations. 

Priced at less than $ 1 0,000, the elegant 
Nextstation came with a 25-MHz 68030 
CPU, a 68882 FPU, 8 MB of RAM, and the 
first commercial magneto-optical drive 
(256-MB capacity). It also had a built-in 
DSP (digital signal processor). The program- 
ming language was object-oriented C, and 
the OS was a version of Unix, sugarcoated 
with a consistent GUI that rivaled Apple's. 

■ NEC UltraLite 

NEC's UltraLite is the portable that put 
subnotebook into the lexicon. Like Radio 
Shack's TRS-80 Model 100, the UltraLite 
was a 4-pounder ahead of its time. Unlike 
the Model 100, it was expensive (starting 
price, $2999), but it could run MS-DOS. 
(The burden of running Windows wasn't 




yet thrust upon its shoulders.) 

Fans liked the 4.4-pound UltraLite for its 
trim size and portability, but it really need- 
ed one of today's tiny hard drives. It used 
battery-backed DRAM (1 MB, expandable 
to 2 MB) for storage, with ROM-based 
Traveling Software's LapLink to move 
stored data to a desktop PC. 

Foreshadowing PCMCIA, the UltraLite 
had a socket that accepted credit-card-size 
ROM cards holding popular applications 
like WordPerfect or Lotus 1-2-3, or a 
battery-backed 256-KB RAM card. 

■ Sun SparcStation 1 

It wasn't the first RISC workstation, nor 
even the first Sun system to use Sun's new 
SPARC chip. But the SparcStation I seta 
new standard for price/performance, churn- 
ing out 12.5 MIPS at a starting price of only 
$8995 — about what you might spend for a 
fully configured Macintosh. Sun sold lots 
of systems and made the words Sparc- 
Station and workstation synonymous in 
many people's minds. 

The SparcStation I also introduced S- 
Bus, Sun's proprietary 32-bit synchronous 
bus, which ran at the same 20-MHz speed 
as the CPU. 

■ IBM RS/6000 

Sometimes, when IBM decides to do some- 
thing, it does it right. (Other times... Well, 
remember the PCjr.?) The RS/6000 
allowed IBM to enter the workstation mar- 
ket. The RS/6000's RISC processor chip set 
(RIOS) racked up speed records and intro- 
duced many to the term superscalar. But its 
price was more than competitive. IBM 
pushed third-party software support, and as 
a result, many desktop publishing, CAD, 
and scientific applications ported to the 
RS/6000, running under AIX, IBM's Unix. 

A shrunken version of the multichip 
RS/6000 architecture serves as the basis for 
the single-chip PowerPC, the non-x86- 
compatible processor with the best chance 
of competing with Intel. 



COMPAQ GAVE NEW 

MEANING TO THE WORD 
PORTABLE WITH THIS 20 
POUNO BEHEMOTH. 




ELEVEN YEARS LATER: 
STILL LIVING WITH THE 
AT ARCHITECTURE. 



PET PEEVE? SOMEONE 
TOOK A DESKTOP CALCU- 
LATOR AND FEO IT 
STEROIDS FOR A YEAR TO 
SEE WHAT HAPPENS. 



■ Apple Power Macintosh 

Not many companies have made the transi- 
tion from CISC to RISC this well. The 
Power Macintosh represents Apple's well- 
planned and successful leap to bridgetwo 
disparate hardware platforms. Older Macs 
run Motorola's 680x0 CISC line, which is 
running out of steam; the Power Macs run 
the PowerPC RISC chip. The new Macs run 
existing 680x0-based applications yet pro- 
vide PowerPC performance, a combination 
that sold over a million systems in a year. 

■ IBM ThinkPad 701C 

It's not often anymore that anew computer 
inspires gee-whiz sentiment, but IBM's 
Butterfly subnotebook does, with its 
marvelous expanding keyboard. The 
701 C's two-part keyboard solves the last 
major piece in the puzzle of building a 
usable subnotebook: how to provide com- 
fortable touch-typing. (OK, so the floppy 
drive is still external.) 

With a full-size keyboard and a 10.4-inch 
screen, the 4.5-pound 701 C compares 
favorably with full-size notebooks. Battery 
life is good, too. 



60 BYXE SEPTEMBER 1995 



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The 20-year story of personal 
computing often seems to be 
dominated by hardware. But 
it's the software that makes 
the hardware worth owning: 
Many early buyers of Apple lis 
walked into stores and asked 
for the VisiCalc machine. 



■ CP/M 2.0 

Developed by the late Gary Kildall in 1974, 
CP/M was the first OS to run on machines 
from different vendors. It became the pre- 
ferred OS for most software development, 
and it looked like it would rule forever. 

■ VisiCalc 

Written in 1979 by first-year Harvard 
Business School student Dan Bricklin and 
Bob Frankston of MIT, VisiCalc was a god- 
send to Wall Street users who had bought 
the first microcomputers two years earlier. 
Running initially on the Apple II and nearly 
single-handedly creating the demand for the 
machine, VisiCalc established spreadsheets 
as a staple application, setting the stage for 
Lotus 1-2-3 on the IBM PC in 1982. 

■ WordStar 

While writing programs on the Altair, 
Michael Shrayerhit upon the idea of writing 
the manuals on the same machine. Electric 
Pencil was born, the first microcomputer 
word processor. But the first program to ex- 
ploit the marketpotential was Seymour 
Rubinstein's 1979 masterpiece, WordStar. 



Other programs took up WordStar-compati- 
ble keyboard commands — including the last 
major upgrade of Electric Pencil. 

■ dBase II 

Wayne Ratliff 's creation, first intended to 
manage a company football pool, was the 
first serious database management system 
forCP/M. dBase II, in its DOS incarnation, 
was a massive success. Ashton-Tate, which 
acquired dBase from Ratliff, began to lose 
the lead when it released the bug-ridden 
dBase IV in 1988. A Windows version (un- 
der the ownership of Borland) didn't 
appear until 1 994, much too late. The 
dBase language survives in the form of 
Xbase, supported by vendors such as 
Microsoft and Computer Associates. 

■ AutoCAD 

Autodesk's AutoCAD started life as a 
CP/M (Control Program for Micro- 
computers) application, later moved to 
DOS, and eventually made the transition to 
Windows. It brought CAD from minis and 
mainframes down to the desktop, one of the 
first programs to make that now-common 
migration. AutoCAD quickly became — 
and remains — an industry standard. 

■ Lotus 1-2-3 

VisiCalc may have sold Wall Street on the 
idea of electronic spreadsheets, but 1-2-3 
was the spreadsheet that Main Street want- 
ed, too. When the IBM PC and XT took 
over the world, Lotus's simple but elegant 
grid was without question the top spread- 
sheet to run on them, adding graphics and 
data-retrieval functions to the paradigm es- 
tablished by VisiCalc. By the early 1990s, 
Lotus could brag that 1-2-3 was the top- 
selling application of all time. 



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QUITE POSSIBLY THE PROGRAM RESPONSIBLE FOR THE 
'BO'S WALLSTREETFRENZY: VISICALC ON THE APPLE II. 




APPLE'S MACINTOSH OS HAD THE FIRST REAL GRAPHICAL 
USER INTERFACE AND AWESOMEEASE OF USE.TOOBAD 
WINDOWS DIDN'T COPY MORE OF IT. 



64 BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 




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■ The Norton Utilities 

Before Peter Norton rolled up his sleeves, 
bit twiddlers were on their own when it 
came to recovering lost clusters and man- 
aging other disk catastrophes. It's almost 
the end of the millennium, and most of us 
still reachfor Norton Utilities when some- 
thing goes wrong with a disk. 

■ DOS 2.0 

The version of DOS that truly solidified the 
Microsoft/IBM platform dominance was 
2.0, which came out with IBM's new XT in 
1983. DOS 2.0 had commands to support 
the XT's new 1 0-MB hard drive as well as 
such now-familiar external commands and 
files as ANSI.SYS and CONFIG.SYS. 
DOS 2.1 1 became the de facto basis 
of backward compatibility for any DOS 
program. In 1990, you might nothave 
known if an application ran on DOS 5.0, 
but you could be sure it worked on old 2.1 1. 
DOS limitations even survive in Windows 
95 — in particular, the dreaded 640-KB 
memory limit. 

■ Flight Simulator 

To work its magic, Microsoft's simulation 
of an airplane's cockpitemployed low-lev- 
el graphics routines. Itbecame a mainstay 
of software suites used to test compatibility 
with the IBM PC standard. It was also one 
of the best-selling games of all time. 

■ Novell NetWare 

The year of the LAN happened sometime 
in the 1980s, and it was Novell's NetWare 
that made it so. NetWare is no lightweight 
desktop OS. NetWare was an OS that 
systems administrators could rely on. 
Versions of this OS are still in use in busi- 
nesses every where. 



■ Unix System V 

The best effort so far at unifying the 
diverse flavors of Unix, System V took 
off after AT&T's divestiture in 1984, when 
Ma Bell was freed to market the OS more 
aggressively. Version 4.0, released in 
1 989, brought together Xenix, SunOS, 
4.3 BSD, and System V to form a single 
standard. Hardware vendors continued to 
go their own ways, however, requiring 
subsequent efforts by numerous groups 
(e.g., X/Oepen, OSF, and COSE) to con- 
tinue the fight for a shrink-wrappable 
Unix. Those efforts have mostly failed, 
but Unix's communications standards 
and network protocols are finding a wider 
user base as the Internet explodes in 
popularity. 

■ Mac OS and System 7 

The Macintosh wouldn't be the Macintosh 
without the Mac OS. And it was on the 
Macintosh that the concept of the desktop 
GUI really dug in. Later named System 7 
in a major 1 990 upgrade, the Mac continues 
to best Windows in ease of use, plug-and- 
play compatibility, and color matching. 
Apple's Power Macs and the first Mac 
clones just might keep System 7 relevant 
into the next century. 

■ Quicken 

This checkbook-balancing program may 
be better-suited to the needs of its users 
than any other program on this list save 
VisiCalc. Scott Cook's company grew 
from humble beginnings in the mid-1 980s 
to become Microsoft's multibillion dollar 
dance partner (until the Department of 
Justice cut in). Once you start balancing 
your checkbook in Quicken, you don't 
ever go back. 



17 

S5H 




Editor in chief 
Carl Helmers edi- 
torialized about 
"...Using a Per- 
sonal Computer 
for a Practical 
Purpose." 

President Carter 
signs bill intended 
to reduce un- 
employment and 
inflation to 4 per- 
cent and 3 per- 
cent, respectively. 



CP/M Uvrs 



CP/M provides the personal 
computer industry with its 
most enduring piece of folklore. 
When IBM began hunting around 
for an OS for its planned PC, it 
sent representatives to Gary 
Kildall's California office. Kildall 
was out flying his plane at the 
time and apparently thought 
communing with the big blue sky 
was more important than Big 
Blue. (Kildall later revealed that 
other talks with IBM had been 
inconclusive.) This was possibly 
the worst display of business 
acumen since New Hampshire's 
McDonald brothers sold most of 
their little hamburger-joint con- 
cept to a guy named Ray. 

IBM quickly worked out a deal 
with a young fellow named Bill 
Gates. Ironically, 86-DOS, the 
OS that Microsoft bought and 
turned into MS-DOS l.O, em- 
ployed such CP/M commands as 
REN, Dir, and Type, which are 
still in use today. 



SEPTEMBER 1995 BYTE 







ViewSonic 17 PS 









fei °=» 



-p 





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OS 



BVTE 



MOST 
IMPORTANT 




Tonprow's "fop Five. 
Software C atfi gnriRS 

Which programs will be the VisiCalcs and WordStars of 
the next five years? We've seen the future... 



1) COLLABORATION SOFTWARE 

Lotus Notes is proving the value of 
shared text bases, and E-mail-based al- 
ternatives like Collabra Share and Open 
Mind are also bringing the benefits of 
group conferencing to new users. As 
smart agents, natural-language process- 
ing, and perhaps expert systems are 
brought to bear on electronic collabora- 
tion, PC-based interaction may begin to 
rival TV in its impact on society. 

2) TEXT SEARCH AND RETRIEVAL 

Finding the kernels of information em- 
bedded in the chaos of data is a problem 
that's only going to get bigger, as 
knowledge bases on CD-ROM and net- 
works continue to grow. The basic pat- 
tern matching and Boolean slicing now 
in place will continue to do most of the 
work. But look for AI techniques and 
software agents to find needles in elec- 
tronic haystacks as well as to present 
and store the results in a more personal- 
ized — and personable — form. 

3) OBJECT OPERATING SYSTEMS 

So far, the revolution in OOP (object- 
oriented programming) has been mostly 
foughtin languages and developer 
tools. The next step is to build an entire 
OS from objects. There already is such 
a system, NextStep, Steve Jobs' critical- 
ly acclaimed box-office flop. Taligent 
plans to release its entrant sometime in 
1996. Even NextStep, long lauded for 
its elegance but used by only a small 



fraction of developers, might impact 
the Windows/PC world when a 
Windows version comes out next year. 
Object-based operating environments 
will facilitate other important technolo- 
gies, such as modular applications, 
agents, and distributed computing. 

4) MULTIMEDIA DATABASES 

No, we're not talking about the desktop 
file managers that help you pull to- 
gether 5-second videos for a presenta- 
tion. This new category is about the 
huge databases from Oracle, Sybase, 
and others that will power the coming 
convergence of computers and the en- 
tertainment business. Multimedia data- 
bases will be needed to manage the 
huge libraries of films delivered to 
homes via cable, as well as to process 
viewer input as consumers order from 
on-line catalogs or vote on the endings 
of soap operas. 

5) AGENTS AND AVATARS 

The promise of software agents is that 
they will begin to handle people prob- 
lems, not just under-the-hood technical 
chores. General Magic's Magic 
Cap PDA (personal digital assistant) 
language is a good example, while the 
E-mail sorters and sifters that were first 
introduced years ago are becoming de 
rigueur in E-mail and other collabora- 
tion software. When all the world 
becomes a database, we'll need agents 
to keep from drowning. 



1FTHIS ISTHE FUTURE OF 

GAMES. WE'RE DOOMED. 



EXCEL, BUILT ON MISTAKES 
OF OTHERS (SEE BELOW). 




BYTE Pie Corpora 



WORD 6.0: ACCQRDINGTQ 
SOME. THE BEST APPLICA- 
TION EVER WRITTEN. 



LOTUS HAD IT BUT LOST IT. 
A GttttOWNNMS SPREAD- 
SHEET. BUTT00 LATE. 



■ SideKick 1.0 

Besides being the first PIM (personal 
information manager), its pop-up notepad, 
calendar, and calculator made Borland 
International's SideKick the model for 
TSRs — an application type that was 
relatively rare in 1984. Pop-up mini-apps 
became commonplace in the DOS era, but 
Windows' task switching killed the TSR 
market in the 1990s. 

■ Excel for the Macintosh 

VisiCalc and Lotus 1 -2-3 started the 
spreadsheet revolution, but they were char- 
acter-based. Microsoft Excel for the 
Macintosh made the benefits of graphical 
spreadsheets obvious. Microsoft ported 
Excel to Windows, but Lotus was slow to 
convert 1 -2-3 to Windows. There's a lesson 
here: Today, Excel for Windows is the best- 
selling spreadsheet. 

■ PageMaker 

This is the program that launched a 
million newsletters. PageMaker's paste- 
up metaphor also made sense to people 
who had worked in traditional design and 
production departments. QuarkXPress 
might now have a larger share in 
higher-end publishing, but with Adobe's 
money and name behind Aldus, 
PageMaker promises to remain acom- 



68 BYXE SEPTEMBER 1995 




"Give me a way to see problems before 
they become problems." 




IBM Solution # 12765-N 




a.k.a. "NetFinity Systems Manager' 



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status of your networked systems, 
reporting imminent hard disk failures, 
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NetFinity. One more reason why there 
is a difference." = — — 



IBM and SystemView are registered trademarks and NetFinity, Predictive Failure Analysis and "There is a difference" are trademarks ol International Business Machines Corporation. 
©1995 IBM Corporation. 



EVTE 



MOST 
IMPORTANT 



petitive desktop publishing system for 
a long time to come. 

■ LANtastic 

For people who thought Novell NetWare 
was for corporate MIS gurus, Artisoft's 
affordable network-card-and-software 
package was an easy and popular way to 
link PCs and share resources. With the 
addition of NetWare server functions in 
Artisoft's new LANtastic Dedicated Server, 
LANtastic keeps a foothold in the future. 

■ Adobe Type 

Desktop publishing was still a bit of a toy 
when Adobe made Type 1 PostScript fonts 
available on the Macintosh. Thanks to these 
fonts and the enhanced line spacing and 
printing control that PostScript provides, 
the Mac became a tool on which to run a 
publishing business. 

■ Windows 3.x 

Though it was first introduced in 1 985, 
Microsoft Windows spentthe rest of the 
'80s as somewhat of a joke. It was slow, 
ugly, and underpowered. Then Microsoft 
rolled out Windows 3.0, a complete rewrite, 
at a tightly orchestrated, bicoastal multi- 
media hypef est in the spring of 1 990. Gone 
was the 640-KB DOS memory limit (sort 
of); in came a flood of applications, a type 
of multitasking, and the desktop 
environment most users live in today. 
Version 3.1, released i n 1 992, added speed 
and stability, not to mention OLE, True 
Type fonts, and drag-and-drop commands. 

■ Lotus Notes 3.0 

Notes is the most innovative and powerful 
of the numerous contenders in the leading- 
edge groupware category. Not just E-mail, 
Notes is brilliant at capturing corporate 
group-think, thanks to its unique, replicated 
message system. Notes has become the 
standard applications development 
environment in every company that's ever 
uttered the word reengineering. 




The 10 Most Important 

Programs nf Today 



The best expressions of software evolution are available 
in shrink-wrap at your local Egghead. 



1) EXCEL 5.0 FOR WINOOWS 

In 1 990, Excel was more of a Mac than a 
Windows spreadsheet. But then Lotus de- 
layed bringing 1-2-3 to Windows. By 
1 993, most users had switched to 
Windows, and Excel hadcome to be re- 
garded as the best Windows spreadsheet. 

2) MAC SYSTEM 1 

Still the best GUI with a wide following, 
System 7.5 is partially RISC-based — and 
thus in position to exploit the Power 
Mac — while still able to run old binaries. 

3) MICROSOFT ACCESS 2.0 

Though buggy and press-battered in its 
debut version, Access quickly established 
itself with a majorupgradeasoneof the 
easiest-to-use Windows databases. While 
Borland has struggled tokeep Paradox 
and once-mighty dBase relevant, Access 
has easily outsold both. 

4) NOVELL NETWARE 4.1 

Looking like it might go the way of dBase 
and 1 -2-3 thanks to a disappointing 
upgrade (4.0), NetWare is back on track 
with 4.1 . Still, the masses are restless, 
and pretenders like Windows NT are ma- 
neuvering into position. 

5) LOTUS NOTES 

Notes has become an industry. No, it's a 
way of life. Still way out ahead technical- 
ly, Notes has maybe a year or two to so- 
lidify its position against an onslaught of 
workgroup programs like Collabra Share. 

6) WINDOWS NT 

Clearly, this is the future of Windows. 
If Windows 95 falters at the start, 



Microsoft has a completely redesigned, 
true 32-bit OS waiting in the wings. NT 
will even have the new Windows 95 look 
and feel. 

7) WINDOWS 3.11 

As we write this, Windows 95 still isn't 
out, so Windows 3.11 is the version that 
sits on most of the 50-million-plus 
Windows desktops. People love it; people 
hate it. But they use it. 

8) WORD 6.0 FOR WINDOWS 

It's big, slow, and overloaded with 
features. Still, Word 6.0 somehow man- 
ages to be the right toolforthe simplest to 
the mostcomplex text jobs. Some people 
regard it as the best application written. 

9) WORDPERFECT 

WordPerfect still sells lots of copies of 
the DOS version, and as the cornerstone 
for PerfectOffice, the suite from Novell, 
WordPerfect has a new lease on life. 
It continues to be the daily work environ- 
ment of millions. 

10) DOOM 

Itsmotion-sickness-inducing virtual real- 
ity and large, cult-like following make 
this gory game from id Software the 
inspirational example for programmers 
of action software. 

PLUS: MICROSOFT OFFICE 

Not a real program but rather a collection 
of Microsoft's market-dominating appli- 
cations, Microsoft Office has transcended 
the dreaded "suite" designation to be- 
come the frameworkf or which today's 
developers are writing new apps. 



70 BYTK SEPTEMBER 1995 




"When my server overheats, 
well, I've been known to show my temper." 




IBM Solution #92683-0 




a.k.a. "Unique Cooling Design" 



Most networks have enough kinks 
and bugs to make any hardworking 
IS manager hotunder the collar. So we 
thought we'd give you one lessthingto 
get steamed about. Our PC Server 320. 
Inside and out, it's been engineered to 
maximize cooling efficiency. From the 



• NetFinity"" software 

• 90MHz Pentium 1 " processor 

• Dual-processor enabled 

• Up I o 256MB 1 parity memory 

• SCSI-2 fast and wide 




•6 PCI ZEIS A slots 

• 27GB storage 
■ Built-in CD-ROM drive 

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• Fax ID# 3170 



FOR DETAILS ON PC SERVERS, CALL 1 800 772-2227' 



key placement of its components to 
its double fans and flo-thru louvers. All 
aimed at optimizing airflow and heat 
dispersement. Reducing temperatures 
in your system and your bloodstream. 
PC Server 320. One more reason there 
is a difference" ^*~" — = 



NetFinity is a member of the SyslemView* family. 2 MB=million bytes. IBM and SyslemView are registered Irademarks and NetFinity and "There is a difference" are trademarks 
of International Business Machines Corporation. Pentium is a trademark of Intel Corp. "In Canada, call 1 800 465-7999. ©1995 IBM Corporation, 




YOU'LL GET 



1WL-4V7TT 



MOST PCs. THE 
QUESTION IS, 
HOW MUCH? 



M 




nFi i niMFN^mN — 


fai i 






■ 


Reliable PCs For High 






1 


Performance Computing jS 






-- - -- - -,- ■■- 


I 


L. 




I 


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At Dell, we guarantee* if there's 
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JUNE 1995 



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'Guarantees available i n the U.S. only for registered owners o f Dell Dimension systems purchased af ter8/1/93. For a complete copy o f our Guarantees o r Limited Warranties, please write Dell USA 
L.P., 2214 W. Braker Lane, Building 3. Austin. TX 78758. AOn-site service provided by BancTec Service Corp. On-site service may not be available in certain remote locations. OBusiness leasing 
arranged by Leasing Group, Inc. *Prices and specifications valid in the U.S. only and subject to change without notice. The Intel Inside logo and Pentium are registered trademarks of Intel 
Corporation. MS-DOS, MS, Windows and Microsoft are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. ©1995 Dell Computer Corporation. All rights reserved. 
Dell's featured digital artist is Sanjay Kothari of New York, NY, 




pentium' 





All the chips on this list, obscure as some are, had a significant 
influence on the evolution of personal computing. So what does 
it take to make a computer today? Mostly, it seems, acronyms: 
a CPU, some RAM, a handful of EPROMs, a DSP, and a PCI bus. 



■ Intel 1103 

In 1970, Intel created the 1 103— the first 
generally available DRAM chip. By 1972, 
it was the best-selling semiconductor 
memory chip in the world. Today, you 
would need more than 65,000 of them to 
put 8 MB of memory into a PC. 

■ Intel 1702 

In another brilliant stroke of naming, Intel 
created this, the first EPROM, in 1 97 1 . 
When you say "firmware," smile and think 
of the 1702. 

■ Intel 4004 

In 1971, Busicom, a Japanese company, 
wanted a chip for a new calculator. With 
incredible overkill, Intel built the world's 
first general-purpose microprocessor. Then 
it bought back the rights for $60,000. 

The 4-bit 4004 ran at 108 kHz and con- 
tained 2300 transistors. Its speed is 
estimated at 0.06 MIPS. By comparison, 
Intel's latest microprocessor, the P6, runs 
at 133 MHz, contains 5.5 million transis- 
tors, and executes 300 MIPS. 

■ Intel 8080 

If you drive, your life probably depends on 
this chip. Introduced in April 1 974, the 
8080 was first widely used as a traffic-light 
controller. It found its way a year later into 
the world's firstpersonalcomputer: the 
MITSAltair. 




THE INTEL 4004. IT WAS SUPPOSED TO BE THE BRAINS OF A 
CALCULATOR. INSTEAD, IT TURNED INTO A GENERAL- 
PURPOSE MICROPROCESSOR AS POWERFUL AS ENIAC. 




THIS IS INTEL'S PB: ALL 5.5 MILLION TRANSISTORS, 
133 MHz, AND 300 MIPS OF IT. IT'S ROUGHLY 5000 TIMES 
AS FAST AS THE 4004. YOU* VE COME A LONG WAY, x86. 



■ MOS Technology 6502 

What do a Nintendo set and a BMW have 
in common? The 6502. At $25 (compared 
with $375 for a comparable Motorola part), 
the 6502 was such a steal that a talented but 
cash-poor whiz kid from Silicon Valley, 
Steve Wozniak, chose it for his new 
personal computer, the Apple I. 

■ Zilog Z80 

Remember Tandy's TRS-80 Model I? 
Remember CP/M? They were both built on 
theZ80. 

■ Intel 8086 and 8088 

Enter the King. In June 1978, the 8086 
debuted. Today it stands for the world's 
most popular microprocessorstandard: the 
x86 architecture. A yearlater, Intel intro- 
duced a slight variation, the 8088, that 
could use 8-bit components, enabling the 
manufacture of inexpensive systems. For 
that reason, IBM chose the 8088 over the 
8086 for the original IBM PC, even though 
the 8088 was slower. 

■ Intel 386DX 

The 386 heralded the beginning of a new 
age — the age of multitasking. Introduced 
in October 1985, the 386 was the first 
"modern" x86 processor that was capable 
of running today's multitasking OSes, 
GUIs, and 32-bit software. 

The 386 introduced an enhanced 
microarchitecture while maintaining full 
backward compatibility with earlier x86 
processors. This was accomplished with 
two memory-addressing modes: real mode, 
which mirrored the way memory is 
addressed by theolderx86s,andanew 
protected mode that took full advantage of 
the 386's 32-bit enhancements. 



74 BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 




published a 
simple program 
(220 bytes) to play 
Life on an 8080 
system. 

Returned exile and 
scholar Ayatollah 
Khomeini declares 
Iran an Islamic 
republic. 




■ Intel Pentium 

The Pentium swept through the PC 
industry faster than any of Intel's 
previous chips. Although Intel's 486DX 
(April 1989) integrated an FPU and was 
much faster than the 386, it was the 
Pentium that introduced the next leap for- 
ward in the x86 microarchitecture: 
superscalar pipelines. Skeptics said a CISC 
architecture couldn't do it. The Pentium 
proved otherwise. 

■ AMD 386DX 

Let the price wars begin. When Intel's 
original 16-MHz 386 was introduced in 
1985, it cost $299; more than five years 
later, it was still commanding the relatively 
high price of $171, and the 33-MHz 
version fetched $214. AMD's 386DX/40 
appeared in March 1991 at$281,but 
within ayearitspriceplunged 50 percent 
to $140. Street prices of PCs, which follow 
chip prices, fell by as much as $1000. The 
marketfor Windows-capable PCs expanded 
by 33 percent. 

■ Motorola 68000 

More than any other, this is the micro- 
processor that helped establish the GUI. In 
1983, four years after its introduction, it 
appeared in Apple's Lisa, a unique com- 
puter but a commercialf lop that neverthe- 
less paved the way forthe Macintosh in 
1984. 

■ Mips R2000 

The R2000, introduced in 1 986, was a 
32-bit CPU with 1 10,000 transistors. It 
powered thefirstgeneration of RISC 
workstations and servers. The original 
version, clocked at 8 MHz, executed 
about 5 MIPS and had a separate FPU. 



THE CHIP THAT LAUNCHED 
68000 MACINTOSHES. 



IT DIDN'T DIVIDE, BUT IT 
CONQUERED ANYWAY. 



■ Sun Microsystems SPARC 

In July 1987, Sun announced an open RISC 
architecture. The idea was to encourage 
multiple sourcing and lively competition 
that would spur performance and spread the 
SPARC standard far and wide. Eight years 
later, SPARC workstations and servers 
dominate their markets. 

■ IBM/Motorola PowerPC 601 

Although few doubted the power of the 
PowerPC architecture, many thought the 
politics of the IBM/Motorola/Apple rela- 
tionship was going to be unmanageable. 
In less than two years, it has spawned the 
world's most popular RISC platform: the 
PowerMacintosh. 

■ Chips & Technologies AT Chip Set 

IBM is not known for its approach to open 
systems. So, while it was actively resisting 
the cloning of its PC architecture, C&T was 
introducing its AT Chip Set. With only five 
chips, C&T duplicated the core logic of 
about 1 00 chips in IBM's system. All a 
clone maker had to do was add a 286, a 
Phoenix BIOS ROM, and some memory to 
create a PC. Take that, Big Blue. 

■ Amiga Agnes/Denise/Paula 

It's not a rock group: This was the advanced 
chip set that powered the world's first 
multimedia computer: the Commodore 
Amiga 1000. In 1985, these three chips 
could do tricksthat today's PCs and Macs 
still can't do — such as display multiple 
screens with independent pixel resolutions 
and bit depths on a single monitor. 



■ Commodore SID 

You can get remarkable results when you 
tell an engineer to do what he thinks is 
right. Take SID (Sound Interface Device), 
forexample. In 1981, Bob Yannes was told 
to design a low-cost sound chipforthe up- 
coming Commodore 64. He would end up 
creating an analog synthesizer chip that re- 
defined the concept of sound in personal 
computers. 

■ Yamaha OPL-2 

Tweet. Beep, beep. Name that tune! The 
original IBM PC's sound capabilities were 
practically nonexistent — a simple beeper 
that could produce a limited range of 
square-wave tones. Yamaha's OPL-2 
enabled vendors such as Ad Lib and 
Creative Labs to introduce plug-in sound 
boards with reasonable (but not great) 
sound. Today, nearly all PCs come with a 
soundboard. 

■ S3 911 

Because PCs originally had character-ori- 
ented displays, screen performance drasti- 
cally bogged down when running Microsoft 
Windows and graphical applications. 
IBM's 85 14 chip and its spin-offs provided 
some improvement, but the market 
broke wide open in 1991 when S3 intro- 
duced the 911, which integrated GUI 
acceleration and VGA compatibility on a 
single chip. 

■ Intel Mercury 

The PCI (Peripheral Component 
Interconnect) bus is the most important 
enhancement to the PC architecture since 
the ISA bus, and Mercury was the first 
implementation. Today even Apple has 
adopted PCI to replace the NuBus. 



SEPTEMBER 1995 BYXK "75 



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multimedia computing at its highest level. So get going. Call 1-800-457-7777 for more information or a dealer near you. 




Lithium Ion Battery: 

Toshiba's long-life Lithium Ion 

battery provides many hours of 

power while you travel. 



\ 



W*" 



Enhanced Port Replicator: 

Now you only need one computer- The 

new, optional Enhanced Port Replicator 

provides two Type III PC Card slots, 

and allows one-step connection to your 

desktop environment. 




Built-in Power Supply: 
A built-in power supply means 
you don't have to carry a bulky 
external AC adapter. This slim 

power cord is all you need. 



GET GOING 




400CDT: 

• 10.4" dia. coloractive matrix display 

• Integrated modular Quad-Speed CD-ROM 

• Modular 3.5" FDD included 

400CS*: 

• I0.4 n dia. color dual-scan display 

• Integrated modular 3.5" FDD 

• Optional modular Quad-Speed CD-ROM 



BOTH MODELS: 

• 75MHz Pentium'" processor (2.9v) 

• Supports 24-bit tnie color 
(16.7 million colors) 

• 810 Million Bytes (=772MB) HDD 

• 8MB EDO RAM expandablero40MB 

• Lithium Ion battery 

• VLIocal-bus video 



• Sound Blaster'" Pro compatible, • Toll-free Technical 



.WAV and MIDI sound support 

• Two stacked PC Card slots 
(twoType II oroneTypelll) 

• Plug and Play connectivity 

• AccuPoint'" integrated 
pointing device 

• Toshiba MaxTime' Power 
Management Software 



Support— 
7 days a week, 
24 hours a day 



$0 

Pentium' 

■ processor 



In Touch with Tomorrow 

TOSHIBA 

Toshiba. The Worlds Best Selling Portable Computers. 

All specifications and availability are subject to change. 1 400CS comes with the modular FDD only. A Quad-Speed CD-ROM is available as an optional upgrade. *The 400CS is sold at selected retailers as the 405CS with additional 
pre-installed software. © 1995 Toshiba America Information Systems, Inc. All products indicated by trademark symbols are trademarked and/or registered by their respective companies. The Intel Inside logo is a trademark of Intel Corporation. 

Circle 249 on Inquiry Card. 



The Amazonian piRHflci uses razor sharp teeth to rip out bloody 

■ ■ 

chunks of your QUIVETIllIf flesh until you thrash and convulse in 
mind-numbing apny and plead for someone to kill you. 

[Sort of like using Someone ClSC'S network fax solution.] 




Everyone knows that network faxing is 
an amazingly convenient way ror people 
to tax rignt from tneir PCs. So there's 
no more schlepping to the rax machine. 
Everyone also knows it's agonizingly 
painrul to implement. But now there's 
Delrina WinFax"' PRO for Networks 4.1. 
Which does for network faxing what 

Delrina WinFax PRO"" MMet k* 

1KKST 
1.1 c i r . WMTOWfo 

did ror personal raxing. RECfflfiA f 

MMUkfiC 1 

Which is to finally g$g{* Q e I 




make it easy. Installing : k3£~§ :l riMiimu 
it takes no time. It's mFax PRO for N^orks 

. . « is based on WinFax PRO, 

simple to add users tl K world's #j fax software. 
and modems. Sending a fax from any 
Windows application is as easy as print- 
ing a document. And since people share 
phone lines and modems, you save 
money. See your aealer or call us at 
1-800-598-8679 for more information 
ahout WinFax PRO for Networks. 
And go ahead and jump right in to 
network faxing. The water's fine. 



Delrina WinFax PRO for Networks works with your existing hardware and software, including all popular e-mail packages. • It works 
with all popular networks, including Novell NetWare, Personal NetWare, LANtastic, Banyan Vines, Microsoft® LAN Manager and 4 
Microsoft® Windows™ for Workgroups. • No dedicated fax server is required. • It's compatible with more than 
600 modems. • It costs less than you think. • And it makes the ideal choice for workgroups of up to 50 people, 

Dclrim, VioPa* PRO and Wiiil r ax PRO (or Networks are tr.il-marU .if Delrina Corporation .iml its .iffilialed companies. Microsoft is a retfittaul trademark of Microsoft Corporation. 
All oilier product name* are copyrights, trademark*, restored tr.iilom.irkf or tradenames of their respective owners. ©1994 Delrina (Canada) Corporation. All rights reserved. 

Circle 340 on Inquiry Card. 



in manager and m 

DelrimSL 




Twenty years ago, networks were 
three-letter corporations that owned 
television. Today, they are the fabric of 
our information society. Following are 
the products that form the woof and 
warp of this new world. 



■ SNA 

IBM's mainframe networking standard, SNA (Systems 
Network Architecture), is arguably the major milestone 
in networking technology in the last 20 years. Virtually 
every Fortune 500 company's mainframe networks are 
based on it, as well as any other company that has an 
IBM mainframe. SNA, officially introduced in 1974 
with products becoming available in subsequent years, 
gave users access to the enormous amounts of data 
stored on mainframes. 

With SNA, IBM developed a layered approach to 
communications that was to be the basis for all the 
company's subsequent data communications work. 

■ DECnet 

Introduced in 1975, DECnet supported communication 
over a variety of networks, including Ethernet LANs 
and baseband and broadband networks. DEC adapted 
its architecture to interconnect workstations, terminals, 
PCs, Macs, PDPs, and VAXes. 

Because of an architecture that put intelligence at 
each network node, and because of the connectivity to 
PDPs and VAXes, DECnet was widely embraced by 
research and academic communities. 

■ TCP/IP 

A funny thing happened while we were all waiting for 
OSI to take off. A stopgap networking solution devel- 
oped years ago by the Department of Defense's 



Advanced Research Projects Agency, TCP/IP, blew 
OSI off the map. 

Between 1978 and 1980, the Defense Advanced 
Research Projects Agency developed and deployed the 
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol on its 
Arpanet. Today, TCP/IP is used in most large corporate 
networks to give users access to a wide variety of plat- 
forms on different networks. It is also the protocol 
of the Internet. Enough said. 

■ Oracle SQL 

If any one standard is responsible for the current boom 
of client/server networking, it's the database language 
SQL (Structured Query Language). Related to IBM's 
massive mainframe database DB2, SQL was brought to 
minicomputers in the late 1970s by the prescient Oracle 
corporation, which eventually ported SQL down to 
microcomputer LANs and stand-alone PCs (and even 
the Sharp Wizard — but nobody's perfect). Oracle's 
SQL became one of the first truly scalable applications 
development platforms. You could write and test your 
application on a workstation and then upscale it to your 
big iron when it was ready. Or better yet, you could 
downsize your mainframe apps to less expensive and 
more efficient systems, like PC networks. 

SQL is such a popular standard thattoday, every 
major client/server application supports it; no compet- 
ing architecture has come close. 





MANAGING A MESS: HP'S 
OPENVIEW CONSOLE 




U.B.: HUBBA, HUBBA, EH? 




LONG BEFORE PCMCIA, XIR- 
COM WAS PLUGGING PORTA- 
BLES INTO ETHERNET. 



BOOKS. LOTS AND LOTS DF BOOKS. SOMEWHERE IN THERE IS THE ACTUAL 
NETWARE 3.11 SOFTWARE. BUT WHERE? WE'LL NEVER TELL 



SEPTEMBER 1995 BYTE 79 




nm 



lUft^ 



m 








t -Important 



roducts a &Standards 





WE CAN THINK OF EXACTLY 3270 REASONS THAT 
ATTACHMATE'S IRMA BOARD, WHICH CONNECTS PCS TO 
MAINFRAMES, WAS AN INCREDIBLE SUCCESS. 



■ Group 3 Fax standard 

Remember being amazed when a fax 
machine could transmit a page in less than 
30 seconds? That increase in speed was due 
to the CCITT's Group 3 recommendation 
forfaxtranmissions. Issued in 1980, the 
Group 3 fax standardspecified trans- 
mission rates of up to 9600 bps and in- 
cluded built-in compression, which made it 
possible to transmit a typical page in less 
than 30 seconds. 

■ Ethernet 

Today, when most office workers hear the 
name Xerox, they think of the photocopier 
machine, or they erroneously use the 
corporate name as a verb. We could just as 
well be using Xerox as a term for sending 
a file down the network wire. 

In 1981, Xerox made history by intro- 
ducing the original Ethernet LAN in the 
form of its Star Ethernet Series. The 
LAN was an office system that linked 
devices, such as workstations, servers, 
and printers, so that users could share and 
print documents. 

The Star Ethernet Series was the result 
of Ethernet research conducted by 



Xerox with DEC and Intel. It was the 
first introduction many corporate users 
got to LAN technology. Xerox was a name 
player in the office market, and thus its 
sales staff at least had a foot in the door 
of most corporations. 

■ NetWare and Sharenet 

In 1981, Novell introduced Sharenet, the 
first product in the line, which soon became 
NetWare. It took the simple idea of dedicat- 
ing one node on a network as a central 
resource and developed it into the most 
highly used NOS today. 

Novell was not the only company in 
that newly emerging NOS market. Other 
early players included IBM and 3Com. 
But NetWare, especially versions 2.x 
and 3.x, delivered the features that 
organizations needed most: solid file 
and print services. 

■ Hayes Smartmodem 

Before 1981, modems were just plain 
dumb. They had no memory, and they 
couldn't recognize commands. The early 
modems simply did as their name implies: 
they modulated and demodulated signals. 

With the advent of theHayes Smart- 
modem in 1981, modems understood and 
could execute commands (the Hayes AT 
Commands) on their own. 

The Smartmodem and the Hayes 
command set became the standard for mo- 
dem communications and made Hayes the 
dominant player in the market for the next 
10 years. Even today, most modem ads still 
state that the device is Hayes-compatible. 

■ 3Com Etherlink 

In 1982, a small Silicon Valley company 
cof ounded by Bob Metcalfe, the inventor 
of Ethernet, introduced the first Ethernet 
adapter card for a PC. The card, the 
Etherlink, became the best-selling 
networking product ever. 3Com, 
Metcalfe'scompany, also developed its 
own NOS (network operating system) 




with which to use its new creation and 
drive the sale of its core hardware product. 

■ The Irma board 

The Irma board has to be the one product 
that symbolizes the acceptance of PCs by 
the corporate world. Before Irma's 
introduction in 1982, corporate data, which 
resided on IBM mainframes, was accessed 
through 3270 terminals. From these 3270 
terminals, users could view data and run 
applications that printed reports. 

In the early 1980s, as PCs started to 
make their way into corporations, there 
was a cluttering on the desktop. A 
terminal and a PC took a lot of room — 
especially those early IBM PCs with 
their large footprints. 

Technical Analysis, soon to be ac- 
quired by Digital Communications 
Associates (DCA), developed a brilliant 
solution. Their Irma board, which plugged 
into a slot in an IBM PC, could give the 
PC user access to the mainframe data. The 
board included 3270 terminal emulation 
software and a coaxial-cable connection 
on the back to attach to the IBM network 
infrastructure. 

■ Streettalk for Vines 

Today, many corporations are looking for 
some way to easily keep track of resources 
and people on their networks. Ultimately, 



SO BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 



Now Everyone Can Have 
The Superior Monitor. 





If you've always wanted a top performing monitor, now is the time. 



Even the coolest dudes 
find Nanao's new 1 7" 
monitors way cool. 1 Tie new 
F2-17EX and T2-17TS models 
can't be beat for the ultimate 
in text and graphics performance. Which is why 
they're setting sales records at savvy computer stores. 
Another reason is Nanao's Windows 95 Plug & Play* 
compatibility. Complicated user set-up adjustments 
at the time of installation are virtually eliminated. 
And switching resolutions on-the-fly is a snap. Users 
are also drawn by Nanao's reputation for outstand- 
ing long-term reliability plus the stunning array of 
new advanced technical features that are ideally 
suited for graphical environments. Nanao even offers 
a choice of four 17" models to satisfy your budget, 

3-year warranty** 



cetet'/ie 



application requirements and tube preference. The 
F2-17EX features an ultra fine dot pitch Invar shadow 
mask flat-square tube, while the T2'17ts features the 
new hybrid technology aperture grill tube. Both 
monitors provide the power you need to achieve true- 
to-life colors, crisp typography and a stable screen 
image. Flicker-free resolutions up to 1280 x 1024 @ 
82Hz refresh rate, Colorific™ screen/printer color 
matching software and on-screen image controls 
deliver previously unheard of levels of performance. 
For added safety against emissions, TCO compliance 
is now available as a standard feature. 

If you're wondering why this dude looks so satis- 
fied, it's easy to figure out. He just caught the perfect 
wave. And the perfect 17" monitor. 



M kodak^ 



Call Our FlexFax Fax On Demand 1-800-4 16-FLEX 



F2-17EX 

Dot Pitch 

Actual Viewing Diag. 

ScanFreq. 

Rcc. Resol. 

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On Screen Control 

Standards 

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Actual Viewing Diag. 

ScanFreq. 

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Max Resol. 

On Screen Control 



Standards 



0.26mm 

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H:30-86kHz,V:55-160Hz 

1280xl024@upto82Hz 

l600x1200@upto66Hz 

ScrcenManager" and 
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MPRII,TCO,FCCB 



0.25mm 

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1280xl024@upto82Hz 

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ScreenManagcr" and 

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MPR-n,TCO,FCCB 



'Requires a DDC compatible video aird. **3 year on P & L and CRT. Superior In V.veiy Detail is a registered trademark of Nanao Corporation. 
All product names are trademarks of their respective companies. ©1 995 Nanao USA Corporation. 

Circle 230 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 231). 



NANAO 

Superior In Every Detail 

NANAO USA CORPORATION 
23535 Telo Avenue, Torrance, CA 90505 
(310) 325-5202 Fax: (310) 530-1679 

1-800-800-5202 




Wekowe [ Who*'* Hew) | Wtwf i Cool | Quwitow | Net Sew eh | Hot Directory | 




IjArtServe 

*4rf & architecture 
mainly from the 
Mediterranean Basin 



This Aujtrilitn Nation &1 University server contains over 1.2 gigabytes of data wiiii 
avail able ebewbere. It offorj a variety of image collections and small pre jertUti on; 
deal in somo way with Art Hittory. The current setup will be biprovod when tinio, it 
assistants permit. Your opinions and suggestions on the content, arrangement and 
materials on this server ere earnestly sought! pie ass email mot 




MOSAIC IS LIKE THE FAIRY GOO MOTHER OF THE INTERNET. 
TURNING IT FROM TEXT RAGS TO GRAPHICAL RICHES. 



they'll probably use some form of a 
standards-based directory service, perhaps 
the ISO's powerful X. 500. 

In the meantime, they are stuck with 
stopgap solutions — unless, of course, they 
are Banyan Vines users. Since 1984, 
Banyan has offered its users Streettalk, its 
LAN-based directory services, which are 
needed in enterprise networks. Streettalk 
was the first of the enterprise directory ser- 
vices, and some say it is still the best. 

■ Token Ring 

IBM developed token-ring technology in 
the early 1980s, and the first commercial 
products hit the streets in 1985. Token Ring 
was based on the concept of using a token, 
which was passed around the network, to 
give a device access to the network. When a 
device needed to transmit data, it would 
seize the token. This technique made a to- 
ken-ring network more deterministic com- 
pared with Ethernet's contention-based 
method f oraccessing the network. 

The deterministic nature of Token Ring 
quickly became a popular choice for IBM 
SNAshopsand it wasquickly adopted by 
virtually all of IBM's large corporate cus- 
tomers as the way to link users through- 
out a corporation. 

■ Cisco AGS multiprotocol router 
and Proteon Multiprotocol Gateway 

These were the first routers to solve the 
problem of routing different protocols 



Most. Important 


rift 




f 
nets & Standard 




from and to a single network. Cisco's 
AGS supported TCP/IP and PUP. Proteon's 
Multiprotocol Gateway handled ARP, 
Chaosnet, TCP/IP, and PUP. We would 
like to award the laurel for first multi- 
protocol router to either Cisco or Proteon, 
but the companies are squabbling over 
who was first. Cisco, a source tells us, has 
produced the invoice for its first router sale 
and challenges Proteon to produce an 
earlier one. 

■ ISDN 

Still don'tknow? ISDN (Integrated 
Services Digital Network) is the phone sys- 
tem of the future. Fully digital and quite af- 
fordable, it offers enough bandwidth (64 
Kbps) for acceptable Internet access and 
almost enough for videoconferencing. It's 
also a flexible system, offering scalability 
up to 1 .544 Mbps (not coincidentally the 
same speed of aTl line) for corporate sites. 
The downside of this noble mid-1980s 
standard is that it's really not standard at 
all — a lot of telephone markets implement 
the system differently, so bringing the next 
generation of communication into your 
home or business can be an exercise in 
frustration. Nonetheless, when analog 
modem technology runs out of steam (as it 
is beginningtodoright now), ISDN will 
step in as the next great data communi- 
cations standard. 

■ Kerberos from MIT 

In the mid-1980s, wizards at MIT 
developed Kerberos, a security system that 
controls access to network services. Their 
scheme requires that users be authenticated 
before they can get to any service on a net- 
work. Kerberos does this in an ingenious 
way. Users gain access to applications, 
data, printers, and so forth by using the 
equivalent of an electronic ticket, which is 
good for only one-time access and which, if 
the security administrator so desires, can 
expire within a fairly short time. 
The system encloses the access ticket in 



an encrypted message using the user's own 
password. If the user is whom he or she 
claims to be, the user can decipher the mes- 
sageand the ticket will be available. The 
user's password is neverpassedoverthe 
network. Security is maintained. 

■ OpenView 

Enterprise network management was easier 
in the days of homogeneous networks. 
Companies whose networks were 
exclusively IBM, f orexample, would turn 
to IBM's NetView to manage all the devices 
on their SNA (Systems Network 
Architecture) networks. 

That was fine until other vendors' prod- 
ucts were introduced into a company's 
network — each with its own management 
system. Network managers had a deskf ul 
of monitors — one for every management 
system. They had to check the status of 
different devices on different monitors 
and assimilate all that information in their 
head. That was great for the aspirin 
companies, but for IS managers, it was 
impractical. 

In 1988, Hewlett-Packard introduced 
OpenView to overcome such problems. 
OpenView was the first multivendor 
network management system. It also 
offered open APIs. Network equipment 
vendors could use these programming inter- 
faces to make their products capable of be- 
ing managed by the system. 

■ Access/One 

Today, virtually all corporate networks are 
built around intelligent wiring hubs that of- 
fer management capabilities and can isolate 
troublesome cabling flaws. The first com- 
mercial network to offer these features was 
Ungermann-Bass's Access/One hub. Before 
this, most local networks were made up of 
daisy-chained components, and a single 
cable flaw would crash the whole system. 
Next time you find a flaw that affects only 
one user and not your entire network, give 
thanks to Ungermann-Bass. 



82 BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 





1 hanks to Sprint Business, 
Rail Europe increased its speed 
to 256 kilobits per second. 



Real Problem. Rail Europe, the exclusive sales 
agent for most European railways, needed a way to offer their 
huge database of schedule and fare information to travel 
agents all over the world. 

Real Solution. Sprint Business put them on track with SprintNet, 
the world's largest public data network, with access from 45 countries. 
What's more, with X .25 packet switching and highly reliable access 
at up to 256kbps, Rail Europe has quickly become the only stop for 
thousands of travel agents in the U.S., and as far away as Japan and Australia. 
All they need is a PC and the price of a local call to book virtually 
any train in Europe and the former Soviet Union. 24 hours a day. 
Sprint Business technology helped Rail Europe. 
Let us help your business do more business. 



Sprint 

Business 



^ 1-800-669-4700 



©1995 Sprint Communications Company L.P. 



Circle 277 on Inquiry Card. 




Most, Important 



Network in 






Cool Today, 

Tnnrnrrnw 

Four technologies stand 
apart, heralding the coming 
age of networking. 



LAN Switches 

LAN switches handle the heavier traffic 
that multimedia applications generate on 
networks by delivering more usable band- 
width to each desktop. They do this with- 
out requiring any change to the desktop; 
users keep their existing Ethernet or token- 
ring adapter cards in their PCs. 

The most useful switching products 
will be those that can be modified to han- 
dle connections to higher-speed network- 
ing backbone technologies. While many 
of the switches already support FDDI 
(Fiber Distributed Data Interface) and 
Fast Ethernet connections, the switches 
that will truly play a major role in corpo- 
rate networks are those that can 
accommodate ATM (asynchronous trans- 
fer mode) backbone connections. 

Asynchronous Transfer Mode 

ATM is the RISC architecture of the net- 
working world: It uses fixed, 53-byte 
cells. This size is a compromise between 
the very long packets that would yield the 
bestnetworkperformance and the very 
short frames that would give voice and 
video the smoothest functioning. Some 
argue that ATM is a kludge, but it's a 
kludge showing throughput of 622 Mbps, 
with future performance in the gigabit 
range. How far in the future? Considering 
ISDN's reception, maybe by 2000. 



Voice /Data Integration 

With more telecommuters and small of- 
fices requiring connectivity to corporate 
networks, companies are often paying for 
two lines to each location — one for a tele- 
phone and one tocarry data. In many situ- 
ations, the number of access lines to each 
site could be cut to one if the company 
could combine the voice and data traffic. 
Combining the two forms of traffic onto 
one line is becoming more practical. 
Some of the standout products making 
this type of convergence easier include: 

• the MMV series of voice/data concen- 
trators from Multi-Tech Systems 

• the NetRunner Integration Router 
fromMicom Communications 

• the HTM A 200 integrated ISDN and 
analog modem and the DAS 925 product 
line from Motorola's Transmission 
Products Division 

Computer Telephony Integration 

For computer telephony integration, suc- 
cessful products will most likely be based 
on one or both of two approaches. The 
first is TAPI (telephony API), a program- 
ming interface developed by Microsoft 
and Intel that lets Windows applications 
access voice services and provides inter- 
operability between PCs and telephone 
equipment. The second, the Telephony 
Services API, a programming interface 
developed by Novell and AT&T, offers a 
way to connect a PBX to a NetWare serv- 
er and provides links between PCs and 
telephone equipment. 



SOMETIME IN THE 
EARLY 1990S, 
ETHERNET PULLED 
THE OLD 

SWITCHERDO.ANO 
ITSPERFORMANCE 
SKYROCKETED. 




■ The Sniffer 

In 1989, Network General introduced the 
Sniffer, a single tool that helped network 
administrators develop and troubleshoot 
LANs. Today, the Sniffer is synonymous 
with network analyzers. 

The Sniffer offered detailed protocol de- 
coding capability and let LAN managers set 
traps to watch for certain conditions. It 
could also capture a trace of all the traffic 
passing over a LAN segment. These features 
were (and still are) useful when trying to 
understand performance problems on a net- 
work or when troubleshooting a problem. 

■ Xircom Pocket Ethernet Adapter 

Similar to the way the Irma board symbol- 
ized the acceptance of the PC in the corpo- 
rate world, the Xircom Pocket Ethernet 
Adapter symbolized the networked 
arrival of the laptop computer. Xircom had 
the brilliant idea of using a standard, 
universally available entry point into the 
laptop. The company's slick little box 
plugged into the parallel port — probably 
the only truly standard PC part. That gave 
every laptop user a quick and easy way to 
connect to a LAN. 

■ Mosaic 

The most important reason for the 
explosive growth of the Internet over the 
past year is the mass distribution of the 
Mosaic browser for the World Wide Web. 
Developed by the University of Illinois' 
National Center for Supercomputing 
Applications, Mosaic gives nontechnical 
people an easy tool with which to find their 
way around the Internet. Those who could 
care less about HTTP or HTML (Hypertext 
Markup Language) can use a Mosaic 
browser and weave their way through webs 
of information on their own. 

Marc Andreesen and his lesser-known 
colleagues at NCSA deserve some sort of 
prize for their efforts. Not only did they in- 
vent a brilliant vehicle fornavigatingthe 
Internet — but they gave it away. 



84 BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 




In 1975, the number of people going on- 
line was smaller than the membership of 
the Young Republicans for Captain 
Beefheart Fan Club. Now, those massive 
networks of computers and databases 
known as the on-line world have become 
an electronic extension of the tradition- 
al, off-line world. 



■ Fun & Games 

If you want to play in the MUD, see alt. mud, a good 
introduction to multiuser dimension games. Game 
Server at the University of Stuttgart provides a huge 
list. Telnet to castor.tat.physik.uni-tuebingen.de and 

type games at the log-in. 

■ Technical Support 

A Web page that you can visit to get technical 
assistance sure beats listening to cheesy music when 
you're on hold. Novell's home page is one of the best 
examples of how useful a Web site can be. Point your 
browser at http://www.noveII.com. 



^T Lycos" nfc 

The Ounlog of the Internet 



LOST? GONE FOREVER? OH, 
MY! DARLING, OON'TYOU 
WORRY-SERVICES LIKE 
LYCOS WILLiNDEX AND 

FINO CLEMENTINE IN A 
MATTER OF SECONDS. 



■ Text Search Tools 

Information is buried on the Internet. Tunneling its 
way to fame is gopher. If your site is gopherless, you 
can Telnet to consuItant.micro.umn.edu and type 
gopher at the log-in prompt. Even better are WAlSes 
(Wide Area Information Servers). If your system 
doesn't have a WAIS client, Telnet to bbs.oit.unc.edu 
and type bbs at the log-in prompt. Follow the 
directions. 

■ Code Talk 

Tools, languages, source code, tips and tricks, advice, 
and folks who've gone through hell. Sound good? 
Here are some of the best sites. For programming lan- 
guages, anonymous ftp to quartz.rutgers.edu and 
take the path /pub/computer/languages/*. For a 
discussion of the 32-bit Windows API, see the Usenet 
newsgroup comp. os. ms-windows. programmer 
.Win32. For Unix, post your problem in the Usenet 
newsgroup comp. unix. questions. 

■ Internet Directories 

If Hercules were around today, one of his labors 
would be indexing the Internet. Luckily, someone has 
already done the work. Go to Yahoo at http://www 
.yahoo.com. Or, you can try the WWW (World Wide 
Web) Virtual Library. It's at http://www.w3.org/ 
hypertext/ DataSources/bySubject/overview. html. 



■ Web Spelunkers 

What if you need to find something on the Web fast? 
Lycos is from Carnegie Mellon University, and it's hot. 
Start at http://Iycos. cs.cmu.edu. WebCrawler is good, 
too, at http://webcrawIerxs.washington.edu/ 
WebCrawIer/WebQuery.html. For its part, InfoSeek 
can pull information from anywhere. But it costs $9.95 
a month. Send E-mail to info@infoseek.com. 

■ Finder of Missing E-Mail Addresses 

What if you don't have your recipient's address? 
Four 1 1 is like an ace detective. To step into its office, 
E-mail info@fourll.com, or point your browser at 
http://www. Fourll.com. 




1950' a fun U back... Tlte original BURP GUN. It's safe ...it's exiciung ... and it's great for tods of all ages. 

T7iis is the original air-poireied Burp Gun, the same one that'3 been produced since the 1950's. Bttrpco tracked 
down the original Italian manufacturer and brought the B urp Gun back to the USA. The Burp Gun's proven sales 
reflect the demand by adults rediscovering the childhood classic. And mv, anev generation is discovering the 
Burp Gun for the first time. 

Pan from the SO' a is back for kids and gnmraps, too! 



ABURP GUN? EXCUSEME? 

ONLY ON THE INTERNET 
WILL YOU FINO LOVING 
RESTORATIONS OF SUCH 
ODDITIES AS THE BURP 
GUN. SPECIFICALLY, 
YOU'LL FIND IT (AND 
NEARLY EVERYTHING ELSE) 
AT YOUR LOCAL 
BRANCH MALL 



SEPTEMBER 1995 KYTE 85 



2QT» 




"k Best 
lungs. 






■ Home pages 

We like Netscape Communications' page: 
http://www.nctscape.com. It's diverse and 
fun. But for serious computer talk, try the 
National Center for Supercomputing 
Applications at http://www.ncsa.uiuc 
.edu/General/Internet/WWW/HTML 
Primer.html. 

■ Mailing Lists 

Mailing lists are the most efficient way to 
get targeted information. An electronic ver- 
sion of Prentice Hall's Internet: Mailing 
Lists book is available via anonymous ftp to 
ftp.nisc.sri.com and follow ihe path 
/netinfo/interest-groups. 



foshiaki Araki's Home Page 




THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM AND THE MOMA CAN EAT THEIR 
HEARTS DUT: THE INTERNET IS HDME TO ELECTRONIC 

VERSIONS OF SOME OF THE GREATEST ART EVER CREATED. 




NO NEED FOR THE WEATHER CHANNEL. JUST TUNE YOUR 
BROWSER TO THE NATIONAL CLIMATIC DATA CENTER. 



■ News 

Online Today on CompuServe is the most 
timely source of daily computer news. But 
Clarinet distributes the Dilbert comic strip. 
Look for newsgroups that start with clari. 

■ Travel Arrangements 

With CompuServe, you can make air, hotel, 
and rental car reservations. Type GO 
TRAVEL and be on your way. On America 
Online, click on the Travel block. 

■ Music 

If you want to talk about music or keep up 
with what's new, the Internet's the place. 
For alternative bands, go to http://www 
.iuma.com. Or try out the Music Server: 
Anonymous ftp to ftp.uwp.edu; path is 
/pub/music. 

■ Financial Information 

If you haven't spent all your money on 
connect time, invest some of it. Clarinet 
provides the broadest range of financial and 
business information, clari. biz. market 
gives you the latest on the stock market and 
clari. biz. invest discusses IRAs, mutual 
funds, and other investment arcana. 

■ Weather 

If you want to know what's going on 
outside without having to look up from your 
computer, try the National Climatic Data 
Center's http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/ 
interesting/us-se-wxmap.html. 

■ Education Resources 

AskERIC, run by the Educational 
Resource and Information Center, is like a 
giant help desk for K-l 2 teachers. The ad- 
dress is askeric@ericir.syr.edu, or point 
your browser at http://eryx.syr.edu/ 
COVVSHome.html. 

■ Sounds 

If it's been recorded, it's on-line 
somewhere. Try the Usenet group alt 
.binaries. sounds. misc. And DSP Group's 




BYTE publishes 
its first issue; 
articles include 
"Write Your 
Own Assembler" 
and "Recycling 
Used ICs." 

FBI agents cap- 
ture kidnapped 
rich-girl-turned- 
liberation-soldier 
Patty Hearst. 



TsPlayer lets you play a WAV sound file be- 
fore you download it. Anonymous ftp to 
ftp://oak.oakland.edu/SimTel/win3/ 
sound/tspIaylOO.zip. 

■ Free Software 

All you have to provide is the shrink-wrap. 
For PC software, gopher to merlot. welch 
.jhu.edu. For Mac software, anonymous ftp 
to oak.oakIand.edu; the path is /pub2/ 
macintosh. You Unix mavens will find a 
C archive if you anonymous ftp to 
wuarchive.wustl.edu; use the path 
/systems/unix/unix-c/*. Finally, you'll get 
OS/2 software at anonymous ftp to ftp- 
os2.nmsu.edu; the path is/os2/*. 

■ Art 

From Mona Lisa to Beavis and Butt-Head, 
you can get a look at the digitized works 
of some of the world's greatest artists. 
Start with ArtMap at http://wimsey.com/ 
anima/ARTWORLDonline.html. 
Then try ArtServe at http://rubens.anu 
.edu.au/. 

■ Shopping 

There's no re-creating the mall experience. 
Thank God. Start at the Branch Mall at 
http://branch.com. AutoPages is the place 
to shop for that new Lamborghini. Speed on 
over to http://www.clark.net/pub/ 
networx/autopage/autopage.html. 

■ Talk to Computer Companies 

CompuServe's company forums are still 
the best places to tell vendors what you 
think, to talk with company officials. Join 
the Hardware and Software Forums for 
starters — most major companies have 
support forums on CIS. 



86 BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 



Reliability you can depend on 

In 1994, Sentinel improved its industry 
leading reliability to over 99.985% - 
far more reliable than any other 
software protection product. 



Manage network licenses 

NetSentinel lM is the only protection 
NetWare t0 undergo rigorous testing by and 
StfoS) receive approval from Novell. 



A substantial investment in R&D 

In 1994 alone, Rainbow invested over 
54,500,000 in R&D to make the world's 
leading software protection even better. 




Global service & support 

Rainbow supports its customers 
with offices and distributors 
in more than 40 countries. 




The industry's highest quality 1509002 

Rainbow is the world's only software i??\ 

protection supplier with ISO 9002 ^Sp? 

certified quality standards, certified 



Truly transparent protection 

Designed to go unnoticed by your 

customers, Sentinel does not 

interfere with hardware, peripherals 

or other software programs. 



Compatible with your software 

Our partnerships with Apple, 

Microsoft and IBM mean Sentinel 

protects software for any hardware 

or operating system. 



W W 



y$& 



^ Total security & flexibility 

Sentinel keys are available with 
proprietary ASIC technology, multiple 
EEPROM cells or even a microcontroller - 
giving you the world's best software protection. 




» 



Why this dongle protects more 
software than all others combined! 



Over 6,500,000 Sentinel® keys 
protect software worldwide. 
In fact, 55% of all protected 
software has a Sentinel key, 
from Rainbow Technologies. 

Today, software piracy is at an 
all-time high. If you're selling 
software without protection, 
you're losing sales and revenue. 

Start protecting your software 
investment. Stop software piracy 



with Sentinel, then watch your 
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Discover the Sentinel difference 

Sentinel is easy to implement, 
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Only Sentinel gives you leading- 
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quality and over 99* 985 % reliability. 



Protect your software investment 

Order a Sentinel Developer's Kit. 
Prices start as low as 514- 95 . Each 
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utilities, and a Sentinel key. 

Order your kit now and receive a 20% 
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first Sentinel purchase. 



S&pj^ 






1-800-852-8569 

SETUmEL 

Software Protection 



^RAINBOW 



T E C H N L 



1 E S 



FROM THE EASTERN U.S. & CANADA, CALL 1-800/843-0413 ■ VISIT OUR HOME PAGE AT: http://www.RNBO.COM 

WORLD HEADQUARTERS: 50 Technology Drive, Irvine, CA 9271 8 ■ Tel: 714/450-7300 ■ Fax: 714/450-7450 
ASIA/LATIN AMERICA: 714/450-7300 ■ U.K.: (44) 1932 570066 ■ FRANCE: (33) 1 41 43 2900 ■ GERMANY: (49) 89 32 17 98 



ARGENTINA: Agri-Aid, S.A. 54 1 8030536 
AUSTRALIA: LOADPLAN 61 3 690 0455 
BELGIUM/LUXEMBURG: E2S 32 92 21 11 17 
BRAZIL: MIPS SistemasLtda. 55 1 1 574 8686 
BULGARIA: KSIMETRO 35 9279 1478 
CHILE: ChileSoft Ltda. 56 2 232761 7 
CHINA (Eastern): Shanghai Pudong Software 
Park Development Company 86 21 4371 500 



CHINA (Northern): CS&S 86 10 831 6524 
COLOMBIA: Construdata 57 1 610 7500 
CZECH REPUBLIC: ASKON Int'l 42 2 3103 652 
GREECE: Byle Computer S.A. 301 924 17 28 
HONG KONG: Computers & Peripherals 852 2515 0018 
HUNGARY: Polyware Kft 36 76 481 236 
INDONESIA P.T. Promptrade InfoScan 62 21 375 166 
IRAN: GAM Electronics 98 21 22 22374 



ITALY: BFI IBEXS A SPA 39 23 31 00535 
ITALY: Siosistemi 39 30 24 21074 
JAPAN: Giken Shoji Co., Ltd. 81 52 972 6544 
JORDAN: CDG Engineering 96 26 863 861 
KOREA: Genesis Technologies 82 2 578 3528 
LEBANON: National Group Consultants 961 1 494317 
MALAYSIA: Eastern 5ys Design (M) Sdn Bhd 60 3 241 1 183 
MEXICO: Impex Comp., S.A. de C. V. 52 66 210 291 



MIDDLE EAST: Hoche Int'l 44 81 459 8822 
MOROCCO: Futur & Soft 2 12 2 40 03 97 
NETHERLANDS: IntroCom 31 74 430 105 
PHILIPPINES Mannasoft Tech. Corp 63 2 813 4162 
POLAND: HITEX Sp. z o.o. 48 22 41 97 51 
PORTUGAL: COMELTA 351 194165 07 
SCANDINAVIA: Perico A7S47 2249 1500 
SINGAPORE: Systems Design PTE LTD 65 747 2266 



SPAIN: MECCO 34 3 422 7700 
SWITZERLAND: 18V AG 41 1741 2140 
SWITZERLAND: Safe Compaid S.A. 41 2421 5386 
TAIWAN: Evershine Tech. 886 2 8208925 
THAILAND: BCS Int'l 66 2 319 4451 
TUNISIA: ASCI 2 16 1 781 751 
TURKEY: BIMEKS, Ltd. 9 2 1 6 348 3508 
VENEZUELA: HRT-M Osers 58 2 261 4282 



1 995 Rainbow Technologies, Inc. Sentinel, SentinelSuperPro and NetSentinel are trademarks of Rainbow Technologies. All other product names are trademarks of their respective owners. 

Circle 243 on Inquiry Card. 




V # here was a time you could find anything youneeded at a general 
M ■ store. Nowadays Gateway 2000® can offer you that same neigh- 
borly service and wide selection of quality products. 

We care about our customers. That's why Gateway offers a large 
assortment of cutting-edge, quality, professional desktop systems. Whether 
you need a solid 486 workstation or the power of the P5- 1 33XL — we can 
help you out. Stocked with the latest technology, the P5-133XL includes a 
133MHz Intel Pentium processor, 16MB EDO performance-enhanced 
memory, 256K pipelined burst cache, Matrox MGA Millennium graphics 
accelerator with 2MB WRAM, and MS Office 95 Professional Edition 
upgrade upon release. Plus you'll receive a three-year on-site warranty and 
priority toll-free technical support 24 hours a day, seven days a week with 
our new Gateway Gold Premium Service, standard only on the P5-133XL! 



Gateway also has a Grade A inventory of portable PCs as diverse 
as our desktop line. At 4.2 pounds, the Liberty DX4-100 Base system 
is chock-full of features like an Intel 100MHz DX4 processor and 
10.4-inch display. It's the perfect partner for your desktop PC, and 
when you're off for pans unknown. Our shelves are full of tantalizing 
options that include expanded RAM, lithium ion batteries, external 
CD-ROM drives, huge hard drives, fax/modems and PCMCIA 
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Times may change, but Gateway 2000's tradition of providing 
high-quality, feature-packed computers remains the same. And by 
ordering now, you'll reserve your copy of Microsoft's new operating 
system, Windows 95. Call Gateway today and talk to your friends in 
the business. 



©I 995 Gateway 2000, Inc. Gateway 20(X), black and white spot design, "G" logo and "You've got a friend in the business" slogan are registered trademarks, and EZ Point, TelePath, Vivitron, 
Liberty and Gateway Gold are trademarks of Gateway 2000, Inc. The Intel Inside Logo, Intel and Pentium are registered trademarks of Intel Corporation. Monitors' diagonal measurements 

indicate the size of the cathode-ray tube. Prices do not include shipping or applicable sales tax. 




Intel 1 33MHz Pentium® Processor 

Intel Verified: Upgradable 

16MB EDO Performance-Enhanced Memory 

256K Pipelined Burst Cache 

1 .62GB Mode 4, 9ms IDE Hard Drive 

PCI Enhanced IDE Interface 

Matrox® MGA™ Millennium™ Graphics Accelerator 

W/2MBWRAM \ 

4X 3-CD Changer, 1 6-Bit Ensoniq® Wavetable & i 

Altec!" ACS-31 Speakers w/ Subwoofer 

TelePatrT 28.8 Fax/Modem Communication Center 

3.5" Diskette Drive 

17" ,26dp Vivitron 1 " Color Monitor ^ — \ 

9-Bay Tower Case Q^^p7 

101 -fey Keyboard & MS Mouse 2.0 j^p 

MS-DOS*6.22,WFW3.11 

Microsoft® Windows® 95 and Office 95 

Professional Edition Upgrades 



4.2 Lbs., 10" x 8" x 1.6" 

10.4 DSTN Color Display 

8MB RAM 

Removable 340MB Hard Drive 

1MB Video RAM 

Choice of Desktop IR Receptor or 

External Floppy Drive 

Intel 100MHz486DX4 Processor 

Instant On 

NiMH Battery & AC Pack 



2 PCM CI A Type II ^ots 

EZ Point 1 " Integrated Pointer 

78-Key Keyboard 

Parallel, Serial, VGA & PS/2® Ports 

OAG* FlightDisk® World Clock, & Ascend® personal 

information manager (PIM) for use w/ Franklin Day 

Planner® by Franklin Quest'* Co, 

MS-DOS 6.22, WFW 3.11 

Microsoft Windows 95 Upgrade 

MS Works for Windows3.0 



MfifflM 



$2999 



EDITORS 1 
CHOICE 

August 1995 




July .1995 



l PDUUTIONcRfVffJTES 



r- 



Gateway Liberty DX4/1DQ Gateway Liberty DX4/10O 



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GATEWX2OO0 



"You 've got a friend in the business. " 3 



610 



MS Office Professional 4.3, Bookshelf 15 & Money 3.0 
Gateway Gold 1 " Premium Service 
J3999 International 



General Sales 800-846-2058 • Portables 800-846-4289 

Gateway Drive • P.O. Box 2000 • N. Sioux City, SD .57049-2000 • Phone 605-232-2000 

TDD 800-846-1778 • Fax 605-232-2023 • FaxBack 800-846-4526 
FaxBack Access 605-232-2561 • Sales Hours: 7am- 10pm Weekdays, 9am-4pm Saturdays (CDT) 




Be honest. As a technology leader people 
look to you for new ideas and innovative 
solutions. You've been successful. Now you 
have responsibilities. Demands on your time 
keep increasing. Your office never seems to be 
quite large enough. It's almost as if time and 
space have shrunk around you. You're cool 
'except, that is, when you can't find something, 
then you go completely stark raving bonkers! 
Now at last a tool that is really going to help you. We call it EasiFile. 

EasiFile is a complete network-ready electronic filing system. 
Designed to give you instant retrieval of all your paper based 
information, however vast. EasiFile deals with the very documents you 
find so difficult to file and find. Technical articles, CVs, reports, product 
specs, news releases, bills, even cherished letters from old friends can 
be scanned and stored quickly with fully automatic or structured 
indexing. With EasiFile you are master of you own information. 

Because your time is so precious, we have designed EasiFile as 
a total solution. From the moment you open the box it's ready to 
work for you. Everything you need is included, pentium based 



network 

users 
conquer 
time and 



space 



system unit, network interface, scanner, optical 
storage, monitor, keyboard, mouse and, of 
course, the software. 

With our software, forget wait states. 

Scan, compress, display images, write to optical 

disk at once thanks to our multi-threaded, 

multi-tasking, application. At last, a product 

that shows the power of OS/2. EasiFile systems 

can be configured to run on virtually any 

network, including, LanServer, Novell, DECnet and TCP. Sharing paper 

documents with colleagues on the network has never been easier 

than with EasiFile. 

MDi started in a Scottish garage in 1989 and have risen to supply 
some of the World's top companies with document management 
solutions. Now our technology and experience is available to you 
in a system that is easy to use, available worldwide and does not 
cost the earth. 

So why not give us a call on our free phone number or surf 
over to us on the Net. We believe this will be the best time investment 
you ever make. 



CALL FREE ON 0800 37 11 86 

Callers outside the UK should call (44) 1368 850 650. 
Worldwide Web http://www.mdisystems.co.uk/easifile 



email: easifile@mdisystems.co.uk 



MDi Systems Limited, 

Newmains, Stenton, Dunbar, 

Scotland EH42 1TQ UK. 

Tel: (44) 1368 850 678 Fax: (44) 1368 850 679 



Co 

o 

5 

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MDi 



Resellers Wanted 
Worldwide 

Circle 282 on Inquiry Card. 



US RESELLERS: EAST COAST: Intelisys Technologica Inc. Tel: (703) 356 9803 Fax: (703) 356 9805 WEST COAST: 2M Invest Inc. Tel: (415) 655 3765 Fax: (415) 372 9107 
CENTRAL: REMTEKTel: (214) 387 2855 Fax: (214) 387 3342 email: edremtek@metronet.com ASIA AND PACIFIC RIM: MDI Ltd. Tel: (852) 2545 0567 Fax: (852) 2543 4666 




These are the books and CO-ROMs 
that have advanced the state of 
computing, that best chronicle the 
past two digital decades, and that 
manifest the innovative use of 
electronic publishing. Read on. 

BOOKS 

■ The Art of Computer Programming 

Donald E. Knuth 
(Addison-Wesley, 1973-1981) 
The bible of all fundamental algorithms and the 
work that taught many of today's software develop- 
ers most of what they know about computer pro- 
gramming. 

■ The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy 
Through the Maze of Computer Espionage 

Clifford Stoll 
(Doubleday, 1989) 

Astronomer Stoll notices a tiny accounting error 
and ends up catching a spy in this real-life thriller. 
The Cuckoo's Egg is much more than your basic 
thriller, though; it raises extremely important 
questions about international on-line ethical 
behavior, which is an important issue in the infor- 
mation age. 

■ Fluid Concepts and Creative Analogies: 
Computer Models of the Fundamental 
Mechanisms of Thought 

Douglas Hofstadter and the Fluid Analogies 

Research Group 

(Basic Books, 1995) 

Whether you agree with Hof stadter's concepts or 

not, he has moved the AI debate beyond mere 

rhetoric to actually writing programs that can test 

the AI hypothesis. 




STILL KIDDERING AROUND 

AFTER ALL THESE YEARS. 




■ Fumbling the Future: How Xerox 
Invented, then Ignored, the First 
Personal Computer 

Douglas K. Smith and Robert C. Alexander 
(William Morrow, 1988) 

Asadtaleof a company thatcomes up with so many 
brilliant ideas but lets them die in the R&D labs. 

■ Hackers: Heroes of the 
Computer Revolution 

Steven Levy 

(Anchor Doubleday, 1 984) 

The best book there is about the unconventional 

brainiacs and code wizards who started it all. 



■ Inside the IBM PC 

Peter Norton 

(R.J.Brady, 1983) 

The Master of Utilities rolls up his sleeves andpro- SOME WENTONTO BECOME 

duces the first popular book to expose the innards of MILLIONAIRES. SOME WENT 

IBM's personal computer. One of the best tutorials DIRECTLYTO JAIL. 

on what's inside the box. 



■ Programming Windows 3.1 

Charles Petzold 

(3d edition, Microsoft Press, 1992) 

In its time, it was the ultimate guide for Windows 

applications developers. 

■ The Soul of a New Machine 

Tracy Kidder 

(Little, Brown, 1981) 

A true-life engineering adventure story. 

■ Unauthorized Windows 95: 
Developer's Resource Kit 

Andrew Schulman 
(IDG Books Worldwide, 1994) 
What makes Windows 95 tick? Not only does 
Schulman tell developers about the code behind 
Windows 95, he tells them what decisions and trade- 
offs Microsoft made. 




INSIDE YOU'LL FINO A 

GREAT RECIPE FOR CHOCO- 
LATE-CHIP COOKIES. REALLY. 



SEPTEMBER 1995 BYTE 91. 




■ Understanding Computers and 
Cognition: A New Foundation for 
Design 

Terry Winograd and Fernando Flores 
(Ablex, 1986) 

One of the first books that explores for a 
large audience how computers fit into — and 
change — our lives. 



CD-ROMS 



■ Cinemania 

Microsoft 

A must for movie lovers. Great for settling 
trivia debates. Summaries of more than 
19,000 films, from contemporary to classic. 
Updated annually. Nothing like it exists in 
book form. Many thumbs up. 




THESE ARE THE VOYAGES OF THE STARSHIP ENTERPRISE- YOUR 
VOYAGES, THANKS TO SOME ASTOUNDING VIRTUAL REALITY. 





«J^J^- 


w . 


1 ^ i! 


3 

■ 


51 - 1 


■ 




■ -^-^ 






TANGLED UP IN BIG BLUE: DYLAN'S NEW HIGHWAY 61 
INTERACTIVE CD-ROM FOR THE PC. 



■ Computer Select 

Ziff Communications 
Do you need to research a computer 
product or get a feel for what's hot? Do 
you want to find the printed buzz on a par- 
ticular piece of hardware or software? 
Computer Select is the easiest way to 
search the full text of 28 computer 
magazines and abstracts from 1 10 other 
periodicals. Updated monthly. 

■ Compton's Interactive 
Encyclopedia for Windows 

Compton's Learning Co. 
The best interactive encyclopedia keeps 
getting better. Maps, charts, animations, 
high-resolution pictures, and an easy-to-use 
interface bring the printed version's 32,000 
articles to life. 

■ Highway 61 Interactive 

Graphix Zone 

When you're lost in the rain in Juarez, and 
it's Easter time, too, turn on this disc to see 
just how good a CD-ROM can be. A Bob 
Dylan multimedia museum. 

■ Mayo Clinic Family Health Book 

IVI Publishing 

Helps you understand anatomy, diseases, 
and health issues. Provides the full text of 
the 1 378-page printed version, plus 500 
narrated illustrations. Uses animations and 
video clips to explain basic physiological 
concepts. Has a slick morph-like animation 
of human anatomy. 

■ McGraw-Hill Science and 
Technical Reference Set, 
release 2.0 

McGraw-Hill 

From the company that owns BYTE, this 
disc contains McGraw-Hill's Concise 
Encyclopedia of Science and Technology 
and the unabridged McGraw-Hill 
Dictionary of Scientific and Technical 
Terms. Your technical library just isn't com- 
plete without it. 



■ Microsoft Bookshelf 

Microsoft 

Tons of information at your fingertips, 
with some of it illuminated by audio 
and graphics. Includes The American 
Heritage Dictionary, Roget s Thesaurus, 
World Almanac, The Hammond 
Intermediate World Atlas, the Concise 
Columbia Encyclopedia, and the Columbia 
Dictionary of Quotations. Updated 
annually. 

■ Myst 

Broderbund Software 
A fantastic fantasy game with great graph- 
ics, animation, music, and entertaining (if 
diabolical) puzzles. The first CD to bring a 
new kind of art to our society. 

■ Star Trek: The Next Generation 
Interactive Technical Manual 

Simon & Schuster Interactive 
Apple's QuickTime VR panoramic video 
technology lets you explore the starship 
Enterprise and the entire Federation as 
never before possible. 

■ Taxi 

Middlegate 

Before you go to New York, Los Angeles, 
San Francisco, Chicago, and Washington, 
D.C., check out Taxi. It lets you create per- 
sonalized city maps for the above cities, in- 
cluding Zagat Survey reviews and ratings 
of hotels and restaurants. Information 
becomes more important when it's person- 
alized to your needs. 



92 BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 



fc-a-, 




There's only one thing 
about our computer 
that's not in keeping 



with industry standards 



The performance 



Silicon *§p Graphics' 

Computer Systems 



M 



vp-i 









F& 



Indy Modeler. The affordable CAD/CAM/CAE solution. 

There's one computer in the market that runs all major CAD/CAM/CAE software, 
supports network standards like TCP/IP, Netware'" and NFS'" comes standard with 
SoftWindows* and innovative workgroup collaboration software, and gives you 
incredibly powerful 3D modeling performance. 

Indy Modeler'* 

So it's hardly surprising that it won the AIM Benchmark award for best price/ 
performance in its class. 

Indy Modeler runs all major software including Pro/Engineer,'" Pro/ JR.'." AutoCAD® R13, SDRC 
IDEAS Master Modeler." Matra Datavision- Prelude and MicroStation Modeler." 

For copies of the Indy Modeler brochure and video, and the name of your nearest reseller, call 
1-800-636-8184, Dept. D44 0, or visit us on the World Wide Web at http://www.sgi.com/Works 



t* 199S Silicon Graphics. Inc. All rights reserved. Silicon Graphics is a registered trademark, and Indy, Indy Modeler and see what's possible are 
trademarks, of Silicon Graphics. Inc. Netware Is a trademark of Novell. NFS is a trademark of Sun Microsystems. SoftWindows is a trademark of 
Insignia. Pro/Engineer and Pro/JR are trademarks of Parameiric Technology Corporation. AutoCAD is a registered trademark of Autodesk. Inc. IDEAS 
Masrer Modeler is a trademark of SDRC. Microstatlon Modeler is a trademark of Bentley Systems. Inc. Screen image courtesy of Intergraph Corp. 









The New Texas Instruments IVavelMate™ L, 

• 75 MHz Pentium processor • Two Lithium ion battery • 10.4" Active Matrix or 10,5" Dual 

Scan displays • 524 Million bytes (=500MB) or 810 million bytes (= 772MB) Hard Disk Drives* • 8MB RAM, expandable 
to 32MB • 2MB Video memory • Multimedia package: Built-in 16-bil sound, internal speaker & dual mode microphone 



Pentium 

■PROCESS OB 



Introducing 

The First Notebook 

Tb Maximize The Pentium 

Processor's Full Potential. 




PTZ? 




When the rush was on to introduce a notebook with a 
Pentium® processor, Texas Instruments decided to do what 
others thought couldn't be done. 

We created a notebook that maximizes 
Pentium performance by integrating/^// PCI bus architecture 
in our TravelMate 5000. 

And for flexible connectivity, we designed a way to allow 
external access from the PCI bus to the latest peripherals. 

It was a challenge we addressed for two simple reasons: 
to give users true desktop Pentium perior- 



al ~^X) ij 




mance for faster running software and expan- 
sion capabilities for investment protection. 

So now you have a notebook with smoother full-motion 
video and enhanced 3-D graphics. In addition, we designed the 
TravelMate 5000 to take advantage of the "plug and play" capa- 
bilities of Windows 95® when it becomes available. 

But our engineers didn't stop there. 
We added a second lithium ion battery without 
sacrificing size, weight or eliminating a floppy drive. 

In addition, wireless communication with other notebooks 
and desktops is very quick and easy with our integrated 
infrared capabilities. 

The TI TravelMate 5000. For more on what others thought 
you couldn't do with a notebook, call 1-800-TI-TEXAS 
(e-mail: 2ti@msg.ti.com or on the Internet: http://www.ti.com). 

EXTENDING YOUR REACH™ 

yf Texas 
Instruments 



Warranty may vary from country to country. Contact your local Tl office for details. Batteries and options 
are covered by a one year limited warranty. *Depending on model. TravelMate and "Extending Your Reach" 
are trademarks of Texas Instruments. Windows 95 is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. The 
Intel Inside Logo and Pentium are registered trademarks of Intel Corporation. © 1995 Tl. 



Circle 247 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 248). 






Reliable, Scalable Client/Server Communication. 
FirstClass Delivers — Now. 



Cd 



U 




w 

h 



b 



iVot only is Soft Arc's FirstClass 
client/server e-mail and groupware 
product available today — but it's used 
by more than three million people in 
twelve languages worldwide. 

Other electronic mail vendors are still 

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architectures. SoftArc's 

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with group collaboration 

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Finally, even after three million users 
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For more information, or a 
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r Advanced e-mail features, 
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T Mail and conference replication 
among multiple servers for 
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communication networks 

T Messages with multiple fonts, 
styles and colors in personal mail 
and conferences; unlimited file 
attachments in messages 

r Background searching of folders, 
conferences or whole of system 

P Multj'platform support optional — 
without costly network file 
servers or routers 

r Optional gateways to the 

Internet with full newsgroup and 
mail list replication within 
FirstClass conferences 

T Easy remote or local graphical 
administration with the same 
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r Support fordozens of modems 
for remote mail, conference and 
files access 

T Optional command-line access 
f or VT 1 00 text terminal users 

P Training available 



Administer multi-server FirstClass 
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1995 MacLife Japan Grand Prize 

1994 MacUser Best New Communication Product Finalist 

1994 Datateknik Sweden Editor's Choice Networking Software 

1994 MacUser UK Editor's Choice Networking Software 

1 993 MacUser Best New Communication Product 

1993 BYTE Award of Merit 

1993 Macworld Germany E-Mail Product of The Year 



communication. 



Conferencing and 
groupware systems lack 
real e-mail. FirstClass 
offers both ... and more. 



BVTE 



Circle 262 on Inquiry Card, 




SoftArc Inc. 

Global Area Communications 



1 902 Ridge Road, #325, West Seneca. New York. 1 4224 
Phone; 905-4 1 5-7000 Fax: 905-4 15-7151 info@softarc.com 





Companies 



i 




SLIPPERY DISKS 




Plaid Brother! 



1 s " J x w a r c ) 
PLAIDBROTHERS SOFTWARE 



SURFCAM* 



RE INCORPORATED 



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Two Nerds and a Suit 
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High Self-Esteem 
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Natural Competitor 
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Animal Division 

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Gecko Group 
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What's the Concept? 
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Clinton Administration 
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Relax Technology 

Modesty Division 

Functional Software 
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Working Software, Inc. 

New Words Division 

Mathemaesthetics, Inc. 
BehavHeuristics, Inc. 
Pectronics Corp. 

Science and Math 
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3rd Planet Software, Inc. 
Calculus, Inc. 
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Ozymandias Engineering 
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Uncategorizable 
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Gunning Wordnology 



SEPTEMBER 1995 BYTE 97 



PRESENTING THE 

PHOTON™ 
microQUI 

AT THE EMBEDDED SYSTEMS CONFERENCE 
Booth 1433 




The Leading Realtime 

OS for PCs 



*2x 



SAVINGS .v; -fe V V - 



So you've chosen Intel® processors for your 
embedded systems. Smart choice, given the 
great variety of form factors, buses, and software 
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tions equipped with X and TCP/IP You can 
start and stop modules at run time without 
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modular, so you pay for only the OS modules 
used in your target systems. 

Open Embedded Systems qnx is the certified 

POSIX OS that performs like a dedicated real- 
time executive. You get the rich API and tools 
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You'll like the tighter, faster code you get with 
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Not to mention the time you'll 
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Embedded and Distributed Beyond mere connectivity, 
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X applications from a PDA, it's 
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From PC/104 to PCMCIA 



mummh 





QNX runs on several 
buses — PC/104, STD, STD 32, VME — and embedded 
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To find out more about the leading realtime OS for PCs, 
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J Leading in Experience (Realtime os for PCs since 1981) 

1 Leading in innovation (Microkernel distributed OS for PCs since 1984) 
Leading in Market Share (QNX outsells every other realtime OS for PCs) 






QNX Software Systems Ltd., 175 Terence Matthews Crescent, Kanata, Ontario, Canada K2M 1VV8 Voice: 613-591-0931 Fax: 613-591-3579 Email: info@qnx.oom Web: www.qnx.com 
Europe: 17 Bishops Court, Church Road, Bishopstoke, Hampshire, S050 6PL, England Voice: (+44) 1703 611800 Fax: (+44) 1703 641153 Email: QNXeurope@qnx.com 
♦According to a recent report by Emerging Technologies Group, QNX has "the largest realtime operating system marketshare in the Intel© 80X86 marketplace." 
© QNX Software Systems Ltd. 1995. QNX is a registered trademark and Photon is a trademark of QNX Software Systems Ltd. All other trademarks belong to their respective owners. 

Circle 238 on Inquiry Card. 




Which of the 5000 computer 
companies got us where we are 
today? Here are the top 20. 



■ Adobe Systems 

As if inventing and commercializing 
PostScript weren't enough, Adobe also de- 
veloped most of the tools of the desktop 
publishing revolution: Photoshop, 
Illustrator, and, of course, scalable fonts; 
and it acquired Aldus PageMaker, the pro- 
gram that practically defined desktop page 
layout. Adobe's influence in document 
production has grown from the desktop to 
the prepress shop. It has also reached into 
other creative domains: Its Premiere video- 
editing suite could be the training studio 
for the Martin Scorseses of digital cinema. 
John Warnock and Charles Geschke have 
been steering the company through the 
foggy nightscape of electronic documents. 
Whether or not Acrobat will become the 
interchangeable document standard, as 
PostScript did for printing, it has made a 
permanent mark on desktop publishing 
and computer graphics. 

■ Apple Computer 

This might be something to argue about, 
but you could make a good case that Apple 
has had more influence on personal 
computing than any other company. Who 
personifies the industry, the culture of per- 
sonal computing, more than Woz the elec- 
tronics whiz and Jobs the dynamo 
salesman — the engineer and the entrepre- 
neur — hopping with ideas, quitting their 
clay jobs, working in a garage, and selling a 
VW microbus to finance the company? 



The affordable Apple II turned 
thousands of people on to computing. Then 
came the Mac, f oryears the computer that 
Intel-based PCs wanted to be when they 
grew up, with its graphical interface, built- 
in networking, and plug-and-play design. 
As it's done for nearly 20 years — 
something very few clone makers can 
say — Apple continues to influence the state 
of personal computing. 

■ AT&T 

Its attempts to build personal computers 
have never been anything to call home 
about. (Can you remember the PC 6300? 
Did you ever even hear of it?) But AT&T 
has contributed three things of monumental 
importance to computing: Unix, the phone 
system, and the cumulative genius of the 
researchers at Bell Labs. Even those 
tedious "You Will" ads can't overshadow 
these significant accomplishments. 

■ Autodesk 

CAD on a personal computer? You've got 
to be kidding. But John Walker and his 1 2 
programming disciples weren't. When they 
started Autodesk in 1 982, their objective 
was a PC software package that would pro- 
vide 80 percent of the functionality of a 
mainframe CAD system at 20 percent of 
the price. Later that year, they shipped 
AutoCAD. It couldn't do everything a 
mainframe program could, but it was good 
for the kinds of things most designers do. 
Plus, it was affordable — you no longer had 
to be Boeing to have a CAD system. Today, 
with a million copies sold and versions 
across all major platforms, AutoCAD is the 
uncontested champ of desktop CAD. Other 
companies have built better, easier-to-use, 
less expensive CAD programs — but every 



AN ARTIST'S REPRESENTATION DF MICROSOFT 
HEADQUARTERS (IT COULDN'T BE REAL-IT'S NOT RAINING). 




HARVARO UNIVERSITY, MIT, AND THE TASTY: 

ALL CONTRIBUTING PEOPLE AND KNOWLEOGE TO LOTUS. 



SEPTEMBER 1995 BYTE 99 





MostJmpoitant 

EoniDa 



one of them has one thing in common: the 
AutoCAD file format. More than anything, 
that says Autodesk defined PC CAD. 

■ Borland International 

In 1 983, a year of major announcements — 
the XT, NetWare, Windows — one of the 
biggest splashes, a Pascal compiler for 
$49.95, was made by this obscure company. 
Turbo Pascal wasn't just cheap. It was 
fast, and it was good. With one successful 
ad in BYTE, Turbo Pascal launched 
Borland into the stratosphere of micro soft- 
ware companies. More important, it made 
Pascal programming affordable. Borland 
killed the notion that languages and 
programming tools had to be expensive to 
be good. In 1987, with Quattro Pro, they 
did the same for spreadsheets, substantially 
undercutting theprice of Lotus 1-2-3. 
Maybe Borlandshould have concentrated 




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on programming tools — like its recent 
Delphi — instead of getting caught up in 
price warsandLotus lawsuits. Regardless, 
Borland tools have been adopted by a gen- 
eration of developers, and the company's 
impact on software prices has been good 
for users. 

■ Commodore International 

Commodore's role as a personal computing 
pioneer is sadly overshadowed by its busi- 
ness failures. But along with Apple and 
Tandy, it was one of the 1977 Trinity: the 
three companies who brought out ready-to- 
run PCs. The Commodore PET had a built- 
in monitor, a tape drive, and a bargain price 
of $795. Then came the VIC-20, the indus- 
try's first million seller. No wonder; it was 
a color computer that cost less than $300. 
The string of hits continued with the 
Commodore 64. Not only was it possibly 
the biggest seller of all time, it was the first 
with a synthesizer chip. Then, in 1985, 
came the world's first multimedia PC: the 
Amiga, a classic example of a product 
ahead of its time. Besides design 
innovations, Commodore's other big con- 
tribution can be summarized by the slogan 
of its founder, JackTramiel: ''Computers 
for the masses, not the classes." 

■ Compaq Computer 

Houston, Texas, February 1982: Three men 
sit in the House of Pies kicking around a 
product idea. A year later, their newfound 
company would ship the Compaq Portable. 
(They shipped 53,000 of them that year.) 
The computer in the famous sewing 
machine case could run all the software de- 
velopedforthe IBM PC. It became the 
benchmark of PC compatibility. Because of 
its dedication to solid engineering, Compaq 
also became the benchmark of quality. Even 
True Blue shops learned to trust the brand. 
Compaq made it OK to buy a clone. Other 
clones sold for less, but if you bought a 
Compaq, you knew you didn't have to hold 
your breath and cross your fingers every 




Tandy 
introduced its 
TRS-80 Model 
III. 

The U.S. 
Supreme Court 
ruled that the 
public has a 
right to attend 
criminal trials. 



. 



* 



time you fired up Lotus 1 -2-3. Plus, you 
could carry the thing home. (Does that 
mean we should blame Compaq for the ex- 
tension of the workday?) Did those three 
guys in the pie shop know how big their PC 
clone idea would become? 

■ CompuServe 

Much of what we expect on an on-line ser- 
vice, we expect because we saw it on 
CompuServe: forums, vendor support, free 
software, newswires, and E-mail to every- 
where; business and personal services; reli- 
able global communication; and most 
recently, access to the Internet. 
CompuServe turned the switch on-line in 
1979 and now claims more than 2.5 million 
users. For a good portion of the PC public, 
CompuServe is what it thinks of when it 
thinks of going on-line. 

■ Digital Equipment Corp. 

If DEC founder Ken Olsen had had his way, 
the company probably wouldn't be on this 
list. After all, this is the man who said, es- 
sentially, that the destiny of home com- 
puters was in the closet. Despite Olsen's 
antiquarian contrarian attitude, Digital 
made some significant contributions to 
personal computing — especially network- 
ing in academic environments. Once it 
acknowledged the personal computer as a 
business machine, it proceeded whole- 
heartedly to produce superb networking 
equipment; today, it's a leading hub vendor. 
Digital also helped advance Ethernet and 
FDDI, and it developed the spanning tree 
bridging algorithm that many large com- 
panies used to build their enterprise 



lOO BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 



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Circle 272 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 273). 




A Sequoia Company 



Hwte 




networks before multiprotocol routers be- 
gan to adopt other algorithms. 

■ IBM 

Why does everyone make fun of IBM's fail- 
ures? It's the butt of more jokes than 
Rodney Dangerfield's wife. But in 1981, 
the computing giant brought out the IBM 
PC. IBM might as well have called it the 
DFS, for de facto standard. If that doesn't 
earn the company a place in history, then 
consider these inventions: the Winchester 
disk drive, the floppy disk drive, and the 
laser printer. In some ways, you might also 
put Microsoft on IBM's list of inventions. 

■ Intel 

All those millions of x86 chips; the domi- 
nant computing architecture; the Pentium 
franchise. Any questions? 

■ Lotus Development 

People thought it was crazy when upstart 
Lotus announced it was bringing out a 
spreadsheet program. VisiCalc was king. 
But Lotus had a good idea — combining 
worksheet, calculation engine, and graphics 
functions into one product. And Lotus had 
the brilliance to go after the next big thing 
instead of fighting for the current big thing. 
That next big thing was the IBM PC. Lotus 
developed its spreadsheet program for 
IBM's machine, not the Apple 11. Smart 
move. For the next decade, Lotus owned 
the spreadsheet market. Even though com- 
petitors have taken away a big share, those 
competing products all look suspiciously 
like Lotus 1 -2-3. Whetheror not Lotus can 



dominate with its innovative Notes 
software remains to be seen (IBM surely 
thinks so), but its investment in this group- 
ware technology shows traces of the 
foresight that inspired the creation of 
Lotus 1-2-3. 

■ Microsoft 

Once upon a time, these two guys wrote a 
version of BASIC for microcomputers. 
Then they acquired this OS, which they 
renamed MS-DOS. Then they made this 
once-in-a-lifetime deal with IBM. Then 
they sold millions of copies of Windows. 
Then they ruled the world. The End. 

■ Motorola 

Galvin Manufacturing Corp. helped make 
car radios ubiquitous in the 1930s. Forty 
years later, under the name it used to brand 
those mobile radios — Motorola — the com- 
pany helped make semiconductors ubiqui- 
tous. Its 6800 chip inspired the inexpensive 
6502 (developed by ex-Motorola engineers 
who had defected to MOS Technology) that 
Steve Wozniak picked to be the brain of his 
new computer. Later, Motorola's influence 
was more direct: Apple could afford the 
68000 series for the Macintosh. 

■ Novell 

Other companies also came up with 
software to connect personal computers, 
but Novell was smart enough to design an 
open network OS with hooks. It was willing 
to work with other parties to enhance the 
system. While partners were developing 
extra goodies, Novell focused on the core 
OS. It got out of the hardware business and 
concentrated on its sure thing: connectivity 
software. The result is NetWare's position 
as the king of NOSes (network OSes), the 
means by which millions of PCs are 
connected. 

■ Shugart/Seagate 

When Shugart Associates brought out its 
5-MB 5/4-inch hard drive in 1 980, the com- 




pany started something as big as the drive's 
capacity seemed to be: theideathat person- 
al computer users could have their own 
massive storage device, right there, at a rea- 
sonable price. Five megabytes — how could 
you ever fill that much space? Four years 
earlier, Shugart had introduced another 
breakthrough: the 5/4-inch minifloppy for 
$390. The company also originated the con- 
cept that became SCSI; in 1 979, it proposed 
a general-purpose expansion bus called 
Shugart Associates System Interface, which 
eventually became an ANSI standard 
known as SCSI-1. 

Alan Shugart went on to head Seagate, 
today one of the leading makers of hard 
disks. Seagate has continued the Shugart 
tradition of innovations in storage technolo- 
gy. By the end of this year, you' 11 be able to 
buy a 1 -GB drive for $300. This kind of 
low-cost, high-capacity storage is the lega- 
cy of Shugart and his engineering team at 
Shugart Associates. 

■ Sun Microsystems 

Sun set out in 1 982 with an objective that 
the big guys scoffed at: to build powerful, 
affordable, personal workstations for scien- 
tists andengineers. And it was going to 
build them from off-the-shelf parts and use 
a powerful OS with available source code — 
Berkeley Unix. Early on, Sun realized the 
importance of built-in networking. And its 
SPARC architecture is one of the most suc- 
cessful RISC designs in history. Although 
it has seen competition from high-end PCs, 
Sun has responded by steadily pushing 
down the costs of its workstations. It must 
be doing something right. Today, Sun con- 
trols at least a third of the workstation mar- 
ket, and its systems are finding lots of 
work as Internet servers. 

■ Tandy 

Tandy was one of the three companies to 
ship a ready-to-run personal computer in 
1 977 (along with Apple and Commodore). 
The TRS-80 came with a monitor and 



3L02 BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 





Budget-pleasing prices 



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The MaxTech family of products has something for 
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© 1995 MaxTech Corp. All brand names are Lhe properly of their respective holders. 

Circle 278 on Inquiry 



As one of the world's largest OEMs, MaxTech has been 
part of many of the best-selling PC brands for over 17 
years. OEM manufacturers know MaxTech delivers 
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Manufacturer of award winning products since 1978 

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Card (RESELLERS: 279). 



n ^ A 






m& 



6 





Microsoft BASIC, so you could start 
programming right away. Tandy's large 
retail network helped establish personal 
computers as products you could buy any- 
where. All you had to do was walk into one 
of the 3000 Radio Shack stores with $600 in 
hand. Although some of the company's ex- 
ecutives couldn't see it, true believers at 
Tandy knew that computers were most 
powerful when in the hands of individuals. 
TheTRS-80 was one of the seeds that grew 
into the PC industry. The little wonder 
known as the Model 1 00 could be safely de- 
scribed as one of the first laptops. By build- 
ing low-cost machines, and with help from 
its enthusiastic, gospel-spreading users, 
Tandy helped popularize microcomputing. 



■ WordPerfect 

OK, so it doesn't score well on the Vision- 
O-Meter. Four years after Michael Shrayer 
invented Electric Pencil, the first word pro- 
cessor for micros, and a year after Seymour 
Rubinstein came out with WordStar for the 
PC, WordPerfect (then called Satellite 
Software) was working on a word processor 
for Data General machines. When the com- 
pany woke up to the personal computing 
phenomenon, it apparently didn't sleep 
again for years — too busy bringing out new 
versions for multiple platforms and 
grabbing market share in a crowded market. 
WordPerfect grew to be the world's domi- 
nant word processor, with an impressive 
user base estimated at 5 million. 



■ Xerox PARC 

Thisplaceoughtto becalledBrainiac City. 
Xerox's PARC (Palo Alto Research Center) 
has been home to some of the most brilliant 
scientists and idea generators in computing. 
Many products we take for granted today 
started out as concepts in the mind of a 
PARC scientist — e.g., the graphical inter- 
face, networking, the book-size computer, 
bit-mapped displays, and visually oriented 
programming languages. Today, PARC con- 
tinues exploring new ways of using and op- 
erating computers as well as experimenting 
with very-high-resolution screens, environ- 
ments that imitate physical space, and user 
interfaces radically different from the 
PARC-bred point-and-click approach. 



MiNUTBDMUN> 



1-800-238-7272 

Para Systems, Inc. 

1455 LeMay Drive 

Carrollfon, Texas 75007 

214/446-7363 

Fax: 214/446-9011 



Product and company names mentioned herein 

may be trademarks or registered trademarks of 

their respective companies. 






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c^ 



JJMT* Acme Development 
^KlAi Company's marketing 

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as a team to create its first market- 
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each usi)ig Frame Maker's text, 
graphics, layout, formatting, and 
long document features, Ihe end 
result was the best marketing plan 
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$m* Oops! Fido just made a 
»«~W wca ' ol( t of sonic essential 
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Frame Maker can import directly 
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ssing file formats. It even runs 

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CORPORATE 

MANUAL 



ACME 










MAR 

!""*■ Busi>iess was booming, 
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IWJF Acme liit the bigtime 
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becoming Acme 
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tent, I'rameMaker ' s import text 
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was used extensively [or retrieval 
and update of boil e>-pl ate infor- 
mation created in FrameMaker 
or other applications. 



JIM* Suddenly Acme bad 
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V 

^tW Soon Acme had its 

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California garages again store cars and 
junk, not computer research labs as 
they did in the halcyon days of Woz 
and Jobs. Today, the myths may be 
tamer, but the pace of innovation 
hasn't changed. Here are the major 
technologies of the past 20 years. 



■ Microkernel OSes 

Proprietary OSes and closed hardware platforms were 
the reality when the goal was heterogeneous 
computing. Microkernel OSes burst these constraints 
with modern, modular OS cores that helped developers 
build applications faster and port software to a range of 
hosts without taking a performance hit. Programmers 
can build new functions into a system by mixing and 
matching code modules at run time. NextStep 
introduced these ideas to the commercial world with 
its Mach-kernel variation, which controlled memory 
and process management as well as interprocess com- 
munications. Carnegie Mellon University's Mach 3.0 
now provides the underpinnings for IBM, the OSF, and 
Taligent's OS development. Microsoft's NT also 
borrows from the microkernel approach for smoother 
porting to Intel, Mips, and Alpha-based systems. 
Similarly, Apple's upcoming Copland release coalesces 
around a compact microkernel. 

■ Structured Query Language (SQL) 

How can telemarketers be sure they'll find your num- 
ber the minute the dinner hour strikes? SQL is one 
essential tool, thanks to its ability to handle sets of 
data. SQL provided a way for interacting with relation- 
al databases, and it works with standard programming 
languages. For years, the burden for database manage- 



ment fell on individual users, until 1969, when E. F. 
Codd, then at IBM, developed his relational theory 
of data, which addressed data structure, integrity, and 
manipulation. However, it wasn't until the mid-1 970s 
that elements of his theories gained industry 
acceptance via SQL in Oracle and DB2. 

■ Ethernet 

We were so busy joking about when the Year of the 
LAN would finally come that we didn't realize when it 
had already happened. The key? Fast, easy-to-install 
Ethernet networks. Ethernet was visionary because it 
defined a network capable of 1 0-Mbps data rates 
before we needed that speed. Defined by Dr. Robert 
Metcalfe at Xerox PARC (Palo Alto Research Center), 
it took the combined efforts of Xerox, DEC, and Intel 
to turn Ethernet into a commercially viable standard. 
The version 1.0 specification arrived in September 
1 980. Two years later, version 2.0 addressed problems 
related to large networks, reliability, cost, and otheris- 
sues. Changestothespecification included electrical 
signaling, cable types, connectors, packet formats, 
CSMA/CD and back-off algorithms, CRC (cyclic- 
redundancy check) calculation, and system timing. 





PEOPLE CAN'T MEMORIZE 
COMPUTER INDUSTRY 
ACRONYMS. 



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YOUCANBENO IT, SPINDLE IT, AND EVEN MUTILATE ITBY APPLYING RULES 
ANDTRIGGERS. IT'S E-MAIL, THE EPISTOLARY TOOL FOR THE 1990S. 



SEPTEMBER 1995 BYXK 109 




■a 



List #.10.. 



Predictions for the Year 2DDD 



On the "Killer App" 

"A 'killer app' that takes over all of computerdom no 
longer exists, because computerdom is so big that 
even a large thing like the Web is still such a small 
piece. ..I think a killer application [today] is usually 
defined as something that takes a new configuration of 
hardware and makes it viable." 

—Dan Bricklin, VisiCalc inventor 

On Mobile Computing 

"Mobile wireless computers are like mobile pipeless 
bathrooms— portapotties. They will be common on 
vehicles, construction sites, and rockconcerts. My 
advice is to wire up yourhome and stay there. Use in- 
formation highways to let you stay home with your 
kids, not to make you more of a road warrior." 

— Bob Metcalfe, inventor of Ethernet 

On Programming 

"I've never been too good at predicting the future, but 
I can tell you what I wish wouldhappen. I want soft- 
ware tools to become more literate and readable by 
peopleotherthan the programmer.. .1 hope there will 
be a Pulitzer prize for the best writing of a computer 
program . . There may be new tools to help nonprofes- 
sional programmers write programs, but programming 
is never going to be simple." 

—Donald Knuth, TeX inventor 

On Voice Recognition 

"I believe that voice recognition will become more 
important in the future but only for trivial functions. 
TheproblemisthatspokenEnglish isterribly impre- 
cise, even when used by experts. ..I cannot imagine a 
more efficient interface for complicated tasks than a 
combination of mouse pointing and a standard 
keyboard." —Thomas Kurtz, BASIC inventor 

On Wishful Thinking 

Q: If you could get in the time machine and go back 
and change one thing that's happened in the history of 
computing, what would it be? A: "I would have writ- 
ten a BASIC interpreter for the first PCs." 

— Bob Metcalfe, inventor of Ethernet 



On PDAs 

In five years, PDAs will become a useful product be- 
cause of the rapid increase in processing power, their 
ability to handle cross-platform data, and the commu- 
nications infrastructure that will be in place. 

— David Nagel, Apple 

On "Intelligent Agents" 

"The computer as intelligent agent is not in our future; 
we haven't even achieved a Congress of intelligent 
agents after 200 years of trying. Instead, the computer 
for the twenty-first century will be the computer that 
stays out of your way, gets out of your desktop and 
into your clothing, connects you with people instead 
of with itself." 

—Mark Weiser, Xerox PARC 

On Computer Interfaces 

"The new things will be highly related to communica- 
tion. ..Anthropomorphic-type appearances on-screen 
that are appealing, engaging." 

—Bill Gates, Microsoft 

"We'll continue to see some ill-fated attempts, like 
Microsoft's Bob and the Japanese Friend 2000 project, 
to animate the computer." 

—Mark Weiser, Xerox PARC 

"The PC operating systems are not going to be innova- 
tive ground for user interfaces. If you look at a lot of 
the CD-ROM products, they don't use the PC's user 
interface, they just make up their own. So maybe 
that's going to be some of the ground for the 
advances." — Steven Jobs, Next 

On Schools 

"I think we are going to expand a lot beginning with 
the schools thataremore up on things, more the 
leaders. The keyboarding classes are going to 
[become . . .] classes that really teach about the guts of 
the computer... I think [we'll see] topics in schools 
teaching... how to use it... [and] how to get from one 
place to another." 

—Steve Wozniak, inventor, lots of stuff 




Ethernetdefined physical media and 
connections as well as how data, described 
as frames, is transferred across a LAN. 
(Very slight differences in how frames are 
defined separate the official IEEE 802.3 
specification from the de facto Ethernet 
standard.) 

■ Client/Server Networks 

It's the tie that binds our desktop computers 
to the processing power, data, and resources 
of entire organizations. The architecture is 
the foundation for keeping a business 
running even if one component crashes. 
Client/server computing is also the means 
for technical democratization: We can 
choose the hardware and software that's 
best for us ratherthan declaring allegiances 
to a particular vendor. Without it, the 
mobile workers would remain a step behind 
office-bound comrades in having access 
to company resources; collaborative work- 
groups would still be defined by 
geographical proximity. 

■ DSPs 

What makes an application really sing? 
Lurking somewhere under thecovers of 
audio, video, voice, and other multimedia 
applications are DSPs (digital signal 
processors). Modern versions of this vener- 
able technology benefit from new chips and 
multitasking software that let DSPs simul- 
taneously handle two or more processes. 



HO BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 



WHERE DO YOU 



WANT TO GO 



TO DAY 7 



Good question 

Microsoft. 




C^- 



Evolving standards will make DSP ap- 
plication development easier, while gener- 
al-purpose OSes, including Windows 95, 
are expected to include DSP programming 
interfaces, which couldpush DSPs further 
into traditional markets. In the future, 
digital hard drives will likely rely on DSP- 
powered drive controllers to process 
signals from the disk. 

■ Floppy Disks 

Like the proverbial 2-cent bolt that can 
ground a 767, how could we have worked 
without the lowly floppy disk? It has given 
us an inexpensive way to distribute applica- 
tions and data. Floppies also gave uncon- 



Faster 
Faster 

ETHERNET, 
DISK DRIVES. 
MICROPROCESSORS. 

RAPID APPLICATION 
DEVELOPMENT 



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Lotus Devetopmsn) Coip/s metamorphosis in the 1990s has been driven bylhree tore 
phenomena - growth byacquisiton. independent but cnordinaiedpiodiictlines and e 
dntamnned focus A wondsr of the ea/ry 1980s, its attempts to expand beyond a 
one-pro dud identify in (he lata 19flSsganera)iy failed By 1991. mp."iy outsiders, looking 
at Lohis'lnobiliyio elfectK.«ymove ontoWndows. consideredwtitSng Ihe company oB 
es a long-term pleyer. is stock bottoming b< 
snoe did LoUji take that led to ite ib 



The mind of the corporation, the soul 
reengineering: Groupware. 



of 



nected workgroups "sneakernets," 
inelegant but essential hacks in the pre- 
networked world. The Internet, WANs, and 
CD-ROMs may be cutting into the floppy's 
territory. And the world probably already 
has enough floppies in circulation — we just 
need to reformat all thedisks stashed in 
desk drawers and file cabinets. But before 
you think floppies are obsolete, break the 
shrinkwrap on Microsoft's Office Pro- 
fessional 4.3: The collection of programs 
is still available on 31 disks. 

■ Software Components 

How do you implement custom applications 
quickly and not bust your operations 
budget? Plug in a component — those 
reusable, binary software objects that 
extend OSes by addressing specific needs. 
For Windows and the Mac, there are already 
OCXes (OLE controls); and components 
are also reshaping the various implementa- 
tions of Unix and OS/2. 

■ The Mouse 

Like God and Man touching fingertips in 
Michelangelo's Creation, n o other periph- 
eral has done more to symbolically link 
computers with our humanness. Forget 
touch-typing or even hunt and peck; the 
mouse provided a way for computers to 
become accessible for millions of people. 
The original design dates back to the 
Stanford Research Institute and Douglas 
Engelbart's 1963 wooden prototype. In 
1 982, Mouse Systems introduced the first 
commercial mouse (a three-button design) 
for the IBM PC. The Apple mouse, 
originally for the Lisa, and Microsoft's 
mouse, with two buttons, came a year later. 
Today, the basic structure of interacting 
with our computers, whether Macintosh, 
Windows, or Unix, hinges on the mechani- 
cal or optical strains of this peripheral. 

■ GUIs 

The second component in humanizing how 
we interact with computers, modern GUIs 



U 

\Er\RS 

S5S 




A new Seiko 
wristwatch 
computer lets 
you enter data 
with a separate 
Hershey bar-size 
keyboard. 

An unemployed 
security guard kills 
20 people at a 

McDonald's in 

San Ysidro. 

California. 



^«&>:zz&*~ 



trace their roots to PARC (Palo Alto 
Research Center) research and the Xerox 
Star. GUI features introduced successfully 
in 1984 with Apple's Macintosh (e.g., win- 
dows, point-and-shoot menus, program and 
file icons, dialog boxes, and other now-fa- 
miliar elements) let us manage our electron- 
ic desktops to suit our individual desires. 

■ Hard Drives 

The peripheral that taught us that too much 
is never enough. The fixed disk drive 
became a staple of microcomputers, thanks 
to its fast data access and transfer speeds. 
The technology never stood still. We're 
now getting gigabytes of storage space in 
petite form factors. In recent years, hard 
drives have increased data densities at an 
annual rate of about 60 percent. Magneto- 
resistive heads are leading the next charge 
by providing greater areal density than thin 
film or ferrite-inductive heads. Lower seek 
times, caching optimizations, and higher 
spin rates push performance even more. In 
the future, the digital read channel may 
double the amount of information we can 
jam onto drive platters. 

■ Laser Printers 

These fast, trusty machines have done 
more to impede the paperless office than 
any other peripheral. Once laser beams 
began to transfer images into toner on a 



112 BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 



Butwhat about tomorrow? 



Ask Windows users where they want to go today, and 
their answer is likely to be this: Windows 95. It is, after all, a 
~^ major advance in the state of Windows 
--^4, computing. And it does, finally, 
bring some of the innovations 
pioneered by Apple in 1984 to 
the PC desktop of 1995. 



PC by 63% on average. When running scientific 




While other PC manufacturers are still 
struggling to get CDs to load Macintosh 
users can create their own multimedia, 
work in 3-D, surf the Internet and see 
what's real about virtual reality. Today. 



That's great, today. But 
where, one has to ask, is 
desktop computing going 
tomorrow? And is moving 
to Windows 95 really the right way to get there? 

The future of computing. 

In a word, it's multimedia. Microsoft and Intel say it's 
the future. So do we. The difference is, we deliver that future 
today. To see what we mean, simply turn a Power Mac ,u on. 
When you do, you can not only get down to work (or play) 
with the CD-ROM of your choice, you can also start using 3-D 
graphics. You can talk to your Mac!" And have it recognize 
your command. You can videoconference across continents. 
You can even dive into virtual reality." All at the touch of a 
few keys and the click of a mouse. ter ■■» 

Thepowertodoit. 

To do all this, you need power. 
And the best way to get it is with a 
PowerMac. In recent tests, for 
example, the RrSC-based Power 
Macintosh'" 9500 outperformed a 




'.; 



Because Power Mac computers 
are based on the blistering fast 
PowerPC RISC chip, they have 
power to spare for tomorrow's 
advanced applications like inter- 
120 MHz Pentilim-prOCeSSOr-based active media and virtual reality. 




and technical apps, the performance advantage J 
jumped to 80%. And for graphics, the 

Power Mac was more than twice as fast!* Eleven years after it was 

first introduced, Macintosh 
is still the only personal 

The easiest way to get there, computer hi the wrid 

designed from tte start as 

a seamless integration of 
Q COUl'Se, all the raw power in the hardware and software. 

world is worthless if you can't use it. That's why every new Mac 
includes an innovative help system that doesn't just answer 
your questions, but shows you what to do, where to click and 
what to type to get things done. And why we make it so easy 
to create Internet connections, install new software and set 
up entire new networks from scratch. 

More choices than ever. 

Tbday, every new Macintosh" can 
read and write DOS and Windows disks. 
But our compatibility goes further than 
tei^jiMSKiDM that. The Power Macintosh 6100/66 

DOS Compatible includes 

both a 66 MHz 486 chip and j^r\o n 4.-M c i 

a Rise-based PowerPC chip, DOS Compatible, for example, runs 

making if the most compat- 
ible computer you can find, thousands or DOS and Windows appli- 
cations, in addition to thousands of programs for Macintosh. 
And our new Power Mac systems accept standard PCI cards. 

In the future, Apple innovations will further break down 
the barriers between cross-platform collaboration. Distinc- 
tions between the platforms themselves will diminish. Even 
the boundaries between applications will blur. 

All of which will add up, once again, to the most important 
kind of power of all. The power to be your best" 

To learn more about Macintosh power today, and tomor- 
row, visit us on the Internet today at http://www.apple.com. 




t < li u, ii ' » l Rji i ' > t ,!> I n, I I II, ,n l> ' 'I t i i\'\trjt I nrhl' , i ' ' ' s i \ ) t i i h ,f '; ; \" t \i t t I l , 

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tbenfmm. "Where dn \ on wan! to go Unlay'" is a trademark of 'Micro*,]} G>r:><>ritt:tm. . !.'/ Muc;tit,sb Computer.-, are designed k, lh ticce.^ibte to md;: iduaU u sib disability. 











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piece of paper, it became hard to resist 




A survey reveals the alphabetic combinations BYTE readers 
dread most. By far the most disliked is PCMCIA. 


producing hard-copy documents with as 
many fonts as wecouldlay our hands on. 
During the 1 980s, high prices helped sup- 
press our paper urge: 300-dpi laser printers 












sold for $3000 and up, while 600-dpi lasers 




ATM 


Give up? File and Print 


RISC 


VESA 


started at $ 1 8,000 before going out of sight. 




Best guess: High- 


Service for NetWare 


Best guess: Would 


Best guess: Credit 


Even so, the printers helpedfuel new ap- 




speed communications 




they name a car The 


card; traveling papers 


plications like desktop publishing. Now, 




technology, Adobe Type 


FTP 


Liability? 


Give up? Video 


300 dpi is under $1000. 




Manager, or cash dis- 


Best guess: Gasoline 


Give up? Reduced- 


Electronics Standards 






penser 


additive 


instruction-set computer 


Association 


■ LCDs 




Give up? Asynchronous 


Give up? File transfer 






The feather weight, sleekness, and low 




transfer mode 


protocol 


SCSI 


WAIS 


power consumption of LCDs made mobile 








Best guess: The next 


Best guess: 


computing practical. As the technology 




BLOB 


ISV 


big thing after grunge 


Pronounced "ways"? 


advanced from the netherworld look of 




Best guess: Cheesy 


Best guess: Medical 


Give up? Small com- 


"way-is"? "wah-is"? 


passive matrix to dual-scan and large-pro- 




sci-fi monster 


tubing 


puter system interface 


Give up? Wide Area 


duction-run active-matrix, we were able to 




Give up? Binary large 


Give up? Independent 




Information Servers 


travel with the same GUI-based applica- 




objects 


software vendor 


SOHO 




tions we enjoyed on our desktop instead of 








Best guess: Favorite 


WYSIWYG 


packing stripped-down applications. 




CORBA 


MIME 


spot of werewolves of 


Best guess: Harpo 






Best guess: Rikki 


Best guess: Street 


London 


Marx's hairpiece 


■ Software Agents 




Tikki Tavi's serpentine 


performer-induced desire 


Give up? Small 


Give up? What you see 


Finding data, organizing our schedules, 




nemesis, spelled sideways 


to flee 


office/home office 


is what you get 


teaching us to use new software applica- 




Give up? Common 


Give up? Multipurpose 






tions, planning our vacations — software 




Object Request Broker 


Internet Mail Extensions 


SQL 




agents deliver what we've always wanted: 




Architecture 


OOBE 


Best guess: 

Hollywood technique for 








CSMA/CD 


Best guess: Fearthat 


capitalizing on success 


lAffipfi'f' LJ n i 


rinnt 1 iTTfi it n f\ vn 






Best guess: 

Befuddlement 


speaker is about to break 
into old Roy Orbison 


Give up? Structured 
Query Language 


WOrSl H6| 


pen uiTenoers 














Give up? Carrier-sense 


novelty tune (i.e., "Oobie 




"The acronyms in most CS, IT, and MIS want ads. 1 have a mas- 






multiple access/collision 


Doobie") 


TCP/IP 


ter's degree in CS an 


d still can't read these ads." 






detection 


Give up? Out-of-box 
experience 


Best guess: Oh you 

do, do you? 




— software engineer in Bozeman, MT 






FAT 




Give up? Transmission 


The telecomm and nc 


^working folks, who've given us such 






Best guess: Never 


PCMCIA 


Control Protocol/Internet 


doozies as DFWMAC (distributed foundation wireless media 






mind the cheesecake 


Best guess: People 


Protocol 


access control), MESI (modified, exclusive, shared, invalid), and 






Give up? File alloca- 


Can't Memorize Computer 




USART (universal synchronous/asynchronous receiver/transmitter) 






tion table 


Industry Acronyms 


TWAIN 












Give up? Personal 


Best guess: Great 


Performance indicate 


>rs, like SPECint92 






FPSNW 


Computer Memory Card 


American writer; things 










Best guess: 


International Association, 


that shall never meet 


World Wide Web addi 


•esses— 






Notorious savings & loan 


recently reduced to PC 


Give up? Toolkit with- 


http://www.etc.etc.et 


c./better.not.make.a.typo 






that went bankrupt 


Card 


out an important name 
















The Really Stretching It Award goes to VERONICA (very easy 












rodent-oriented netwide index to computerized archives) 















114 BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 




t At last. Connectivity without the cord.] 



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IMD 



* * ) 




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an electronic guardian angel. These small 
but smart programs travel into the world to 
interact, extract information, or deliver data 
and messages to other systems. The 
promise is to get work done or to react to 
fast changes in our business lives while 
we're off doing other things. However, se- 
curity fears of these "good" viruses need 
resolution by the Safe-TCL (First Virtual 
Holdings) and Telescript (General Magic) 
developers of the world. 

■ E-Mail 

Jimmy Stewart in The Philadelphia Story 
called alcohol ''the great leveler." The same 
could be said about E-mail. E-mail has be- 
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cation: It's given our ideas a forum for be- 
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The Postal Service may go out of business. 

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Work smarter. Collaborate. Meld the right 
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Lotus Notes has been carrying this mantle 
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helps us move the information throughout 




organizations and provides a way for us to 
find it and pass it around quickly. 

■ CD-ROMs 

Turns out that the sum total of our business 
and cultural knowledge can be served up 
quite handily in 600-MB chunks. CD- 
ROMs have made video, audio, and text 
more accessible by letting us search for and 
randomly access information quickly and 
accurately. They have also become the 
medium of choice for companies needing 
to distribute proprietary information as well 
as service and training manuals. 

■ PC Card (PCMCIA) 

This technology survives in spite of itself. 
PC Card turns portables into customizable 
computing platforms that quickly connect 
to LANs, send and receive data files and 
faxes, and store information sensitive 
enough to require nighttime lock up. 
Developed by Neil Chandra for the Poquet 
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much more than its original job as a mem- 
ory card. However, diversity begat conflicts 
among cards, hardware platforms, OSes, 
applications, and driver software. Card and 
Socket Services has helped smooth out in- 
compatibilities, and the latest incarnations 
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path, bus mastering, and 3. 3-V operation. 

■ Visual Programming 

Visual programming levels the elite and ar- 
cane aspects of programming to give tools 
for applications development, prototyping, 
and solving particular problems to a broader 
audience. HyperCard popularized the notion 
of visual prototyping and laid the ground- 
work for Visual Basic and Visual C++. 
Digilalk's Parts. PowerSoft's PowerBuilder, 
Oracle's PowerObjects, and Meta Software's 
Design/CPN are other descendants. 

■ Parallel Processing 

With the capability to perform a variety of 
operations simultaneously, parallel 





WHERE WILL THE INNOVATIONS STOP? NEXT COMPUTER 
NOT ONLY MADE UNIX PALATABLE. IT BUILT A UNIX BASED ( 
THE MACH MICROKERNEL ARCHITECTURE. TOO BAD IT 
DIDN'TSELL. 



processing gives new punch to database 
servers and the evolving computational 
servers. Shared-memory machines pool 
memory resources so that each CPU dips 
from the same pool. This limits scalability, 
but systems built on this model can run 
software intended for single-processor 
PCs. They also use standard CPUs and 
OSes like NT and Unix. Message-passing 
systems retain private memory reserves and 
form the basis for massively parallel 
supercomputers. The result: superhigh per- 
formance for pennies. 

■ Caching 

New generations of CPUs grab the head- 
lines, but MIPS alone won't make our 
applications run faster. By maximizing 
throughput from the CPU to system mem- 
ory, memory caching helps memory chips 
keep pace with the needs of processors. 
Similarly, disk caching circumvents road- 
blocks between the CPU and slovenly hard 
and floppy drives by using a portion of 
system memory, in case chunks of data 
needed in the recent past are needed 
again. Slower CD-ROMs accrue similar 
performance benefits. Today, many types 
of CPUs have their own internal cache to 
squirrel away information important to 
the processor. 



U6 15 Y r 



SEPTEMBER 1995 




Find the manual, find the other manual, 

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Tired of waiting and waiting for your new PC? Wait no more. With our special Computers Now!® program many of our 
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It's As Easy As: 

O Choose the ZEOS system package you want. 
(A sampling of what's available is shown.) 

fZ\ For same da y shi PP in g. cal1 ZE0S at 800-554-5226 
▼"J r before 1 p.m. Central Time, Monday-Friday 

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Pantera™ 

486DX2-66 

$1695 

Pentium™ 
Processor 





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To order your high-performance PC, 
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Pentium 

■processor 



mtel 



injMjJ 




75 MHz 
$1945 




Pantera™ 
Pentium™ 
Processors 



jajQ 



tm 75 MHz 

■ $1995 
■& 90 MHz 
& $2095 




Pantera™ 
Pentium™ 
Processor 

75 MHz 
$2145 



Package #2: 



> 8MB RAM (Pentium processor includes EDO RAM) 

> 850MB local bus EIDE hard drive 

> 4X CD-ROM drive, 3.5" 1.44MB floppy drive 

> Diamond Stealth 64 PCI local bus graphics card with 
1MB DRAM 

> 15 "SVGA color monitor 
>6-bay desktop case 

> MS-DOS 6.2, Window's for Workgroups, Microsoft Mouse 

> MS Works Multimedia CD 



Discovery™ MM: 



> 8MB EDO RAM 

> 528MB local bus EIDE hard drive 

> 4X CD-ROM drive, 3-5" 1.44MB floppy drive 

> Sound Blaster 16® stereo sound card and speakers 

> 14,400 bps send/receive fax modem 

> Diamond Stealth 64 PCI local bus graphics card with 
1MB DRAM 

> 15 "SVGA color monitor 
>6-bay desktop case 

> MS-DOS 6.2, Windows for Workgroups, Microsoft Mouse 

> MS Works Multimedia CD 



Top Gun: 



> 8MB EDO RAM, 256K synchronous SRAM cache 

> 850MB local bus EIDE hard drive 

> 4X CD-ROM drive, 3.5" 1.44MB floppy drive 

> 14,400 bps send/receive fax modem 

> Diamond Stealth 64 Video PCJ local bus graphics card 
with 2MB VRAM 

> 15" SVGA color monitor 

> 6-bay desktop case 

> MS-DOS 6.2, Windows for Workgroups, Microsoft Mouse 

> MS Works Multimedia CD 



♦Orders must be for Computers Nov/! configurations; we've listed just a sampling here. Since we continuously update this list of configurations, please call to confirm your system is on the list. This oiler is gotdonly us long as these pre-built systems remain in stock. Monitor upgrades 
available as long as monitors remain in stock. Other ZEOS systems and configurations take slightly longer-aboul a week. Credit cards are subject to authorization. Orders must be received by 1 p.m. Central Time, M-F. 

Purchase orders are subject to approval. Business leasing programs available. All prices, specifications and availability are subject to ch;mgc withoulnotice; call to confirm these and warranty details. Prices do not include shipping. All producis and company names are trademarks or registered 
trademarks of their respective holders. Windows is a registered trademark of Miciosof ( Corporation in the U.S. and other countries. ZEOS is a registered trademark; Computers Now! is a registered servicemark; Z-Card is a servicemark: Ambra. Pantera and Meridian trademarks oi Micron Electronics. 
Inc. © 1995 MEL ZEOS, 1301 Industrial Blvd., Minneapolis, MN 55413 USA. Micron Electronics, Inc. is a publicly traded company (NASDAQ symbol: ML'KI). NOW2-BYT-95I9 







Pantera™ 

486DX2-66 

$2095 

Pentium™ 
Processor 
75 MHz 
$2345 
90 MHz 
$2445 



Package #3; 



► 16MB RAM (Pentium processor includes EDO RAM) 

► I GB local bus EIDE hard drive 

► 4X CD-ROM drive, 3-5" 1.44MB floppy drive 

► Diamond Stealth 64 PCI local bus graphics card with 
1MB DRAM 

► 15" SVGA color monitor 

► 6-bay desktop case 

► MS-DOS 6.2, Windows for Workgroups, Microsoft Mouse 

► MS Office Pro and Bookshelf CD 



SSS? ■■ Pantera™ 

IffSI Pentium™ 

Processor 

75 MHz 

$2945 

100MHz 

$3195 

133 MHz 

$3545 



Best MM: 



► 16MB EDO RAM, 256K synchronous SRAM cache 

► 850MB local bus EIDE hard drive 

► 4X CD-ROM drive, 3.5" 1.44MB floppy drive 

► Sound Blaster 16* stereo sound card and speakers 

► Diamond Stealth 64 Video PCI local bus graphics card 
with 2MB VRAM 

► 17 " SVGA color monitor 

► 10-bay vertical case 

► MS-DOS 6.2, Windows for Workgroups, Microsoft Mouse 

► MS Office Pro and Bookshelf CD 





WINDOWS" 



Meridian 
DX4-100 
$2795 



400C 



Package #3: 



► 8MB RAM 

► 350MB IDE hard drive 

► External 15" 1.44MB floppy drive 

► 14.4 PCMCIA fax/modem 

► 79 "dual-scan color VGA display 

► Custom leather carrying case 

► Extra battery 

► MS-DOS 6.2, Windows for Workgroups 

► MS Works 

► 7.8"xl0.2"xl.7";3.9lbs. 

For active matrix display, add $700 



EDITORS' 
CHOICE 




ft Pantera™ 

f I Pentium™ 
"* Processor 



90 MHz 
$2745 
100 MHz 
$2895 
120 MHz 
$3095 




Hottest: 



► 16MB EDO RAM, 256K synchronous SRAM cache 

► 1GB local bus EIDE hard drive 

► 4X CD-ROM drive, 3-5" 1.44MB floppy drive 

► Diamond Stealth 64 Video PCI local bus graphics card 
with 2MB VRAM 

► 15 " SVGA color monitor 

► 10-bay vertical case (90 MHz, 100 MHz & 120 MHz) 

► MS-DOS 6.2, Windows forWorkgroups, Microsoft Mouse 

► MS Office Pro and Bookshelf CD 




Pantera™ 
Pentium™ 
Processor 

100 MHz 
$3745 
120 MHz 
$3945 
133 MHz 
$4095 



Best MM Supreme: 



► 24MB EDO RAM, 256K synchronous SRAM cache 

► 1.2GB local bus EIDE hard drive 

► 4X CD-ROM drive, 3-5" 1.44MB floppy drive 

► Sound Blaster 16® stereo sound card, high-power 
speakers w/ subwoofer 

► Diamond Stealth 64 Video PCI local bus graphics card 
with 2MB VRAM 

► 17 "SVGA color monitor 

► 10-bay vertical case 

► MS-DOS 6.2, Windows for Workgroups, Microsoft Mouse 

► MS Office Pro and Bookshelf CD 




ENDOWS 



Meridian 
DX4-100 
$2995 



800C 



Package #3: 



► 8MB RAM 

► 528MB IDE hard drive 

► Internal 3.5" 1.44MB floppy drive 

► 14.4 PCMCIA fax/modem 

► 10.3" dual-scan color VGA display 

► Custom nylon carrying case 

► Extra battery 

► MS-DOS 6.2, Windows for Workgroups 

► MS Works 

► 8.9"xll.7"xl.9";6.3lbs. 

For active matrix display, add $800 



Pantera™ 
Pentium™ 
Processor 

75 MHz 
$2595 
90 MHz 
$2695 
100 MHz 
$2845 



Discovery Plus: 



► 16MB EDO RAM, 256K synchronous SRAM cache 

► 850MB local bus EIDE hard drive 

► 4X CD-ROM drive, 3-5" 1.44MB floppy drive 

► Sound Blaster 16® stereo sound card, high-power 
speakers w/subwoofer 

► 14,400 bps send/receive fax modem 

► Diamond Stealth 64 PCI local bus graphics card with 
1MB DRAM 

► 15 "SVGA color monitor 

► 6-bay desktop case 

► MS-DOS 6.2, Windows forWorkgroups, Microsoft Mouse 

► MS Office Pro and Bookshelf CD 



Ambra™ 

486DX2-66 

$1345 



Package #2: 



► 8MB RAM, 256K SRAM cache 

► 528MB hard drive 

► 3-5" 1.44MB floppy drive 

► On-board VESA local bus video 

► l4"SVGA color monitor 

► 4-bay desktop case 

► MS-DOS 6.2, Windows forWorkgroups, Microsoft Mouse 

► MS Works 




Meridian™ 850C 

Pentium™ 

Processor 

75 MHz 
$4195 



Package #3: 



► 16MB RAM, 256K synchronous SRAM cache 

► 1.3GB IDE hard drive 

► Internal 3.5" 1.44MB floppy drive 

► Integrated l6-bit stereo sound 

► External amplified speakers 

► 10.3" dual-scan color 800 x 600 SVGA display 

► Custom nylon carrying case 

► Extra battery 

► MS-DOS 6.2, Windows forWorkgroups 

► MS Office Pro 

► 8.9"xll.7"x2.1";6.8lbs. 

For active matrix display, add $800 



Fax Orders: 800-362-1205 or 6)2-362-1205. Phone Orders: Outside U.S. and Canada: 612-362-1212, 
Government: 800-245-2449, ZEOS Information Systems, Inc. GSA #GS00K94AGS5176. Purchase 
Orders, MasterCard, VISA, Am Ex, Discover, Z-Card, COD and leasing programs. 



800-554-5226 

24 Hours a Day • 365 Days a Year 



ZEOS 



Circle 255 on Inquiry Card. 






WARNING 

Most people who try 

System Architect Free For 30 Days, 

Buy it! 



"System Architect from Popkin 
Software is evolving at a phenom- 
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July 1994 




SA gives you all the benefits 
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If you're looking for a client/server 
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HI SYSTEM 
lH ARCHITECT 

Popkin Software & Systems, Inc. 
1 1 Park Place, New York, NY 10007 

Real Tools For The Real World. 




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Circle 237 ©1995 Popkin Software & Systems, Inc. The Sysrem Architect logo is a trademark of Popkin Software & Systems, Inc. 

OR Inquiry C3rd. All other brand and product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders. 


















: '' : -:'/1: ' '■' V'. 


nr.v n 






We've come a long way from computers 
programmed with wires and punch cards. 
Maybe not as far as some would like, though. 
Here are the innovations in programming. 



ca. 1946 

Konrad Zuse, a 

German engineer 
working alone while 
hiding out in the 
Bavarian Alps, devel- 
ops Plankalktil. He 
applies the language to, 
among other things, 
chess. 



1949 



Short Code, the first 

computer language ac- 
tually used on an elec- 
tronic computing 
device, appears. It is, 
however, a "hand-com- 
piled" language. 



1951 



Grace Hopper, work- 
ing for Remington 
Rand, begins design 
work on the first widely 
known compiler, named 
A-0. When the language 
is released by Rand in 
1957, it is called 
MATH-MATIC. 



1952 



Alick E. Glennie, in his 

spare time at the 
University of 
Manchester, devises a 
programming system 
called AUTOCODE, a 
rudimentary compiler. 



1957 



FORTRAN— mathe- 
matical FORmula 
TRANslating system — 
appears. Heading the 
team is John Backus, 
who goes on to 
contribute to the 
development of 
ALGOL and the well- 
known syntax-specifi- 
cation system known 
asBNF. 



1958 



FORTRAN II appears, 
able to handle subrou- 
tines and links to 
assembly language. 
John McCarthy at 
M.I.T. begins work 
on LISP— LISl 
Processing. 
The original speci- 
fication for ALGOL 
appears. The specifica- 
tion does not describe 
how data will be input 
or output; that is left to 
the individual 
implementations. 



1959 



LISP 1.5 appears. 
COBOL is created by 
the Conference on 
Data Systems and 
Languages 
(CODASYL). 



1960 



ALGOL60, the first 

block-structured 
language, appears. This 
is the root of the family 
tree that will ultimately 
produce the likes of 
Pascal. ALGOL goes on 
to become the most 
popular language in 
Europe in the mid- to 
late- 1 960s. 

Sometime in the early 
1960s, Kenneth Ivcrson 
begins work on the lan- 
guage that will become 
A PL — A Programming 
Language. It uses a spe- 
cialized character set 
that, forpropcr use. re- 
quires APL-compatible 
I/O devices. 



1962 



APL is documented in 
Ivcrson's book. A Pro- 
gramming Language. 
FORTRAN IV 
appears. 

Work begins on the 
sure-fire winner of the 
"clever acronym" 
award. SNOBOL— 
SlriNg-Oriented sym- 
BOlic Language. It will 
spawn other clever 
acronyms: FASBOL. a 
SNOBOL compiler (in 
l97l).andSP!TBOL— 
SPccdy Implemen- 



Tation of snoBOL— 
also in 1971. 



1963 



ALGOL60isrcvised. 
Work begins on PL/1. 



1964 



APL\360 is imple- 
mented. 
At Dartmouth 
University, professors 
John G. Kcmeny and 
Thomas E. Kurtz invent 
BASIC. The first imple- 
mentation is a compiler. 
The first BASIC 
program runs at about 
4:00 a.m. on May 1, 
1964. 
PL/1 is released. 



1965 



SNOBOL3 appears, 



1966 



FORTRAN 66 appears. 
LISP 2 appears. 
Work begins on 
LOGO at Bolt. 

Bcranek, & Newman. 
The team is headed by 
Wally Fucrzeigand in- 
cludes Seymour Papert. 
LOGO is best known 
for its "turtle graphics. " 



1967 



SNOBOL4, a much- 
enhanced SNOBOL, 
appears. 



1968 



ALGOL 68, a monster 
compared to ALGOL 
60, appears. Some 
members of the specifi- 
cations committee — 
including C.A.R. Hoaic 
and Niklaus Wirth — 



protest its approval. 
ALGOL 68 proves dif- 
ficult to implement. 
ALTRAN,aFOR- 
TRAN variant, appears. 
COBOL is officially 
defined by ANSI. 
Niklaus Wirth begins 
work on Pascal. 



1969 



500 people attend an 
APL conference at 
IBM's headquarters in 
Armonk, New York. 
The demands for APL's 
distribution are so great 
that the event is later 
referred to as "The 
March on Armonk. " 



1970 



Sometime in the early 

1970s, Charles Moore 
writes the first signifi- 
cant programs in his 
new language, Forth. 
Work on Prolog begins 
about this time. 
Also sometime in the 



early 1970s, work on 
Smalltalk begins at 
Xerox PARC, led by 
Alan Kay. Early ver- 
sions will include 
Smalltalk-72,Small- 
talk-74,andSmall- 
talk-76. 

An implementation 
of Pascal appears on 
a CDC 6000-series 
computer. 

Icon, a descendant of 
SNOBOL4, appears. 



1972 



The manuscript for 

Konrad Zuse's 
Plankalktil (see 1946) 
is finally published. 
Dennis Ritchie 
produces C. The defini- 
tive reference manual 
for it will not appear 
until 1974. 

The first implementa- 
tion of Prolog — by 
Alain Colmerauer and 
Phillip Roussel — 
appears. 







■ 


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"IT'S BETTER TO ASK FORGIVENESS THAN IT IS TO GET 
PERMISSION."— THE LATE REAR AOMIRAL GRACE HOPPER. 
WHO LEO THE EFFORTTO CREATE COBOL 



SEPTEMBER 1995 BYTE 121 



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1974 



Another ANSI speci- 
fication for COBOL 
appears. 



FORTRAN. RATFOR 
is used in Kernighan 
and Plaugefs 
"Software Tools," 
which appears in 1976. 



1975 



Tiny BASIC by Bob 

Albrecht and Dennis 
Allison (implementa- 
tion by Dick Whipple 
and John Arnold) runs 
on a microcomputer in 
2KBofRAM.A4-KB 
machine is sizable, 
which left 2 KB avail- 
able for the program. 
Bill Gates and Paul 
Allen write a version 
ofBASlCthattheysell 
to MITS (Micro Instru- 
mentation and Tele- 
metry Systems) on a 
per-copy royalty basis. 
MITS is producing the 
Altair. an 8080-based 
microcomputer. 
Scheme, a LISP 
dialect by G.L.Steele 
and G.J. Sussman. 
appears. 

Pascal User Manual 
and Report, by Jensen 
andWirth, is 
published. Still consid- 
ered by many to 
be the definitive refer- 
ence on Pascal. 
B.VV. Kerninghan 
describes RATFOR— 
RATional FORTRAN. 
It is a preprocessor that 
allows C-like control 
structures in 



1976 



Design System 
Language, considered 
to be a forerunner of 
PostScript, appears. 



1977 



TheANSI standard 
for MUMPS— Massa- 
chusetts General 
Hospital Utility Multi- 
Programming Sys- 
tem — appears. Used 
originally to handle 
medical records, 
MUMPS recognizes 
only a string data-type. 
Later renamed M. 
The design competi- 
tion that will produce 
Ada begins. Honey- 
well Bull's team, led 
by Jean Ichbiah, will 
win the competition. 
Kim Harris and others 
set up FIG. the FORTH 
interest group. They 
develop FIG-FORTH, 
which they sell for 
around $20. 
Sometime in the late 
1970s, Kenneth 
Bowles produces 
UCSD Pascal, which 
makes Pascal available 
on PDP-11 andZ80- 
based computers. 




Niklaus VVirth begins 
work on Modula, fore- 
runner of Modula-2 and 
successor to Pascal. 



1978 



AWK — a text-process- 
ing language named 
after the designers, 
Alio, Weinberger, and 
Kernighan — appears. 
The ANSI standard 
for FORTRAN 77 
appears. 



1980 



Smalltalk-80 appears. 
Modula-2 appears. 
Franz LISP appears. 
BjarneStroustrup 

develops a set of lan- 
guages — collectively 
referred to as "C With 
Classes" — that serve 
as the breeding ground 
for C++. 



1981 



Effort begins on a 

common dialect of 
LISP, referred to as 
Common LISP. 
Japan begins the Fifth 
Generation Computer 
System project. The 
primary language is 
Prolog. 



1982 



ISO Pascal appears. 
PostScript appears. 



1983 



Smalltalk-80: The 
Language and Its 
Implementation by 
Goldberg et al is pub- 
lished. 

Ada appears. Its 
name comes from 
Lady Augusta Ada 
Byron, Countess of 
Lovelace and daughter 
of the English poet 
Byron. She has been 
called the first com- 
puter programmer be- 



cause of her work on 
Charles Babbage's 
analytical engine. In 

1983, the Department 
of Defense directs that 
all new "mission-criti- 
cal" applications be 
written in Ada. 

In late 1983 and early 

1984, Microsoft and 
Digital Researchboth 
release the first C 
compilers for micro- 
computers. 

In July, the first im- 
plementation of C++ 
appears. The name is 
coinedby Rick 
Mascitti. 
In November, 
Borland's Turbo 
Pascal hits the scene 
like a nuclear blast, 
thanks to an advertise- 
ment in BYTE 
magazine. 



1984 



A reference manual 

f orAPL2 appears. 
APL2 is an extension 
of APL that permits 
nested arrays. 



1985 



Forth controls the 
submersible sled that 
locates the wreck of 
the Titanic. 
Vanilla SNOBOL4 
for microcomputers 
is released. 
Methods, a line-ori- 
ented Smalltalk for 
PCs, is introduced. 



1986 



Smalltalk/V 

appears — the first 
widely available ver- 
sion of Smalltalk for 
microcomputers. 
Apple releases 
Object Pascal for 
the Mac. 

Borland releases 
Turbo Prolog. 




Charles Duff releases 
Actor, an object-ori- 
ented language for de- 
veloping Microsoft 
Windows applications. 
Eiffel, another object- 
oriented language, 
appears. 
C++ appears. 



1987 



Turbo Pascal version 
4.0 is released. 



1988 



The specification for 

CLOS — Common 
LISP Object System- 
is published. 
NiklausVVirth finish- 
es Oberon, his follow- 
up to Modula-2. 



1989 



TheANSI C specifi- 
cation is published. 
C++ 2.0 arrives in the 
form of a draft refer- 
ence manual. The 2.0 
version adds features 
such as multiple inher- 
itance and pointers to 
members. 



1990 



C++ 2.1, detailed in 
Annotated C + + 
Reference Manual by 
B. Stroustrup etal, 
is published. This 
adds templates and 
exception-handling 
features. 
FORTRAN 90 
includes such new 
elements as case state- 
ments and derived 
types. 



Imagine a $500 
PC that has a 
built-in modem, 
fits in your 
pocket, and is 
battery powered. 

Two British 
explorers reach 
the North Pole 
by way of the 

[ South Pole. 






Kenneth Iverson 

and Roger Hui present 
J at the APL90 
conference. 



1991 



Visual Basic wins 
BYTE's Best of Show 
award at Spring 
COMDEX. 



1992 



Dylan — named for 
Dylan Thomas — an 
object-oriented 
language resembling 
Scheme, is released 
by Apple. 



1993 



ANSI releases the 
X3J4.1 technical re- 
port — the first-draft 
proposal for (gulp) 
object-oriented 
COBOL. The standard 
is expected to be final- 
ized in 1997. 

1994 

Microsoft 

incorporates Visual 
Basic forApplications 
into Excel. 



1995 



In February, ISO 

accepts the 1995 
revision of the Ada 
language. Called Ada 
95, it includes OOP 
features and support 
for real-time systems. 



1996 



Anticipated release of 
first ANSI C++ 
standard. 



BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 



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Bugs in computer hardware and 
software are no more than the 
crystallization in silicon and 
plastic of the mental mistakes 
all people make. People are only 
human, after all, so computers 
can only reflect our own 
humanity. 



■ The Bug That Never Was, Thank Heaven 

1983: The SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative) proposal 
was intended to defend the U.S. against a nuclear mis- 
sile attack by using computer-aimed weapons to shoot 
down the missiles. It was estimated that the software 
would have required some 10 million to 100 million 
lines of code. Without the Soviet Union's cooperation 
in staging nuclear missile attacks to test it, the system 
would have to work perfectly — bug-free — the first time 
it waseverused. Despite widespread misgivings, a 
1986 Department of Defense panel concluded that the 
concept was still feasible. 

■ Check Box to Prepay 

1 985: An IRS computer error resulted in 27,000 com- 
panies receiving warning notices to pay employee fed- 
eral withholding taxes that they had, in fact, already 
paid. The House and the Senate planned hearings to 
investigate. 

■ The Bug That Killed 

1985-1987: At least four people died when they were 
exposed to lethal doses of radiation from Therac-25 lin- 
ear accelerator machines (made by Atomic Energy of 
Canada Ltd.), used for radiation treatment of cancer. 
Software errors caused the machines to incorrectly cal- 



culate the amount of radiation being delivered to the 
patient. The most tragic incident to date of death or in- 
juries to human beings due to defective computer soft- 
ware, this incident is a reminder that, as we entrust hu- 
man lives and health to computers, the seriousness of 
eliminating bugs becomes a life-or-death proposition. 

■ A Bug in a Worm in a Net 

1 988: A math error caused a "worm" program to multi- 
ply 14 times faster than intended, and as a result, the 
Internet was swamped and overwhelmed in a few 
hours. It was weeks before affected systems recovered 
from the damage wrought, costing in the hundreds of 
millions of dollars. Robert T. Morris, Jr., the Cornell 
University graduate student who wrote and unleashed 
the worm, later said, "It was a mistake. I'm sorry." 

■ Computer's Down, Check Your Pitons 

1988: Backup data, corrupted due to software errors, 
eventually destroyed all the main system data — and 
backup copies of data — at an automated Black & 
Decker distribution center in Northampton, England. 
Employees were eventually forced to climb the racks of 
inventory in the unlit warehouse with mountain-climb- 
ing equipment to check stock. 

■ To Whom It May Concern... 

1 989: A computer in Paris read files on traffic 
violations and then mistakenly sent out letters charging 
4 1 ,000 traffic offenders with crimes including murder, 
drug trafficking, extortion, and prostitution. Recipients 
were described as "surprised." 

■ Why Doesn't This Ever Happen at Our Bank? 

1 989: A British bank that understandably wishes to re- 
main nameless mistakenly transferred an extra £2 bil- 
lion to customers in only 1 hour, when a bug permitted 
payment orders to be issued twice. Since there was no 
way to distinguish real from duplicate transactions, the 
bank had to depend on the honesty of its customers to 
recover the extra payments. 



SEPTEMBER 1995 BYTE 125 



BYTE 



^^■Xlvs^.^ 



■ Dial B for Bug 

1990: A logic error in its call-handling com- 
puters shut down AT&T's long-distance 
telephone network for 9 hours, the most se- 
vere breakdown in the history of the U.S. 
telephone system. Some 74 million long- 
distance and 800-number calls were not 
completed, bringing phone-dependent busi- 
nesses — like car, hotel, and airline reserva- 
tions systems, and credit-card approval ser- 
vices — to a standstill. 

■ Sin of Omission 

1991: American Patriot missiles were fairly 
successful. However, the failure of some 
Patriot missiles to track and destroy 
Iraqi Scud missiles during the Persian Gulf 
War may have been due to a software prob- 
lem of the system. During one such Iraqi 
missile attack, 28 American soldiers were 
killed in their barracks in Dhahran, 
Saudi Arabia. 

■ A Better Windows than DOS 

1991: With the introduction of Microsoft 
Windows 3.0, "unrecoverable application 
error" became a household phrase, soon 
to be replaced by "general protection 
fault" in version 3.1 (heralded by the head- 
line "Windows Upgrade Crashes Less 
Often"). 

■ Don't Use the Calculator! We Need 
the Right Answer! 

1 99 1 : It was revealed in 1 994 that the 
Calculator applet in Microsoft Windows did 
not display correct answers. Reportedly, it 
took the Pentium bug brouhaha to motivate 
Microsoft to admit and fix a bug it may 
have known about since 199 1 . 

■ You Are Lost and Gone Forever... 

1 993: An $80 million satellite called 
Clementine was hopelessly lost in space af- 
ter a software error caused its thruster rock- 
ets to fire continually, consuming all its fuel 
before its asteroid-rendezvous mission was 
completed. 




X 



■ Double, Double, Toil and Trouble 

1993: The DoubleSpace automatic 
hard disk compression software included 
in Microsoft MS-DOS 6.0— billed as 
capable of nearly doubling the effective 
space on hard drives — corrupted data, 
was incompatible with certain BlOSes, 
and crashed programs and networks. 
Besides which, Microsoft lost a 
compression patent-infringement suit 
brought by Stac Electronics, to the tune of 
over$100 million. (Of course, it later 
struck a partnership with Stac.) Version 
6.2, which cleared up the majority of 
these problems, was denied to be a 
"bug fix." 

■ Don't Even Leave the Airport 

1994: For months, bugs in a computerized 
baggage-handling system delayed the open- 
ing of the new Denver airport. The system 
would drive automated baggage carts into 
walls or deposit bags at the wrong airport 
destination. After an additional expenditure 
of some $80 million to fix the system, the 
airport finally opened in February 1995 — 
with a manual baggage-handling system 
that will be phased out gradually. 
Sometimes you just can't beat the human 
touch. 

■ Dividing We Fall 

1994: The Pentium bug, probably the most 
widely reported-on bug in history, was a 
glitch in the lookup table used to perform 
floating-point division in Intel's flagship 
chip. The magnitude of errors ranged from 
1 out of 10,000 to 1 out of 1 quadrillion, 
while estimates of the frequency of errors 
varied widely from days to millennia. 
Probably more significant than the defect 
itself was the fact that Intel's reputation was 
tarnished needlessly: Intel knew about the 
problem, decided to keep it a secret, and 
then downplayed the defect when it was 
discovered independently. It is estimated 
that Intel may have lost upward of $400 
million due to the Pentium bug. 




8 

it*"?. 

S50 




Steve Ciarcia builds 
the ultimate 
infrared remote 
control device: It 
controls all your 
other remotes. 

U.S. Surgeon 
General C. Everett 
Koop recommends 
televised condom 

commercials to 

fight AIDS. 



■ Oh, I Just Can't Wait to Be 
(Wor)king 

1994: Disney Interactive was the cause of 
some Christmas-morning traumas when its 
Lion King animated story CD-ROM, easily 
the most-anticipated and best-selling title 
during that season, wouldn't work. 
Inadequate testing by third-party develop- 
ers caused installation failures on many PC 
systems. This may have been the first bug to 
affect popular culture. 

■ And on Wall Street, 166 Funds 
Remain Unchanged 

1994: One day, Fidelity Investments, 
the $250 billion mutual fund corporation, 
was temporarily unable to calculate the 
"net asset value" for 166 of its 208 mutual 
funds because a bug had overwritten 
every stock in its database with 9s. A low- 
level employee authorized using the 
closing prices of the previous day rather 
than admitting that Fidelity didn't know 
what the actual prices were. The 
subsequent uproar resulted in the establish- 
ment of rules for handling such situations 
in the future. 

■ The Incredible Growing File 

1994: A bug in CorelDraw 5 caused the size 
of a file to multiply wildly when certain op- 
erations were performed, transforming 2- 
MB files into 30-MB behemoths. Although 
fixed in subsequent releases, another file 
size problem later emerged. 



126 B YXE SEPTEMBER 1995 



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■ Three of Life's Certainties: Death, 
Taxes— and Bugs 

1994-1995: Intuit announced that calcula- 
tion errors or loss of data could occur in 
both its TurboTax and MacInTax income 
tax preparation programs. Many people use 
such programs because they are worried 
about making errors by doing their taxes 
manually. Can you say "irony"? 




■ Absolutely, Positively Deleted 

1995: Millions of Super Bowl telecast 
watchers were impressed by ads for Federal 
Express's new Windows software for han- 
dling package pickup and keeping track of 
FedEx deliveries. Unfortunately for the es- 
timated 1 5,000 companies that started using 
the first release, all their records were delet- 
ed on the first day of each month. 



N 




mm^ 



■ The Bug Is Yet to Be 

2000: When the global odometer turns over 
on January 1, 2000 A. D., computer systems 
the world over are expected to buckle. 
Legacy mainframe programs hard-coded to 
treat the year "00" as 1 900 will begin calcu- 
lating negative ages, seniorities, andbene- 
f its. Where will your bet be when the mil- 
lennialroulette wheel comes up "00"? 



JesLComi 



puter JShowsi 



Of late, it seems many trade shows are more about chachkis than products or 
technologies. But that wasn't always the way... 



The Faire Queen 

The West Coast Computer Faire earns top honors 
from those who remember it. One year, it filled (and 
we mean filled) Brooks Convention Center in San 
Francisco, with booths in the halls and in the chair 
storage room— and even in the garbage collection 
area! It was where the first 68000 was shown, 
where the Lilith was shown, and where little comput- 
ers got seen by a lot of people who had never paid 
any attention to them before. So what if its name is 
spelled funny? 

CD Chance 

Bill Gates isn't just the head of the largest software 
company in the world— he's also the father of the 
CD-ROM Conference. At the time, it seemed a 
financial risk for him (the richest man in the 
world), but looking back, it was clearly right. 

On the First Comdex 

It was a small show. Contributing editor Jerry 
Pournelle went to it because he could drive to it. 
He says, "Wasn't much, but it sure kicked things 
off." By the third Comdex, things were really hap- 
pening. Now it cripples Las Vegas every fall. 



Wescon 

Trolley cars, the Golden Gate Bridge, and fog aren't 
the only things to come out of San Francisco. In the 
mid-1970s, it was also the place to hear about the 
latest chips. Among other things, the MOS 
Technology 6502 (to become the brains of Steve 
Wozniak's Apple II) was introduced there. 

Tell All 

The microprocessor field is highly competitive and 
very secretive. The Microprocessor Forum is a kind 
of you-show-me-yours-and-l'll-show-you-mine show. 
If you keep your ears and eyes open, you'll see what 
every major processor company is planning for the 
next three to five years. Well, maybe not everything. 




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ZOContfitiotion 

aociefy 





Computers have changed our world. 
That's a tired cliche, but it's true. 
Perhaps no other instrument of the late 
twentieth century has had such a 
fundamental and pervasive impact on 
our everyday lives. 



Astronomy 

The Hubble Space Telescope is now fixed. But 
astronomers were able to salvage useful images from it 
even before the Space Shuttle's repair mission. Image- 
processing software let them extract clear images from 
the fuzzy ones sent down by the Hubble camera. 

Aviation 

The Boeing 777 is the first of a new generation of air- 
frames. It was designed entirely on computers, never 
going through mock-ups and prototypes. It represents 
the natural culmination of the trend toward CAD. 

Biology 

The Human Genome Project, an ambitious multiyear 
effort to map the human genetic code, would be im- 
possible without computers to store and sort the moun- 
tains of data nature has put into the human genetic 
sequence. 

Business 

If, as some recent advertisements claim, business is the 
engine of society, then computers must be the fuel. 
How elsecould arbitrageurs force huge swings in stock 
prices, without computers to show them the point 
spreads and rapidly execute their trades before the 
spread closes? And how else could Federal Express 
track billions of packages, delivering them accurately 
and on time? 



Communities 

On-line communities have evolved to meet almost any 
interest. Whether you want to rail against Barney the 
dinosaur, compare Captain Janeway to Captains Picard 
and Kirk, or trade mealloaf recipes, there is a virtual 
community for you somewhere. It can be tough some- 
times to find those who share your interests, but they 
are almost surely out there. 

Consumers 

The relationship between customers and manufacturers 
has changed. The concept of beta testing was foreign to 
most of the population 20 years ago. Would anyone 
have bought an automatic transmission if the manufac- 
turer told you that it occasionally locked up and some- 
times rebooted to first gear for no apparent reason? Yet 
we accept software that way. 

Education 

The coming of the information age is forcing schools 
to rethink curricula, which they probably should do 
anyway. Unfortunately, some schools insist on using 
computers as glorified flash cards, transferring boring 
rote learning from paper to software. And some of the 
glitzy multimedia education tools go too far the other 
way, making education into a game. Somewhere in be- 
tween are schools using computers to let kids run 





SLOW BUSINESS IS NO 
BUSINESS. 




WHERE WOULD INSIOER 

TRADING BE WITHOUT 
COMPUTERS? 



COMPUTERS CAN ARRANGE A VACATION FROM COMPUTERS. 



SEPTEMBER 1995 BYXK 131 



wm 









I 



experiments, analyze data, and write papers 
in ways that could not have been imagined 
20 years ago. 

Entertainment 

Computers controlled the motion cameras 
that let George Lucas shoot all the compo- 
nents of a single scene separately — the 
Death Star, the Tie Fighters, and the Rebel 
ships — and then composite them into a sin- 
gle breathtaking piece of movie history. 

Finance 

Many of us would be bankrupt paupers 
without the control over our finances that 
programs such as Quicken have brought. 
Even if you don't use the programs 
yourself, it's likely your accountant does. 

Government 

Computers have created an industry that 
provides jobs forthousands of intelligent 
people who might otherwise be burdens on 
society — or worse, government 
bureaucrats. Thank your lucky stars. 

Health Care 

Computers empower the physically 
challenged to lead productive lives; the 
brilliant physicist Stephen W. Hawking is 
an excellent example. He suffers from the 
degenerative muscle disease (amyotrophic 
lateral sclerosis) popularly called Lou 
Gehrig's disease. Although he cannot use 
his own voice to speak or his own hands to 








tions 

o society 




«fc*\ 



THE $64,000,000,000 QUESTION: IS THIS AN OPPORTUNITY 
T0TAKE A CHEAP SHOT AT MILITARY SPENDING? 



write, he continues to contribute world- 
class science. 

Manufacturing 

Just-in-time manufacturing, which seeks to 
reduce inventory while increasing respon- 
siveness to changing markets, would not be 
possible without computers. 

Medicine 

Noninvasive imaging technologies, such as 
CAT (computerized axial tomography) 
scans, have given doctors the ability to per- 
form exploratory surgery without ever 
opening up the body. Soon, computer soft- 
ware that was originally developed to spot 
Soviet tanks from satellite photos will join 
the doctor's arsenal as a way to identify 
possible cancers in a mammogram. 

Meteorology 

The percentage of incorrect weather reports 
has been dropping, due in large part to bet- 
ter weather models. The recently 
announced vBNS (very high-speed 
Backbone Network Service) will let several 
supercomputers work together on much 
larger simulations, which should further 
improve the accuracy of forecasts. 

Military 

As the Gulf War showed us, technical supe- 
riority can overwhelm numerical superiori- 
ty. Getting there first with the most is no 
longer as important as having the most ad- 
vanced weapons. Computer-controlled 
weapons help a small, well-equipped armed 
force keep the peace in a dangerous world. 

Physics 

A physicist with some new theories on star 
formation runs a simulation based on her 
new theories to test it out. Another seeking 
the basic quantum particles examines the 
remains of a proton/antiproton collision, 
like some voodoo priestexamining the en- 
trails of matter rather than the entrails of 
chickens. 



Politics 

During his recent unsuccessful run for the 
U.S. Senate, OliverNorth was able to raise 
millions of dollars from outside his state, 
using mailing lists of like-minded individu- 
als. A state-level operation never could 
have handled such a sophisticated, nation- 
wide fund-raising effort without cheap, so- 
phisticated databases. 

Publishing 

The very definition of a magazine is chang- 
ing. It is now de rigueur to have a Web page 
on the Internet's WWW (World Wide Web). 
Bandwidth for most users is still too narrow 
to allow fully formatted pages of text and 
graphics, and there is still too small a per- 
centage of the population on-line. But this 
is changing. 

In the realm of publishing on paper, now 
anyone with a computer and some imagina- 
tion can turn out professional publications 
thanks to the power of desktop publishing. 

Travel 

Computers have improved the way we trav- 
el, from reservation systems that instantly 
let us book flights anywhere to the early- 
warning systems that let pilots know of po- 
tentially dangerous microburst downdrafts. 

Writing 

E-mail has at least temporarily stayed the 
death sentence of writing. Sure, the quality 
of some E-mail is less than stellar, and the 
temptation of easy, almost anonymous, 
flaming has exposed the worst side of 
human nature. But communicating via 
E-mail lets us keep in touch with a far-flung 
network of friends and associates. 

Thanks to word processors, the task of 
writing has gone from chiseling in stone to 
sculpting from clay. It's so much easier to 
push and prod your words when they are 
glowing phosphors on a screen than when 
they were typed on your old IBM Selectric. 
We don't always take advantage of this 
ability, but at least it's there. 



132 BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 



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5 


Data Acquisition 


6 


Diagnostic Equipment 


53 


Disks & Optical Drives 


7 


Diskettes/Duplicators 


8 


Fax Boards/Machines 


9 


Graphics Tablets/Mice/ 




Pen Input 


10 


Keyboards 


11 


LAN Hardware 


12 


Laptops & Notebooks 


13 


Mail Order 


14 


Memory/Chips/Upgrades 


15 


Miscellaneous Hardware 


16 


Modems/Multiplexors 


17 


Monitors & Terminals 


18 


Multimedia/CD-ROM 


19 


PCMCIA 


57 


Printers/Plotters 


20 


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21 


RAID Drive Arrays 


56 


Scanners/OCR/Digitizers 


22 


Security 


52 


Tape Drives 


23 


UPS/Power Management 


24 


Voice Technology 


55 


Software 




Business 


25 


CAD/CAM 


26 


Communications/Networking 


27 


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28 


Database 


29 


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30 


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31 


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32 


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33 


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37 


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39 


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54 


Programming Languages/ 




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59 


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41 


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10,000 or more 
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1.000 to 4,999 
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Wide 
33[] 
34[] 
35|| 
36(] 
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September 1995 | 91 97 98 | 
Valid until November 30, 1995 



Inquiry Numbers 1-187 



1 


2 


18 


19 


35 


36 


52 


53 


69 


70 


86 


87 


103 


104 


120 


121 



105 106 
122 123 
137 138 139 140 
154 155 156 157 
171 172 173 174 



5 

22 

39 

56 

73 

90 

107 108 109 
124 125 126 
141 142 143 
158 159 160 
175 176 177 



Inquiry Numbers 375-561 



375 376 
392 393 
409 410 
426 427 
443 444 
460 461 
477 478 
494 495 
511 512 
528 529 
545 546 



377 378 
394 395 
411 412 
428 429 
445 446 
462 463 
479 480 
496 497 
513 514 
530 531 
547 548 



379 380 381 
396 397 398 
413 414 415 
430 431 432 
447 448 449 
464 465 466 
481 482 483 
498 499 500 
515 516 517 
532 533 534 
549 550 551 



Inquiry Numbers 749-935 



749 750 
766 767 
783 784 
800 801 
817 818 
834 835 
851 852 
868 869 
885 886 
902 903 
919 920 



751 752 
768 769 
785 786 
802 803 
819 820 
836 837 
853 854 
870 871 
887 888 
904 905 
921 922 



753 754 755 
770 771 772 
787 788 789 
804 805 806 
821 822 823 
838 839 840 
855 856 857 
872 873 874 
889 890 891 
906 907 908 
923 924 925 



127 128 

144 145 

161 162 

178 179 



382 383 
399 400 
416 417 
433 434 
450 451 
467 468 
484 485 
501 502 
518 519 
535 536 
552 553 



756 757 

773 774 

790 791 

807 808 

824 825 

841 842 

858 859 

875 876 

892 893 

909 910 

926 927 



11 12 
28 29 
45 46 
62 63 
79 80 
96 97 
112 113 114 
129 130 131 
146 147 148 
163 164 165 
180 181 182 



384 385 386 

401 402 403 

418 419 420 

435 436 437 

452 453 454 

469 470 471 

486 487 488 

503 504 505 

520 521 522 

537 538 539 

554 555 556 



758 759 760 

775 776 777 

792 793 794 

809 810 811 

826 827 828 

843 844 845 

860 861 862 

877 878 879 

894 895 896 

911 912 913 

928 929 930 



64 65 

81 82 

98 99 

115 116 

132 133 

149 150 

166 167 

183 184 



387 388 
404 405 
421 422 
438 439 
455 456 
472 473 
489 490 
506 507 
523 524 
540 541 
557 558 



761 762 
778 779 
795 796 
812 813 
829 830 
846 847 
863 864 
880 881 
897 898 
914 915 
931 932 



Inquiry Numbers 1123-1309 



11231124 
11401141 
11571158 
11741175 
11911192 
12081209 
1225 1226 
12421243 
1259 1260 
12761277 
1293 1294 



11251126 
11421143 
11591160 
11761177 
11931194 
12101211 
1227 1228 
1244 1245 
1261 1262 
12761279 
12951296 



1127 11281129 
114411451146 
1161 11621163 
117811791180 
119511961197 
121212131214 
122912301231 
1246 12471248 
126312641265 
128012811282 
1297 1298 1299 



1130 1131 
1147 1148 
1164 1165 
1181 1182 
1198 1199 
1215 1216 
1232 1233 
1249 1250 
1266 1267 
1283 1284 
1300 1301 



1132 11331134 

1149 11501151 

1166 11671168 

1183 1184 1185 

1200 1201 1202 

1217 1218 1219 

1234 1235 1236 

1251 12521253 

1268 1269 1270 

1285 12881287 

1302 1303 1304 



11351136 
11521153 
11691170 
11861187 
1203 1204 
1220 1221 
1237 1238 
1254 1255 
1271 1272 
1288 1289 
1305 1306 



15 


16 


17 


32 


33 


34 


49 


50 


51 


66 


67 


68 


83 


84 


85 


100 


101 


102 


117 


118 


119 


134 


135 


136 


151 


152 


153 


168 


169 


170 


185 


186 


187 


389 


390 391 


406 


407 


408 


423 


424 


425 


440 


441 


442 


457 


458 459 


474 


475 476 


491 


492 


493 


508 


509 


510 


525 


526 527 


542 


543 544 


559 


560 


561 


763 


764 


765 


780 


781 


782 


797 


798 


799 


814 


815 816 


831 


832 


833 


848 


849 


850 


865 


866 


867 


882 


883 884 


899 


900 901 


916 


917 


918 


933 


934 935 


1137 


11381139 


1154 11551156 


1171 11721173 


1188 11891190 


1205 1206 1207 


1222 1223 1224 


1239 1240 1241 


1256 1257 1258 


1273 1274 1275 


1290 1291 1292 


1307 1308 1309 



Inquiry Numbers 188-374 



188 189 
205 206 
222 223 
239 240 
256 257 
273 274 
290 291 
307 308 
324 325 
341 342 
358 359 



190 191 
207 208 
224 225 
241 242 
258 259 
275 276 
292 293 
309 310 
326 327 
343 344 
360 361 



192 193 194 

209 210 211 

226 227 228 

243 244 245 

260 261 262 

277 278 279 

294 295 296 

311 312 313 

328 329 330 

345 346 347 

362 363 364 



Inquiry Numbers 562-748 



562 563 

579 580 

596 597 

613 614 

630 631 

647 648 

664 665 

681 682 

698 699 

715 716 

732 733 



564 565 
581 582 
598 599 
615 616 
632 633 
649 650 
666 667 
683 684 
700 701 
717 718 
734 735 



566 567 568 
583 584 585 
600 601 602 
617 618 619 
634 635 636 
651 652 653 
668 669 670 
685 686 687 
702 703 704 
719 720 721 
736 737 738 



195 196 
212 213 
229 230 
246 247 
263 264 
280 281 
297 298 
314 315 
331 332 
348 349 
365 366 



569 570 
586 587 
603 604 
620 621 
637 638 
654 655 
671 672 
688 689 
705 706 
722 723 
739 740 



197 198 199 

214 215 216 

231 232 233 

248 249 250 

265 266 267 

282 283 284 

299 300 301 

316 317 318 

333 334 335 

350 351 352 

367 368 369 



571 572 573 

588 589 590 

605 606 607 

622 623 624 

639 640 641 

656 657 658 

673 674 675 

690 691 692 

707 708 709 

724 725 726 

741 742 743 



200 201 
217 218 
234 235 
251 252 
268 269 
285 286 
302 303 
319 320 
336 337 
353 354 
370 371 



574 575 
591 592 
608 609 
625 626 
642 643 
659 660 
676 677 
693 694 
710 711 
727 728 
744 745 



202 203 204 
219 220 221 
236 237 238 
253 254 255 
270 271 272 
287 288 289 
304 305 306 
321 322 323 
338 339 340 
355 356 357 
372 373 374 



576 577 578 
593 594 595 
610 611 612 
627 628 629 
644 645 646 
661 662 663 
678 679 680 
695 696 697 
712 713 714 
729 730 731 
746 747 748 



Inquiry Numbers 936-1122 



936 937 
953 954 
970 971 
987 988 
10041005 
1021 1022 
1038 1039 
1055 1056 
1072 1073 
10891090 
11061107 



938 939 
955 956 
972 973 
989 990 
1006 1007 
1023 1024 
1040 1041 
1057 1058 
1074 1075 
1091 1092 
11081109 



940 941 942 
957 958 959 
974 975 976 
991 992 993 
100810091010 
1025 10261027 
1042 10431044 
105910601061 
107610771078 
109310941095 
111011111112 



943 944 
960 961 
977 978 
994 995 
1011 1012 
1028 1029 
1045 1046 
1062 1063 
1079 1080 
1096 1097 
1113 1114 



Inquiry Numbers 1310-1489 



13101311 
1327 1328 
13441345 
1361 1362 
13781379 
13951396 
14121413 
14291430 
1446 1447 
14631464 
14801481 



13121313 
1329 1330 
1346 1347 
1363 1364 
13801381 
1397 1398 
1414 1415 
1431 1432 
1448 1449 
1465 1466 
14821483 



1314 13151316 
1331 13321333 
134613491350 
136513661367 
1382 13831384 
139914001401 
1416 14171418 
1433 1434 1435 
1450 1451 1452 
1467 14661469 
148414851486 



1317 1318 
1334 1335 
1351 1352 
1368 1369 
1385 1386 
1402 1403 
1419 1420 
1436 1437 
1453 1454 
1470 1471 
1487 1488 



945 946 947 
962 963 964 
979 980 981 
996 997 998 
1013 1014 1015 
1030 1031 1032 
1047 1048 1049 
1064 1065 1066 
1081 1082 1083 
1098 10991100 
1115 11161117 



1319 1320 1321 

1336 1337 1338 

1353 1354 1355 
1370 1371 1372 

1387 1388 1389 

1404 1405 1406 

1421 14221423 

1438 1439 1440 

1455 1456 1457 

1472 1473 1474 



948 949 
965 966 
982 983 
999 1000 
10161017 
10331034 
1050 1051 
1067 1068 
1084 1085 
1101 1102 
11181119 



1322 1323 
1339 1340 
13561357 
1373 1374 
1390 1391 
1407 1408 
1424 1425 
1441 1442 
1458 1459 
1475 1476 



950 951 952 
967 968 969 
984 985 986 
1001 1002 1003 
1018 10191020 
1035 1036 1037 
1052 1053 1054 
1069 1070 1071 
1086 1087 1088 
1103 11041105 
1120 11211122 



1324 1325 1326 
1341 1342 1343 
1358 1359 1360 
1375 1376 1377 
1392 13931394 
140914101411 
1426 1427 1428 
1443 1444 1445 
1460 1461 1462 
147714781479 



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ogy, they are created by people. 
And the people who create them 
are not just one-dimensional 
nerds-in fact their breadth fuels 
their innovation. These 20 
people have made the greatest 
impact on microcomputing. 



■ Dan Bricklin 

Can you imagine doing business without 
the spreadsheet? Dan Bricklin can't. Bui, 
then, he invented it. He got the idea while 
sitting in a class at the Harvard Business 
School. As he watched the professor fill in 
spreadsheets on the chalkboard, he thought, 
Wouldn't it be nice if you could do that 
electronically? Bricklin designed the inter- 
face, and his partner, Bob Frankston, wrote 
most of the code. They released VisiCalc in 
1979, an act that fomented the desktop rev- 
olution. At last, there was something useful 
to do on a microcomputer. 

Did he know at the time how important 
spreadsheets would be to computing? 
"Well, you always believe that your prod- 
uct's going to be wonderful and make 
majorchanges, but you can't always 
depend on that. 1 thought it would be very 
useful for business, and I tried to design it 
to be as useful [in] as many different areas 
as possible." 

What about today's sophisticated spread- 
sheet features? "For any given user, there 
are things that are superfluous, and for any 



given user, there are things that are missing. 
For my needs, just being able to recalculate 
is 90 percent of the way there. In that case, 
almost everything is sufficient." 

As important as VisiCalc was, the deci- 
sion not to seek patent protection helped 
spawn an entire industry. With a patent, 
Bricklin could have controlled the market 
for 1 7 years. Great for him; lousy for us. 
"Seeing the advances that did come about 
from people trying different things and [be- 
ing] willing to make compromises that we 
may not have been willing to make, 1 don't 
think the industry would have moved as far 
as it has." 

Lotus bought the VisiCalc rights in 1 985. 
Bricklin has gone on to design other 
successful, though more specialized, prod- 
ucts but none has revolutionized computing 
like the spreadsheet. 

■ Bill Gates 

Here's one man who needs no introduction. 
Back in 1 975, Bill Gates and a high school 
buddy, Paul Allen, wrote a version of BA- 
SIC that ran in 4 KB on the MITS Altair 
8800 computer. Soon they founded 
Microsoft and were creating versions of 
BASIC and other languages for various 
platforms. Their Big Break came in 1980 
when IBM contracted with them to write 
Disk Operating System, or DOS, for its new 
PC. Through an incredible act of charity or 
stupidity, IBM gave Microsoft rights to sell 
versions of DOS to other manufacturers. 

Today, Gates is worth more money than 
the other 19 people on our list put together 
(and they include several multimillion- 
aires). But we're here to talk technology, 
not tax shelters. Gates, who is about to 
launch Microsoft Network, recalls that he 




uaiiiff J 



FATHER OFTHE SPREADSHEET, OAN BRICKLIN. 




BILL GATES: YOUR BASIC BILLIONAIRE. 



SEPTEMBER 1995 BYTE 133 




THE 20 MOST IMPORTANT PEOPLE 






NEXT ON OUR LIST, STEVE JOBS. 



and Allen long ago believed on-line 
services would be the killer application: 
"We thoughtthey would catch on in the 
1 970s and the 1 980s. We always thought 
that would be the defining application and it 
would get the things in people's homes, 
which definitely turns out to be true but 1 5 



years later than we expected." 

Why the delay? "What you can do with 
300 baud is tricky... Then there was the 
small problem of a business model, how to 
deliver an essentially free service to people 
and get advertising to pay the freight. 
Finally, PCs lacked critical mass: Unless 
you get an immense number of people using 
it, it's of no value... We were naive to think 
that would spark a critical mass." 

Any final thoughts? "The last big revolu- 
tion in communications to have this kind of 
impact was the telephone. It was a two-way 
device, and it shrunk the world. The world 
became a different place." 

■ Steve Jobs 

Unless you've been stuck on a streetcar 
named Mobius these past 20 years, you 
know the saga of Steve Jobs: College 
dropout, garage-shop inventor, cofounder 
of Apple Computer, ousted in 1 985 at age 
30, cofounder of Next Computer. During 
the Apple II's heyday, he stood in the shad- 
ow of his partner, the technically superior 
Steve Wozniak. But his marketing moxie, 



his love affair with the microphone, and his 
unrelenting vision for the Macintosh, 
released in 1984 with a revolutionary GUI, 
catapulted Jobs beyond the limelight. 

As the name brashly implies, Jobs hoped 
the Next would be the next killer machine. 
But with an $ 1 1 ,000 price tag, even a high- 
tech Billy Graham couldn't win many con- 
verts. "We knew we'd either be the last 
hardware company that made it or the first 
that didn 't, and we were the first that 
didn't." He's repositioned Next and now 
wants to be the main man in object technol- 
ogy. "I went to Xerox PARC in 1 979, 
and 1 saw the Alto. There was a crude 
graphical user interface on it... within 10 
minutes it was obvious that all computers 
would work this way someday. Objects are 
the same way. Once you understand what 
objects are. you realize that all software 
will be written using objects, object 
technology." 

What does this innovator think of to- 
day's interfaces? "The Mac has been dead 
in the water since 1985 in terms of its user 
interface. And Windows is still a sort of 




Transformed By Lincoln 





HE 20 MOST IMPORTANT PEOPLE 



caricature of the Mac. Windows 95 
doesn't really get it. The user interface is 
not very good." 

Never short on bombast, Jobs likens to- 
day's GUI situation to TV. "You think it's a 
conspiracy [by] the networks to put bad 
shows on TV. But the shows are bad 
because that's whatpeople want. It's not 
likeWindowsusers don't have any power. I 
think they are happy with Windows, and 
that's an incredibly depressing thought." 

■ Robert Noyce 

Can you imagine saying Germanium Gulch 
instead of Silicon Valley? Thank Mother 
Nature and Robert Noyce for sparing us 
from that mouth mangier. Here's why. 

In late 1958, a young engineer at Texas 
Instruments named Jack Kilby placed two 
circuits on a single piece of germanium, 
hand-wired the interconnects and — 
presto — created the first IC. Within months, 
Noyce and company at Fairchild 
Semiconductor used a planarprocess they 
had developed to connect the components 
on their version of the IC. In so doing, they 



discovered that the IC's conductivity was 
better and more controllable when silicon 
was used instead of germanium. To this day, 
Kilby and Noyce are both credited as the in- 
dependent co-inventors of the IC. 

Within three years, Fairchild and TI were 
producing affordable chips in volume using 
Noyce's process, a manufacturing 
technique that has undergone minor 
i mprovements but remains basically 
unchanged to this day. ICs werefirst used in 
a commercial product — a hearing aid — in 
1 963. By the mid- 1 960s, they were used 
widely throughout the electronics industry. 
Noyce went on to cof ound Intel Corp. i n 
1 968 and served as president and chairman 
of the board. 

In mid- 1988, after the U.S. chip industry 
had been losing market share to offshore 
competitors for years, Noyce was named 
CEO of Sematech. The government-indus- 
try consortium was established to conduct 
advanced computer chip R&D on behalf of 
its members and to advance U.S. competi- 
tiveness. It succeeded. Noyce, thesonof an 
Iowa minister, was widely regarded as a 




ROBERT NOYCE: FIRST NAME IN SILICON. 



gentleman and a scholar. He died at the rel- 
atively young age of 62 in 1 990. 

As an aside, a few years af terinventing 
the IC at Texas Instruments, Kilby helped 
toll the death knell for the time-honored 
slide rule when he was a member of the TI 
team that invented the first pocket calcula- 
tor. Kilby still works as a consultant. 



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DENNIS RITCHIE CREATED A MENACE: UNIX. 



■ Dennis Ritchie 

It took some chicanery to overcome one of 
the biggest hurdles to the development of 
Unix. And we're not talking about some 
kind of sleight-of-hand code writing. 

Launched in 1969 as a nonprofit venture 
between Bell Telephone Labs, General 



Electric, and MIT, the effort to create an 
OS for a large computer that would handle 
up to a thousand simultaneous users was 
almost scuttled early on for lack of a com- 
puter (they were really expensive in those 
days). Dennis Ritchie and his codevelopers, 
including Ken Thompson, finally suggested 
to BTL that it buy a PDP- 1 1 /20 for a text- 
preparation project. BTL regarded text 
preparation as something useful and spat 
out the seed money for the $ 1 00.000- 
plus machine. 

"There was a scam going on," Ritchie 
once recalled. "We'd promised [to develop] 
a word processing system, not an operating 
system. But by the time the full computer 
had arrived in the summer of 1970, work 
was moving at full steam on both." And 
thus was born Unix. The text-processing 
system was a success, and the patent depart- 
ment at BTL became the first commercial 
Unix user in the bargain. 

Unix, for which Ritchie deserves much of 
the credit, was one of the major advances in 
computing, giving the user features and 
functions that were previously unthinkable. 



It was not only a great advance but a great 
simplification, demonstrating that a 
relatively small OS could be portable, ma- 
chine independent, and affordable. The ad- 
vent of the workstation and the growth of 
networking have cinched Unix's place in 
computing. Since the late 1970s, Unix has 
had a profound impact on DOS. the Mac 
OS, Windows NT, and many others. 

Ritchie and Thompson wrote the first 
Unix Programmer 's Manual in 1971. 
Ritchie developed C, and i n the early 
1970s, he and Brian Kernighan coauthored 
The C Programming Language. Ritchie, 
now in his mid-50s. still works at AT&T re- 
search labs, where he is developing OSes, 
including Plan 9 from Bell Labs. 

■ Marc Andreessen 

Less than two years ago. while his 
classmates were still nursing graduation 
hangovers, Marc Andreessen, at the age of 
22, cofounded Netscape Communications. 
The other founder is Dr. James H. Clark, 
founder and former chairman of Silicon 
Graphics, Inc. This, the youngest member 





THE 20 MOST IMPORTANT PEOPLE 



of our top 20, is the latest wunderkind to 
compile. What Steve Jobs was to the desk- 
top, Andreessen is to the Internet. His 
Netscape Navigator (nee Mosaic) for PCs, 
Macs, and Unix machines already accounts 
for more than half of all Web browsing. He 
led the development of the prototype while 
he was an undergraduate at the University 
of Illinois. Unlike some of the other 
wunderkind (whose names we won't men- 
tion), Andreessen graduated from college. 

■ Bill Atkinson 

If you knew the Lisa like Bill Atkinson 
knew theLisa,then you knew a lot more 
about the Lisa than most of us wanted to 
know. But from this scarlet woman, named 
for Steve Wozniak's daughter, came a GUI. 
Atkinson wasthe chief wizard behind its 
graphics engine. The Lisa begat the Mac, 
and the rest is history. Today, as cofounder 
of Apple spin-off General Magic, Atkinson 
wants to create technology that he hopes 
will be welcomed into people's lives, rather 
than be a source of stress — technology like 
MagicCap.Wealsofondly recall that he 




DOUGENGELBART 



GRACE MURRAY HOPPER 



was the chief designer of HyperCard, the 
software construction kit that put Mac pro- 
gramming tools into the hands of millions 
of Mac users. 

■ Tim Berners-Lee 

If the snobs who whine about the Internet's 
exploding popularity ever form a vigilante 
posse, the first man they'll hang is Tim 
Berners-Lee. He's the guy behind the World 
Wide Web, which he developed for the 
CERN (European Council for Nuclear 
Research) in Geneva, Switzerland, so that 
physicists could swap data easily. Berners- 
Lee developed the URL, HTML, and HTTP 



standards, from which he wove the Web. 
Since launching the Web in 1991, he has of- 
ten endorsed the idea of people using it for 
profitable transactions. He's now at MIT, 
where he directs the World Wide Web 
Consortium, which deals with Web security 
and other issues. He deserves a Nobel prize 
of some sort. 

■ Doug Engelbart 

Got patent envy? You'll have a hard time 
matching this pioneer, who holds 20, most 
of which are on basic features in microcom- 
puting. Imagine microcomputing without 
windows; or word processing; or hyperme- 
dia, E-mail, and groupware; or the Internet. 
Imagine microcomputing without Doug 
Engelbart, now 70, who for years was a fix- 
ture at Stanford Research Institute. 
Engelbart had a vision that computers could 
be more than giant adding machines; they 
could be tools for human beings. A few 
years ago, he founded the Bootstrap 
Institute, dedicated to getting companies to 
collaborate on innovation. Comparisons 
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farfetched, which reminds us: He's best 
known for the first mouse — a wooden 
rodent invented in 1963. 

■ Grace Murray Hopper 

As a child, Grace Murray Hopper liked to 
take apart alarm clocks. She was the first 
woman to earn a doctorate in math at Yale. 
In World War II, she joinedtheNavy and 
was assigned to its computational center at 
Harvard. Amazing Grace later developed 
the first compiler for Remington Rand's 
UNI VAC in the early 1 950s and led the 
charge to create COBOL. The Navy 
recalled her in 1967, and she was on active 
duty until 1 986. She died in 1 992 at the age 
of 85 with the rank of rear admiral. Anyone 
who met her could not help but be awe- 
struck by this diminutive fire storm of a 
human being. One pictures her stuck in pur- 
gatory, refusing to enter Heaven until St. 
Peter agrees to computerize. With a Lucky 
Strike hanging from her lip, she fires at the 
grand saint: "Beg your pardon, Sir, but your 
excuse, 'We've always done it this way,' is 
the most damaging phrase in the language." 




PHILIPPE KAHN 



DREW MAJOR 



■ Philippe Kahn 

French swagger, German determination, 
jazz artistry — must be Philippe Kahn. This 
software swashbuckler writes great compil- 
ers, plays David against Microsoft's 
Goliath, and never bores us. The son of a 
German father and a French mother, Kahn 
grew up in Paris. He studied Pascal with 
N iklaus Wirth, took a degree in math, 
earned money playing jazz, and developed 
applications on an Apple II. But Pascal 
compilers were too slow, so he wrote Turbo 
Pascal. Then he marketed it. With only 
$2000 in his pocket, helanded in the U.S. 
with no green card and no job. He founded 



Borland International in an office over an 
automobile repair shop i n 1 983. Despite the 
humble abode, Kahn convinced a BYTE ad 
salesperson to accept on credit a full-page 
color ad f orTurbo Pascal. At a ridiculous 
$49.95, Kahn was swamped with orders. 

■ Mitch Kapor 

"Software has been very, very good to me," 
Mitch Kapor once said. And, we add, Mitch 
Kapor has been very, very good to software. 
In 1982, he founded Lotus Development 
and, with Jonathan Sachs, createdLotus 
1-2-3. Dan Bricklin invented the electronic 
spreadsheet (VisiCalc), but Kapor turned it 
into a more powerful, yet friendly, business 
tool. Lotus 1-2-3 remains the world's most 
widely used application. Given IBM's 
takeover of Lotus, it's interesting to note 
that Kapor once tried and failed to interest 
B ig Blue in an exclusive marketing deal for 
1-2-3. He left Lotus in 1986. In 1990, he 
cofounded the Electronic Frontier 
Foundation, a nonprofitgroup dedicated 
to understanding the social impact of the 
digital revolution. 




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A little 
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Selling or copying pirated software without 
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THE 20 MOST IMPORTANT PEOPLE 






■ Donald Knuth 

Nearly 20 years ago, while Donald Knuth 
was proofing galleys for the second edition 
of the first volume in his The Art of Pro- 
g ramming magnum opus, it hit him: A book 
of Os and 1 s doesn't have to be ugly. The re- 
sult was a 10-year hiatus from his Art series 
to develop TEX, a typesetting language for 
scientific publishing, and Metaf ont, an al- 
phabet design system. Then the prolific 
scholar/programmer knocked out six books 
to explain them. (Now there's a word pro- 
cessor.) Now professor emeritus at Stanford, 
his fourth Art volume of a planned seven is 
in press. Oh, he's also a biblical scholar, 
having written 3:16 Bible Texts Illuminated, 
a history that examines chapter 3, verse 16 
i n each of the Bible's 5 9 books. 

■ Thomas Kurtz 

Overkill. That's what Thomas Kurtz thinks 
of today's software. "The public has been 
sold the most complicated word processing 
systems imaginable, when all they want to 
do is to write a letter." Aching for simplicity 
in a computer programming language, 
Kurtz and John Kemeny codeveloped BA- 
SIC in 1 964. It has its detractors, but 
BASIC is still bundled on virtually every 
microcomputer sold. They never copyright- 
ed it, so dozens of variations appeared. This 
horrified the Drs. K, who dubbed the 
dialects "Street BASIC." In the 1980s, they 
formed a company to develop True BASIC, 
a lean version that meets ANSI and ISO 
standards. Kurtz is currently a professor 
emeritus at Dartmouth. Kemeny, once pres- 
ident of Dartmouth, died in 1 992. 

■ Drew Major 

As Drew Major sees it, "In the next [com- 
puter] generation, nothing will not be con- 
nected." But what would you expect from 
Major, chief scientist at Novell and lead ar- 
chitect of NetWare, still the preeminent 
NOS (network OS). Fresh out of Brigham 
Young University in 1 980, Major and two 
buddies took a six-week consulting job at 
Novell (which was trying to make CP/M 
machines) and wound up staying 15 years. 
When NetWare 3.0 shipped in 1989, it con- 
tained server-based applications called 
NLMs (NetWare loadable modules), a great 
leap forward over the kludgy VAPs (value- 
added processes) of the previous version. 
How bad were VAPs? They're the only 
thing about NetWare that Major ever apolo- 




JOHNWARNOCK 



STEVE WOZNIAK 



gized for. Undoubtedly, his mother taught 
him to be polite. 

■ Robert Metcalfe 

For five points, what came first: commer- 
cially sold PCs or the LAN? Robert 
Metcalfe knows. He outlined local 
networking technology in his doctoral dis- 
sertation at Harvard. In 1973, he went to 
Xerox PARC, where he invented Ethernet 
to connect the Alto computers (never sold 
commercially) in use there. Thus, the LAN 
was born before the first PCs were market- 
ed. Today Ethernet connects more than 50 
million computers. In 1979, Metcalfe 
founded 3Com, a networking company. He 
retired in 1990 and was publisherof 
InfoWorld for VA years. So what does the 
Father of Ethernet think about the informa- 
tion highway? A fad. "Soon the fad will be 
over," he says. "Then we can get back to the 
business of building I-ways — another 50 
years of plumbing." 

■ Bjarne Stroustrup 

Perhaps because their native tongues are 
not widely spoken, Scandinavians are noted 
for their multilingual talents. So it's no sur- 
prise that C++ inventor Bjarne Stroustrup, a 
native of Denmark, rejects any notion of a 
universal programming language: "...the 
idea of spanning the whole spectrum of pro- 
gramming with one language is absurd." In 
the mid- 1 980s, Stroustrup, head of Bell 
Labs' large-scale programming research de- 
partment, defined the C++ object-oriented 
extension of the C language. He also 
authored two notable works on C++, 
including The C++ Programming 
Language. To those who whine about how 
hard C++ is to use, he says: "It wasn't 
meant to be learned in 2 hours." 

■ John Warnock 

Two innovations clearly sparked the desk- 
top publishing revolution: The Mac and 



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Please add $5.00 S&H per package in the US & Canada. $11.25 overseas. 

Wisconsin residents add appropriate state sales ta.x &r county sales tax. 

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IMPORTANT PEflP 



John Warnock's Postscript PDL (page- 
description language). Warnock cut his 
teeth at Xerox PARC, where he developed 
graphics imaging standards. In 1982, he 
and his partner, Charles Geschke, founded 
Adobe Systems to create pioneering 
software products for desktop publishing 
and electronic document technology. As 
millions of computer users begin to 
wander the information highway, War- 
nock sees a day when cross-platform 
document and graphics standards will be 
a reality. "I think meaningful document 
standards will emerge over the next five 
years. There is a need for an abstraction 
layer that is independent of operating 
systems." 

■ Niklaus Wirth 

Pascal begat Modula 2. Modula 2 begat 
Oberon. And Niklaus Wirth begat them all. 
Wirth, of the Swiss Federal Institute of 
Technology, likes to quote Albert Einstein: 
"Make it as simple as possible but not sim- 
pler." Much of today's software is 
overweight and inefficient. Wirth is show- 
ing a simpler way with OOP (object-orient- 
ed programming). His latest, Oberon (a lan- 
guage and an OS), lets developers reuse 
built-in data structures without recompiling 
the entire OS. Applications are replaced by 
leaner tools that the OS can access on 
demand. One result: fewer bugs. Need more 
proof? The Oberon PC version, including a 
GUI, uses 1 .5 MB of RAM; Microsoft 
Windows 3.1 needs 4 MB. 

■ Steve Wozniak 

Consider Steve Wozniak, the Wizard of 
Woz, the Ultimate Hacker, one of the 
great garage inventors of all time. With 
the millions he earned when Apple went 
public, Woz no longer works like the rest 
of us. The Father of the Apple II (don't 
worry, the other Steve gets some credit, 
but it was Woz's baby) now throws his 
energy into helping youths learn computers. 
"I believe more and more we should 
support the people who are not computer 
experts." He not only spends hundreds of 
hours teaching, he also personally picks 
up the cost of AOL accounts for about 1 00 
kids. "The worst problem isn't so much 
students, but teachers really need forced 
training. It costs money. The school board 
has to sit back and reprioritize what is going 
to be taught." 



Circle 235 on Inquiry Card. 



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BYTE 




Circle 260 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 261). 




Sometimes you get it; 
sometimes you don't. Why 
should computer companies be 
any different? There doesn't 
seem to be a single one that 
has the complete Midas touch. 



■ Apple III 

Apple Computer 

Apple's first designed-for-business 
computer was plagued with hardware 
gremlins after its 1980 debut. Or perhaps 
gremlins isn't the right word — ogres might 
be more accurate. At one point, Apple ad- 
vised users of malfunctioning units to lift 
their machine several inches off the desk- 
lop and then drop it — to reseat loose chips. 
The Apple 111 engineering group was 
disbanded in 1984. 

■ VisiOn 

VisiCorp 

This integrated software package had a 
slick windowing interface and was 
supposed to be the smash-hit sequel to 
VisiCalc, the first spreadsheet program. 
But two years after it appeared in 1982, 
VisiOn was "visioff." 

■ MSX 

Microsoft 

You think everything Microsoft touches 
turns to gold? Think again. MSX, a Z80- 
based computer standard developed with 
several Japanese companies in 1 983, 
flopped so badly that only a handful of 
MSX machines were ever sold in the U.S. 
Somehow Microsoft survived. 



■ Lisa 

Apple Computer 

With 1 MB of RAM, 2 MB of ROM, a 5-MB 
hard drive, and the first GUI ever seen on a 
personal computer, the Lisa was a 
breakthrough machine in 1 983. It cost 
$ 1 0,000 and crawled like a slug, however. 
When the Macintosh arrived in 1984 at 
$2495, the Lisa was doomed. In 1989, the 
last 2700 Lisas were buried in a Utah landfill. 

■ Aquarius 

Mattel 

When Mattel demonstrated this computer at 
a trade show in 1983, employees had to 
conceal one of the keys with masking tape. 
For some bizarre reason known only to 
Mattel engineers, the Aquarius had a con- 
venient key that instantly rebooted the 
computer and wiped out all your data. 

■ DEC Rainbow 

Digital Equipment Corp. 
In the early 1980s, several companies tried 
to sell computers that ran MS-DOS but 
weren't IBM PC-compatible. One was the 
DEC Rainbow, which became famous as 
the computer that couldn't format its own 
floppy disks. You had to buy preformatted 
blank disks from DEC — at a considerable 
markup. The Rainbow quickly faded in 
1985. 

■ Gavilan Mobile Computer 

Gavilan Computer Corp. 
This early 8088-based laptop had an eight- 
line LCD screen, an innovative touchpad, 
and an optional printer that attached to the 
back. But it wasn't PC-compatible and suf- 
fered from technical problems. In 1984, a 
Gavilan executive announced, "The micro- 
computer industry is entering a new chap- 
ter—Chapter 1 1." 




DIM PROSPECTS FOR DATA GENERAL. 




APPLE'S USA: BEAT OUT BY A GUY NAMED MAC. 



SEPTEMBER 1995 BYTE 145 



r .. 



20 ; S P E C TA e U I A R FA I L U R E S 



■ Adam 

Coleco 

For the incredibly low price of $599, eager 
buyers got a Z80-based home computer 
with a daisy-wheel printer, a 512-KB tape 
drive, and bundled software — luxurious 
features in 1 984. But the Adam was so 
poorly designed that it sometimes erased its 
own tapes during boot-up. It was 
nicknamed the "Adam bomb." 

■ PCjr 

IBM 

This cruelly crippled cousin of the IBM PC 
was supposed to conquer the home market 
in 1984. Instead, it was overshadowed by 
Apple's launch of the Macintosh, and its 
chiclet keyboard and sky-high price drove 
away hordes of buyers. The PCjr died a 
laughingstock in 1985. 

■ Mindset PC 

Mindset 

Too far ahead of its time, the Mindset tried 
to bring dazzli ng color graphics to business 
users in 1984. Unfortunately, it wasn't com- 




GAVILAN HAD THE RIGHT IDEA BUT WASN'T PC. 



pletely PC-compatible, andmost business 
users thought color graphics were for game 
machines. (Little did they know....) How- 
ever, the Mindset became the first computer 
in the New York Museum of Modern Art's 
permanent industrial collection. 

■ DG/One 

Data General 

This 10-poundlaptophada 12-inch LCD 

screen, a mighty impressive feature in 



1984. In theory, anyway: The nonbacklit 
screen was almostreadableif the light was 
just right and you had the vision of 
Superman. Most people didn't. 

■ Osborne II 

Osborne Computer 

In 1984, Adam Osborne announced that he 
would introduce a new version of his 
Osborne I, the first successful portable 
computer. In anticipation of the Osborne 
11 's superior features and performance, 
sales of the Osborne I plummeted. When 
the Osborne II was delayed, the company's 
finances plummeted. Within months, 
Osborne was in bankruptcy court. 

■ Jazz 

Lotus Development 

This 1985 integrated software package was 
supposed to turn the Mac into a whiz-bang 
business machine. But most reviewers said 
that Jazz didn't boogie, and Microsoft 
Excel outsold it 3 to 1 . After Microsoft in- 
troduced its own integrated software, 
Works, Jazz sang the blues. 



Peabody Here. 
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14-6 BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 



Circle 275 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 276). 





LIFE JUST GOT EASIER! 



Datapro has the 
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20 SPECTAGtltAR FAILURES 



■ TopView 

IBM 

Preceded by a year of hype and ballyhoo, 
TopView was supposed to bring multitask- 
ing to DOS programs on IBM PCs. In 1 985, 
however, the typical PC had an 8088 or a 
286 CPU with 256 to 640 KB of RAM. 
Hardware and compatibility problems soon 
droppedTopView out of sight. 

■ Windows 1.0 

Microsoft 

This is the only spectacular failure that 
eventually made a comeback and became a 
spectacular success. Announced in 1983 
and shipped in 1 985, Windows 1 .0 was so 
crude that it was mocked by Mac users and 
largely ignored by PC users. Not until 
Microsoft released version 3.0 in 1 990 did 
Windows become a hit. 

■ Access 

Microsoft 

We're talking about the 1985 terminal pro- 
gram, not the 1992 relational database. 
Need we say more? 




PCJR: CHICLETS ARE FOR GUM-NOT FOR KEYBOARDS. 



■ PC Convertible 

IBM 

Reviewers weren't exactly thrilled with 
IBM's first laptop in 1 986. IBM retailer 
president Jay Rosovsky responded, "So 
what? It's going to sell well because it says 
IBM and might legitimize a lap market 
that's been wallowing. I don't think it's 
technologically great shakes." He was 
wrong, and he was right. 

■ dBase IV 

Ashton-Tate 

Released in 1988 after long delays, dBase 

IV was so riddled with bugs that many users 



fled back to dBase III Plus. Two years later, 
dBase IV 1 . 1 finally fixed some of the bugs, 
but the damage was done. Borland bought 
Ashton-Tate in 1991 and spent three more 
years porting dBase to Windows. 

■ Momenta Pentop 

Momenta 

This 386-based portable pen computer 
could run either Windows or a proprietary 
GUI environment and was considered 
intriguing enough to make the cover of 
B YTE in November 1991. But it weighed 7 
pounds, cost $4995, and was hobbled by 
poor handwriting recognition. After its 
shining Momenta in the sun, the company 
expired in 1992. 

■ OSI 

International Standards Organization 
OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) is a 
seven-layer reference model for network 
protocols that was supposed to set a new 
standard for interoperability. Thanks to 
strong backing from the federal 
government, it never had a chance. 




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management tool with their development tools (and they've all built in hooks), maybe you should check it out Datamation, August 19 



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Circle 76 on Inquiry Card. 



Smart Connectivity does more than 
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Copyright 1995 Persoft, Inc. All Rights Reserved. SmarTerm and Persoft are registered trademarks of Persoft, Inc. All other trademarks 
are property of their respective owners. 

Circle 234 on Inquiry Card. 



persofr 

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What You Protect Is Your Business. 
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Circle 246 on Inquiry Card. 




Co 



Hackerdom is divided into two 
parts: technologically adept 
and clever people, who could 
write a computer game in a 
night, and, sadly, irresponsible 
slimeballs, who hijack computer 
and phone systems for the heck 
of it. Here is a look at some 
of the amazing stunts that have 
been pulled by both hackers 
and crackers. 



■ Breaking, Stealing, and Phone- 
Phreaking 

When Kevin D. Mitnick was finally bagged 
by the FBI on February 15, 1995, in 
Raleigh, North Carolina, he had been on the 
lam since 1992 from a three-year 
probation — part of his sentence from a 
1989 conviction for stealing software from 
DEC. This accomplishment made him the 
first person convicted under a law against 
gaining access to an interstate computer 
network for criminal purposes. Mitnick al- 
so did a year in the slammer for that one. 
Physicist and computer security expert 
Tsutomu Shimomura assisted authorities in 
tracking Mitnick down this time, after 
Mitnick invaded Shimomura's own 
computer during an assault on San Diego 
Supercomputer Center systems. If the latest 
allegations stick, Mitnick faces a somewhat 
more stable future of up to 35 years in 



prison and $500,000 in fines. 

Besides stealing DEC's VMS OS— val- 
ued by DEC at a million dollars — and ne- 
cessitating some 18 months and $ 1 60,000 
on DEC's part to defend its compromised 
computers and track him down, other 
alleged feats on Mitnick's resume include 
breaking into a California motor vehicles 
database, lifting 20,000 credit card account 
numbers from an on-line service, gaining 
control of New York and California 
telephone switching hubs via modem, 
eavesdropping on phone calls, mutating ba- 
sic home telephones into quarter-demand- 
ing pay phones, and stashing data he 
filched from other networks in files of the 
California-based Well on-line service. 

In addition to typing skills, Mitnick ap- 
parently has a knack for keeping a step 
ahead of pursuers by perusing their plans 
on their own E-mail systems, scanning po- 
lice bands for mentions of his whereabouts, 
and using cellular phones. Mitnick has an 
interesting system for getting systems ad- 
ministrators to bestow upon him network 
access codes, passwords, and privileged 
status for accounts he controls — the keys to 
their computer kingdoms: He asks them to, 
disguising his true identity and offering 
some plausible tale. During his stays in jail, 
he is routinely forbidden to dial telephone 
numbers himself lest he wreak some phone- 
phreaking black magic havoc. He has 
deniedever cracking the NORAD (North 
American Air Defense) Command comput- 
er, a rumored exploit that supposedly 
inspired the movie War Games. 

■ The Worm That Roared 

At 8 p.m. on November 2. 1988, 22-year- 
old Cornell University graduate student 




KtVIN MIINILK A HHREAKER SO DANGEROUS SOMEONE ELSE 
MUSI PlAL't HIS UNt PHONE CALL 




HERE HE IS, A MAN WHO WORMED HISWAYINTD OUR 

HEARTS: ROBERTMDRRIS. 



SI -PI liMBBR I9i)5 BY 1 



NOTED AND NOTORIOUS HACKER. FEATS 




YES, THERE IS JOY IN M UDVILLE-BILL JOY, THAT IS, 

INVENTOR OFAHOSTOFUNIX UTILITIES. 



Robert Tappan Morris launched a worm 
program that he had written from an MIT 
account. Imagine his surprise upon learning 
that his worm — designed specifically to tra- 
verse the Internet autonomously, finesse 
Unix loopholes he had laboriously 
researched, exploit the eccentricities of 
sendmail, scan lists of addresses for weak 
links, fool investigators into thinking it 
came from Berkeley, guess at passwords us- 
ing a list of hundreds of common ones, and 
duplicate itself ceaselessly — was causing 
trouble on the network. 

This computer cancer multiplied 
exponentially, filling up memories, stuffing 
disk drives, and consuming execution 
resources until machines began crashing 
one after another. Within hours, more than 
6000 computer systems — fully one-tenth of 
the Internet — had been brought to their 
knees, affecting businesses, universities, 
the federal government, NASA, and the Air 
Force. Days of round-the-clock work were 
required to purge the infection from the sys- 
tems and remedy the injury that had been 
done. Workers and researchers lost days of 
active computer time. A new government 
team of experts, CERT (Computer 
Emergency Response Team), was organized 
specifically to deal with any future 
incidents like the Morris worm. 

Because he had discussed his worm-to-be 
with friends for weeks before launch day, it 
did not take authorities long to put two and 
two together and zero in on Morris. One of 
the first to be tried and convicted under the 



Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1 986, 
Morris faced possible sentences of up to 
five years in prison and $250,000 in fines 
but received a slap on the wrist: only three 
years of probation, 400 hours of community 
service, and a $10,000 fine. It was pointed 
out by his defense that the worm did not ac- 
tually delete or modify any files — small 
comfort to those who had to deal with the 
mess and whose cost estimates ranged from 
a modest $15 million to over $100 million. 
Morris said he meant no harm. 

■ Like Father, Like Son 

Robert Morris, Sr., Robert T. Morris's 
father and by odd coincidence a computer 
security expert with the National Security 
Agency, used to vie with rival Ken Thomp- 
son, one of the inventors of Unix, when 
both worked for Bell Labs. Legend has it 
that Morris, Sr., once typed two specific 
characters into a terminal and brought down 
one of the first versions of Multics. Deja vu. 

■ The 75-Cent Solution 

Clifford Stoll, by training an astronomer, by 
occupation a systems administrator at 
Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, was inves- 
tigating a 75-cenl discrepancy in a suppos- 
edly defunct computeraccount that seemed 
to have been commandeered by an unautho- 
rized user. The intruder was giving himself 
system privileges and creating accounts 
with names like Hunter, Jaeger, Benson, 
and Hedges. Although Stoll could have sim- 
ply changed passwords, reassigned 
privileges, and so forth — effectively slam- 
ming the door on the intruder — he chose in- 
stead to monitor the intruder's on-line ac- 
tivity in the system. What the intruder was 
doing was using the LBLcompulers as a 
jumping-off point into the Arpanet, and 
then the Milnet (an unclassified military 
network), and thence to various Department 
of Defense computers on bases nationwide. 
From the files being examined, it was clear 
that the intruder was looking for secret 
American military information. Stoll was 
on the trail of a hacker spy. 

The investigation took months, then 
years. By rigging connections that would 
page him whenever the intruder struck, 
Stoll was able to trace the connection back 
from LBL to a Tymnet node in McLean, 
Virginia, then to a bank of modems at Mitre 
Corp., and finally to West Germany. Stoll's 



a successful ruse that got the intruder to re- 
quest defense information by mail, giving a 
name and address of one affiliate of the in- 
truder. Atthatpoint, local police, the FBI, 
and the CIA became involved. 

The intruder, it turned out, was one of a 
group of young German men hoping to gel 
rich quick by peddling stolen software and 
information to the Soviet KGB. They began 
by selling stolen DEC software, then 
pilfered nonvital defense-related docu- 
ments, and ended by selling each other 
down the river. Of the group, Karl Koch 
(aka Hagbard Celine, a fictional character 
that is, by contrast, a hero) committed sui- 
cide or was murdered — no one ever deter- 
mined which; Hans Huebner (aka Pengo, a 
penguin in a computer game) had all 
charges dropped due to his tender years; 
Dirk-Otto Brzezinski (or Dob) received a 
14-month sentence and a $2500 fine: Peter 
Carl received a two-year sentence and a 
$ I 500 fine: and Markus Hess (the actual in- 
truder with a penchant for certain brands of 
cigarettes) received a 20-month sentence 
and a $5000 fine. None of the defendants 
served any time. Stoll testified at the trial 
and later wrote a book about his experience, 
The Cuckoo's Egg (Doubleday, 1989). 

■ Uncrackable Code Creator 

It's not often that one programmer gets to 
define an entire genre of software, but 
Philip Zimmerman has done it. His PGP 
(Pretty Good Privacy) is a freeware 
program that uses RSA (Rivesl-Shamir- 
Adleman) -style public-key encryption al- 
gorithms to create secure encrypted 
versions of sensitive documents that can 
be sent over the Internet as E-mail without 
fear of compromise. The intended recipient 
then uses his or her code to decrypt the 
document. The security of the algorithm is 



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Circle 220 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 221). 



NOTED AND NOTORIOUS HACKED FEATS 



based on the computational difficulty of 
finding the prime factors (the "keys" to the 
code) of very large numbers. 

Becausethe U.S. does not allow crypto- 
graphic hardware and software to be export- 
ed — even when, as here, the essence of the 
algorithm is mathematical theory that any- 
one can learn — Zimmerman has had a num- 
ber of encounters with police types since 
PGP's debut in 1 990. It seems strange that a 
democratic government would find itself 



among those opposing privacy, but comput- 
ers make strange bedfellows. 

■ Uncrackable Code Cracker 

In 1 977, Ronald Rivest, Adi Shamir, and 
Leonard Adleman (the RSA of RS A public- 
key encryption) created a short message with 
their code and challenged all comers to crack 
it. Arjen K. Lenstra, a scientist at Bellcore 
(Bell Communications Research), took up 
thegauntletin 1993 and in May 1994 



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announced that RSA-1 29 (so-called because 
its public key is 1 29 digits — 429 bits — long) 
had been cracked. RSA had to pony up $ 1 00, 
the reward offered for the feat. 

The eight-month effort was no mere com- 
puter program. The complexity of finding 
the prime factors of large numbers required 
the organization of a "metacomputer": a 
loose confederation of many computers, 
each working on a piece of the problem. 
This particular project involved the spare 
execution cycles of some 1 600 PCs and 
workstations and 600 teammates scattered 
along the Internet all over the country. 

Not to worry about possible threats to se- 
curity as a result of this particular code- 
cracking. First it's unlikely that such eight- 
month/1600-computer projects would go 
unnoticed. And second, actual real-life en- 
cryption uses keys 5 1 2 to 1 024 — or more — 
bits long. A 1 024-bit RSA key would 
require 3 x 10 il MlPS-years to crack. 

So, what did the decoded message say? 
"The magic words are squeamish 
ossifrage." Shoulda guessed. 

Hi, Liz, Guess Who? 

In 1994, an unknown temporary worker at 
British Telecom used his boss's passwords, 
conveniently taped to the side of his 
computer monitor, to ferret out the secret 
not-published-in-any-directory phone num- 
bers of Her Royal Majesty the queen, 
Prime Minister John Major, and several 
top-secret MI5 installations, among others. 
Freelance Scottish journalist Steve Fleming 
saw a scoop and sold the tale to The 
Independent. In the meantime, the list of 
phone numbers was also posted on the 
Internet before it was yanked by investigat- 
ing officials. Then, the unknown temp 
turned out to be — Steve Fleming. No one 
knows how many unexpectedphone calls 
Her Majesty has had to field. 



154 BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 



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^ . C! 



HACKER F 




■ The Joy of Ex 

The many achievements of Sun 
Microsystems cofounder Bill Joy are 
legendary, and anyone would garner Joy a 
bust in the Unix wing of the Hacker Hall of 
Fame (to be constructed). In 1 975, Joy be- 
came a Ph.D. student atUC Berkeley. 
Captivated by Unix, but unhappy with the 
ed line editor, he took the code for the em 
("editor for mortals") editor (supplied by 
developerGeorge Coulouris) and in a week 
produced most of the ex editor. In 1 976, Joy 
wrote an improved Pascal compiler for 
Unix that became a standard Pascal 
programming tool. In 1978, he produced the 
first BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution) 
of utilities and began distributing BSD on 
tape. That same year, he created the v i edi- 
tor and distributed the 2BSD (Second 
Berkeley Software Distribution). The 
3BSD was a complete bootable system. In 
the early 1 980s, Joy took the nascent 
TCP/IP and in a few weeks was running it 
satisfactorily between test machines. In one 
night, he wrote the utilities rep, rl ogi n, 
and rsh for temporary use: They're still go- 
ing. Joy also created the C shell for BSD, 
and it was subsequently adopted in AT&T's 
own Unix System V release 4.0. No one 
person has done for Unix what Joy has. 

■ Legion of Doomed 

The self-styled LOD (Legion of Doom) was 
basically a bunch of fun-loving guys (fun 
here having the special meaning seizing 
control of telephone lines and switching 
equipment, eavesdropping on private phone 
conversations, unauthorized logging on to 
phone company computers, messing up 
telephone billing information, and helping 
others to do the same). Naturally, the pur- 
suit of such a unique variety of fun requires 
some pretty specialized know-how, such as 
BellSouth's internal technical specifica- 
tions for the 9 1 1 emergency telephone net- 
work. In 1 990, the boys from LOD's 
Georgia franchise managed to overcome 
their ingrained bourgeois notions of person- 
al property, purloined a copy, and were 
caught. The value of the document in ques- 
tion ranged from $20 to $24,639 to 
$70,000, with value definitely being in the 
eye of the beholder. BellSouth also 
maintained that the LODsters had lifted 
log-ins, passwords, and connect addresses 
with a value of $233,800 and that it had 
spent $1.5 million in fingering them and a 
further $3 million defending the company 



156 BYXE SEPTEMBER 1995 



Circle 236 on Inquiry Card. 




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Circle 266 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 267). 




ttflTED AMD JlflTO H I Q US MUM FEATS 



from them. Convicted defendants Franklin 
E. Darden, Jr., Adam E. Grant, and Robert 
J. Riggs were given sentences of 1 4 months, 
1 4 months, and 2 1 months, respectively, 
and ordered to pay restitution of $233,000 
to BellSouth. Life isn't always fair. 

■ Nerdz n the Hood 

In contrast to the LOD (characterized by 
some as well-off white guys), the 



MOD (Masters of Deception, whose initials 
were deliberately chosen to be one up on 
LOD) was a posse of multiethnic teenagers 
mainly in working-class Brooklyn and 
Queens. Their definition of fun was eerily 
similar, however, perhaps a tribute to the 
social empowerment possible with comput- 
ers. This gang was adept at invading the 
systems and networks of powerful entities, 
including AT&T, Bank of America, TRW, 



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and the National Security Agency, display- 
ing a mastery of telephone, network, Unix, 
and VAX arcana to rival the experts in the 
invadees mentioned but using only the 
most basic equipment (like a Commodore 
64). Besides the usual telephone-torturing 
shenanigans, the MODers could also 
access and circulate supposedly private 
credit reports. The MODs and the LODs 
were constantly staging skirmishes against 
each other, mainly in the form of bizarre 
phone pranks that caused great collateral 
damage to the phone service of innocent 
bystanders. 

In 1991, investigators from a number of 
agencies, including New York Telephone's 
investigative unit, the FBI, and the Secret 
Service, used the first wiretaps ever in a 
hacker case to unmask the MODs. Members 
included Messrs. MarkAbene(Phiber 
Optik), Julio Fernandez (Outlaw), Eli 
Ladopoulos (Acid Phreak), John Lee 
(Corrupt), and Paul Stira (Scorpion). In 
1993, Abene received a one-year sentence, 
while Ladopoulos and Stira each received 
six-month sentences, plus probation and 
community service time. Because they were 
teenagers at the time of the acts for which 
they were convicted, and because their sub- 
sequent behavior has been good, observers 
expressed regret at the sentences. 

■ MacPuzzle 

Besides everything else he did to help get 
the first Macintosh out the door, Andy 
Hertzf eld wrote all the first desk 
accessories. Most of these were written in 
assembly. However, to show that desk ac- 
cessories could also be written in higher- 
level languages, Hertzf eld wrote a demon- 
stration puzzle game desk accessory in 
Pascal. Like its plastic counterparts, users 
moved squares around until the numbers 1 
to 9 were in order. As time began to get 
short, the decision was made that the puz- 
zle, at 7 KB, was too big (and too game- 
like) to ship with the first Macintosh. In a 
single weekend, Hertzf eld rewrote the pro- 
gram to take up only 800 bytes. The puzzle 
shipped with the Mac. 

■ Software Immortality 

Quick, look at the beginning of any EXE 
program that runs on DOS, Windows, NT, 
or OS/2. Although you may never have no- 
ticed it before, they all start with the two 
ASCII characters MZ. Why MZ? Those are 



BYTE SEPTEMBER 1 995 



Circle 222 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 223). 







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Circle 256 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 257). 




NOTED AND NOTORIOUS HACKER FEATS 



fa» 



Hacks, 

Crflcks 

Phreaks,' 

and ats 

HACKERS ARE 
THE "GOOD GUYS," 
CREATING REMARKARLE 
SOFTWARE IN 
RECORD TIME. 
CRACKERS ARE 
HACKERS GONE RAD. 



the initials of Microsoft programmer Mark 
Zbikowski, who has thereby achieved a 
kind of immortality (as long as people are 
running DOS-compatible programs). 

■ Pirates, Ho! 

Using the computer system at Florida State 
University as a stepping-stone to the 
Internet, software pirates in 1994 illegally 
uploaded IBM's OS/2, Microsoft Windows 
95 beta, and other commercial programs to 
an area where anyone on the Internet could 
snag them for nothing. As a result, the 
Windows 95 beta is currently one of the 
most pirated and most posted programs on 
the Internet. 

■ Gotta Finder 

It sounds like a strange adventure game. 
You have six months until your company 
ships its revolutionary new computer and 
millions of people will turn it on and see — 
what? Well, that was the problem haunting 
SteveCappsand Bruce Horn in the summer 
of 1983. With the Mac's announcement 
scheduled for January 1 984, they had to 
code what would come to be known as the 
Mac Finder — the file-manipulation and ap- 



plication interface that "knowledge work- 
ers" would be looking at and using day in 
and day out. Despite what you've heard 
about Apple simply lifting the Xerox Star's 
interface, every detail of the Mac's 
interface was discussed, experimented 
with, and agonized overformonths. Some 
aspects were inherited from Apple's failing 
Lisa. Steve Jobs offered suggestions and 
vetoes. Designer Susan Kare took care of 
the aesthetics. The result was an interface 
people still point to as the way to do it right. 
And it ran in 50 KB. 

■ Al Effort 

In 1978, Harvard Business School graduate 
student Dan Bricklin had an idea for a kind 
of electronic blackboard that would 
automatically do calculations. His "visible 
calculator" became VisiCalc a year later, 
developed with Bob Frankston and 
published by Personal Software. The first 
electronic spreadsheet, VisiCalc appeared 
first for the Apple II computer — its 32-KB 
total size fitting comfortably into the Apple 
II's maximum of 48 KB of memory. Every 
spreadsheet since has duplicated features 
that VisiCalc premiered: automatic recalcu- 
lation, labeled rows and columns, built-in 
math and business functions, and the ability 
to change parameters to do what-if analysis. 
Its under-200-page manual is in marked 
contrast to the multivolume bricks for 
today's spreadsheets. 

■ St. Paul, Oscar Wilde, and... 

In 1979, while hoosegowed in Penn- 
sylvania's Northampton State Prison for 
offenses of the phone-phreaking kind, John 
Draper (aka Cap'n Crunch, after a brand 
of cereal whose free toy whistle's pitch 
could switch phone lines so phreaking 
might begin) wrote the word processing 
program Easy Writeron acomputerprovid- 
ed as part of his rehabilitation program. 

■ Rebel Without a Clue 

Bulgaria's otherwise-unknown Dark 
Avenger creates and unleashes a plethora of 
computer viruses all over the world. He has 
also produced a virus-making toolkit to 
make it easier for like-minded mis- 
anthropes to foul up the computers of total 
strangers. Romantic enough to name a virus 
after the American virus researcher Sara 
Gordon, who reputedly interviewed him, 
his main satisfaction seems to come from 



causing misery to millions of computer 
users the world over. What's he avenging? 
Who knows? 

■ Hackers in Space 

NASA astronaut Richard J. Hieb assisted in 
the dramatic rescue of the off-course $150 
million Intelsat IV satellite in May 1992. 
Maneuvering the space shuttle (Endeavour, 
in this case) to rendezvous with another ob- 
ject in space is a surprisingly complex 
chore, rendered more difficult by tradition- 
al radartechnology's inability to accurately 
measure the distance and relative speed of 
objects that get that close and move that 
slowly relative to each other. Luckily, on 
this rescue mission, they were employing a 
new laser-assisted system with software 
written by Hieb himself. 

Hieb began writing his Payload Bay pro- 
gram (in C) in the early 1980s on his home 
computer. When he actually used it, he was 
quitefarfrom home, running Payload Bay 
on one of NASA's Grid laptops. The OS? 
Plain old down-to-earth DOS. 

■ Dial H for Hacker 

When a Chicago-area real estate company 
started having trouble with its telephone 
voice-mail system in 1989, it had un- 
wittingly exposed the tip of a nationwide 
criminal iceberg. Intruders were breaking 
into voice-mail systems, creating their own 
voice-mail accounts with which to barter 
stolen credit card numbers, changing pass- 
words to lock out the legitimate users and 
administrators, and then using the systems 
to dial out again — toll f ree. They would use 
the stolen credit card numbers to buy 
Western Union money orders that their 
leadereventually turned into cash, kicking 
back a percentage to over 1 50 accomplices 
nationwide. They would also crack corpo- 
rate PBX codes, enabling them to make 




160 BYTE MONTH 1995 




Introducing ABC Flowcharter 4.0. 
The reigning business graphics heavyweight. 



When it comes to creating high-quality business diagrams, 
new ABC Flowcharter 4.0 gives you ultimate power, flex- 
ibility and control. The program 
is loaded with four fully-integrat- 
ed modules specifically designed 
to meet the demands of the 
business graphics user. Whether 
you need to create complex 
flowcharts for TQM and BPR, 
analyze your statistical data, or 
simply pull together clean, colorful presentation charts in 
a matter of minutes, ABC Flowcharter 4.0 can help you 
accomplish your mission. Only ABC Flowcharter 4.0 fea- 





FEATURES 


ABC 

Flowcharter 


Visio 3.0 


CorclFL0W2.0 




Intelligent line routing 


• 








Automatic add/delete shapes 


* 








Automatic line crossovers 


• 








Data fields 


* 








OLE 2.0 automation 


• 


• 






Royalty free flowchart viewer 
(ABC Viewer'") 


* 








Statistical Process Control 
Charting (ABC Data Analyzer'") 


• 








21 pre-defined diagram templates 
(ABC SnapGraphics'") 


• 







tures automatic line crossovers, intelligent line routing and 

data fields. And those are just a few of the features we've 
added to make your life easier. 
Right now you can get ABC 
Flowcharter 4.0 for as little as 
$99.95 upgrade. And you can 
upgrade from any business 
graphics program you already 
own. No other program gives 
you such complete power for so 

little. If you want to settle for less, it's 

your business. Contact your favorite 

reseller or call 1-800-877-3040. 



Avcwestef 

CfftllfoR 



MICROGRAFX 




BUY 



MiuiMJir^ 
EXHEZXDkJ 



■SOFTWARE 

•SPECTRUM 



A RECIPE FOR HOPE 



Circle 227 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 228). 

*U.S.SRP ($149.95 Canadian) for users of any Micrografx product or any version of the following competitive products: 

Visio, CorelFlow, AllClear, Flowcharting 4, EasyFlow, or other diagramming software. Copyright 1995© Micrografx Inc. 

All rights reserved. All trademarks are owned by their respective companies. 




NOTED AMD WOTDHIOUS HACKER FEATS 



unlimited, free long-distance calls. 
Hundreds of long-distance calls for 
hundreds of thousands of dollars were 
billed to the helpless voice-mail and PBX 
owners. The criminal ring stole over $9000 
in charged merchandise, $ 1 000 in money 
orders, $30,000 in voice-mail service, 
$250,000 in telephone service, and $ 1 .2 
million in PBX long-distance telephone 
service. 

Who was the apparent mastermind of 
this scheme? Agents found over 150 
telephone credit card numbers, over 250 
bank credit card numbers, and dozens of 
PBX "extender" codes in the possession 
of a 35-year-old Chicago mother of two, 
Leslie Lynn Doucette (Kyrie). She was 
sentenced to a 27-month prison term 
in 1990. 

■ The Wizard of Woz 

Steve Wozniak began designing a computer 
partly because he didn't have enough mon- 
ey to buy one. The results were the Apple I 
and Apple II computers. Wozniak also 



wanted to build the kind of computer he 
wanted to use. At the time, many comput- 
ers relied on cassette tapes to save and dis- 
tribute programs and data. Wozniak 
designed a 5'/-inch disk drive system for 
the Apple II, reckoning — correctly — 
that disks would become a tad more popu- 
lar than cassettes. Unlike other disk drive 
systems — IBM's comes to mind — that 
were based on a conglomeration of 
electronics and mechanical components, 
Wozniak's system was based completely 
on software control of the drive. As a 
result, Apple II drives had the flexibility 
to read and format a variety of disks — 
hard-sectored, soft-sectored, or what- 
ever — without hard-wired preset settings. 
The software implementation also meant 
that expensive and complex interface 
boards were not necessary, making the 
Apple drives simpler and cheaper. 

The Apple II had rudimentary sound 
but composite video and a simple and com- 
pact layout. Wozniak made sure the Apple 
II had expansion slots in the motherboard to 




BYTE starts a 
new series of 
"language sur- 
vivors." First up: 
FORTRAN. 

Haitian President 
Jean-Bertrand 
Aristide and his 
democratic gov- 
ernment are 
deposed in a 
military coup. 



allow simpler upgrading (like Microsoft's 
CP/M emulation board to run WordStar), 
a feature IBM later included in the first 
IBM PC. Wozniak also became a master 
of the MOS Technology 6502 chip, not be- 
cause it was a more capable microprocessor 
than Motorola's 6800 or Intel's 8080, but 
because it was cheaper — an important 
consideration whenever starting a multibil- 
lion-dollar industry from a garage. 




lust because you've seen one dongle doesn't mean you've 
seen them all! The Marx CRYPT0-B0X is the most sophisti- - ,, 
cated and effective protection against software piracy and mf" 
unauthorized duplication you can buy! *Call toll free to order 
a demo kit at $5 off the regular $19.95 (plus S&W) & a FREE 
"Wanna See My Dongle" T-shirt with evei-y order while supplies last. ^^fffiB 

Box 95743, Atlanta, GA30347 Germany: 8403-1555 France: 8881-4031 JkJkM ^B^f 

I "OUU"IVIArvX"IIM I Jy international, inc. 



Circle 281 on Inquiry Card. 

162 BYTE MONTH 1995 




The Port Authority 

The Sealevel fleet Has expanded to over 75 comnruni- 
cation and I/O products for tire PC arid compatibles. And each 
rtjm.'iins true to OLir original course: to provide you the value 
of high end features and reliability at low end prices. 
"Versatile Vessels - Senlevel products provide selectable 
addressing and flexible interrupt request selections. 16550 
UART's are standard while optional 166SO enhanced UART's 
are available to provide compatibility with twice the 
buffer size. 

Chartered "Voyages - We're one of the few that encourages 
you to captain our reources to design and build customized 
products to fit your specific needs. 

Lifeline - Wc provide comprehensive technical support 

staffed with knowledgeable people who can navigate you 
through even the roughest water. 

Whatever Floats Your Boat - We offer a wide variety of com- 
munication and I/O cards for multiple platforixis including 
ISA Bus, PC/104, PCMCIA, and Micro Channel. 



Products Include: IVLi.il- 

- Hinh-speect Sync/Async - Di R ital/Latchin K Relay I/O - S 
Emulation SysiL'ins 
Electrical In tei-fiiees Support. 

RS-.S30, RS-122/4H5, RS-449, 
Current Loop, V.3.S, and irioi 



S/2. Serial I/O 
lid State Disk 



For 



rifci 



all 



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5EALEVEL 



PO Box 830 
berty, SC 29657 
S03. 84-3. 4-34-3 • Fax: 803.S43.3067 



Circle 244 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 245). 



Introducing 



ISDN with V. 34 in a Single Device 



^$M*> 






THE MOD 
OF THEM 




LLENNIUM 



m 




pwRMO M «« SV» P*P «* 



Bt 



B2 



AA CO 



TXD WO HLO WW< 

PEW * ^ 






Mode! 


Description (5-year warranty) 


Elite 28641-U 


LED, ISDN (U interface) 


Elite 28641-SAT 


LED, ISDN (S/T interface) 


Elite 2864 


LED, 2 wire dial-up/leased line 


Elite 2864L 


LED, 2 wire dial-up, 2/4 wire 
leased line 




It runs with It runs with 
NetWare UnbWare- 




Blazing ISDN speeds up to 128Kbps and analog speeds up 
to 28.8Kbps. Implement V.42bis on ISDN for even higher 
performance capability. You get it all in one device with the 
new ZyXEL digital modem, the Elite 28641 — giving you the 
best of the digital and analog worlds. 

The Elite 28641 is an ISDN device that also works like a 
modem, automatically switching between digital and analog 
devices without user intervention, while maintaining the 
highest possible speed and transmission integrity: 

■Supports all popular switches. Rate adaption: ITU-T V.120, 

V.110andX.75SLP 
■Two B channels can be bundled for ultra-high 128Kbps or 

used for two simultaneous connections, e.g., voice and data 
■Built-in analog adapter communicates with all analog devices 
■V.42bis compression on ISDN achieves higher throughput 

for greater performance 
■Embedded protocol analyzer 
■Data encryption (DES)* 
■Supports V.34 and is backward-compatible 
■DTE serial interface up to 460.8Kbps 
■High-speed fax — V.17 (14.4Kbps) send and receive. 

Supports G3 EIA Class 1, 2 and 2.0 
■Parallel port for direct fax printing 

Don't settle for less than the unique engineering design of 
the ZyXEL digital Modem of the Millennium. 
Call your ZyXEL dealer or call 800-255-4101. 

Circle 258 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 259). 




The Modem of the Millennium 

4920 E. La Palma Avenue, Anaheim, CA 92807 • Telephone: (714) 693-0808 Fax: (714) 693-8811 
BBS: (714) 693-0762 • Internet: sales@zyxel.com • URL: http://www.zyxel.com 

*ZyXEL does not assume any liability arising out of the application or use of any of the security functions described herein. 
Neither does it convey any license under its parent rights nor the rights of others. 
Specifications are subject to change without notice. All trademarks are the property of their respective owners. 



RAIDION* 

Fault-Tolerant Subsystems 

RAIDION's modularity makes fault tolerance affordable for any size network, 
Configure RAIDION using RAIDWARE™ for cost effectiveness or 
add the optional LTX array hardware controller for super- 
performance and platform independence. 
Expandable. 

Start with only 2 modules for mirrored fault tol 
erance of up to 9 GB and add one more 
module to convert to RAID 5 fault 
tolerance. In this way, a single 
subsystem can grow to 42 
modules under NetWare™, 
providing a maximum storage 
capacity of 378 GB (utilizing 
9 GB modules). 
Hot-Swap 

and Hot Replacement features 
allow RAIDION to be serviced j 
while your network remains 
up and running. Foreven 

more data protection, con- M 

■.-.# 

figure RAIDION with an 

on-line spare module which 

activates automatically in 

the event of a drive 

failure. This ensures fault 

tolerant operation wi 

continue without 

human intervention. 

RAIDION is available for both 

desktop and rackmount applications 

All Micropolis drives feature a full 5 year warranty. 

For more information and the name of the authorized 
RAIDION reseller nearest you, call 



n* 






MODULE # 


CAPACITY 


DRIVE FORM 


":■ 


*LM2I00 


2.1GB 


LT3.5" 




*LM4300 


4.3 GB 


LT3.5" 




LS9000 


9.1GB 


LS 5.25" 




**RS9000 


9.1GB 


RS 5.25" 




LTX 


Array Controller 


LT3.5" 




**RTX 


Array Controller 


LT 3.57 RS 5.25" 



1-800-395-3748 



* A/so available for rackmount configuration. 
' Racfimount (oitfiguralion only. 




m 



-V*A 



MICROSOFT 
WINDOWS NT. 
COM&VF1BLE 




NetWare 
Tested and 
Approved 



MICROPOLIS 



Ml logos and names arc the property o\ tdcir respective owners. 



Circle 341 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 342). 







■ Xanadu 

Ted Nelson 

Nelson first conceived his futuristic vision 
for hypertext way back in 1960; although 
his idea inspired countless products, 
Xanadu is still pending. Autodesk worked 
on it from 1 988 to 1 992; Nelson later 
hooked up with Japan's Sapporo HyperLab. 

■ Ovation 

Ovation Technologies 

The term vaporware was first coined to de- 
scribe this integrated software package 
for DOS. Announced in 1 983 ? it never 
shipped. That was 1 2 years ago. 

■ Windows 1.0 

Microsoft 

"Microsoft Does Windows!" gushed 

Info World in 1983. Perhaps, but not for two 

more years. 



■ Macintosh Office 

Apple Computer 

Steve Jobs's infamous "reality distortion 
field" was running in overdrive when he an- 
nounced this networking solution in 1985. 
It didn't become real until 1 987. 

■ 1-2-3/G 

Lotus Development 

The first graphical version of Lotus 1-2-3 
(forOS/2)was announced in April 1987 but 
wasn't delivered until September 1990. 

■ Wingz for Windows 

Informix 

Neat new tote bags at every Comdex. But 

until 1990, they were empty. 

■ 1-2-3 for Macintosh 

Lotus Development 

Mac users had been waiting more than four 



years when 1-2-3 finally shipped in 1991. 
Unfortunately for Lotus, most of them de- 
cided it wasn't worth the wait. 

■ Windows NT 

Microsoft 

In 1991, it was known as OS/2 3.0 or OS/2 
NT. Then IBM and Microsoft had a little 
spat. When NT arrived in 1 993, it was 
Windows all the way. 

■ dBase for Windows 

Borland International 
Impatient dBase users tapped their toes for 
nearly five years. Many had walked away 
by the time the Windows version finally 
shipped in 1994. 

■ Windows 95 

Microsoft 

Need we say more? 



List#2Q 




lartujft 



Some people store cars in garages, and some also store garden 
implements and the detritus of the past. Others start multimillion- 
dollar companies in them. Beats cleaning up oil stains. 




MOM. MAY I BORROW THE VAN? 

Apple Computer 

PASCAL, CHEAP 

Borland International 

PHILIPPE HAS A RIG GARAGE 

Starfish Software 

WIRES AND PLIERS 

Cabletron 



MOO-VING ON UP 

Gateway 2000 

NO EGO OR SUPEREGO INVOLVED 

id Software 

GET RICH QUICKEN 

Intuit 

IS THERE A DOCTOR IN THE HOUSE? 

McAfee 



THE HP GARAGE IN PALO ALTO. 

WORTH 1000 WORDS 

PictureTel 

ON A KITCHEN TARLE, ACTUALLY 

Sierra On-Line 

US, TOO 

BYTE 

IT'S A LANDMARK 

Hewlett-Packard 



SEPTEMBER 1995 I* Y X E 165 



k^fcy i &mt& 



We'll give you 

Reasons 



to buy a ComByte Doubleplay dual mode drive. 



\J No configuration headaches - Unlike stand 

alone devices, the dual mode Doubleplay tape and 
floppy is one integrated drive. To the computer it 
looks and acts just like a floppy drive. No need to set 
special addresses... just plug and play. 

Q Installs in half the time - The Doubleplay is both 

a tape and floppy drive in one dual mode device 
that will fit in any IBM*or compatible PC. One set of 
mounting screws, one data cable, one power cable 
and you' re finished... in half the time. 

^^ Easy to USe - No other drive^allows you to move 
files to tape using Windows File Manager. For 
users not familiar with tape, there's no need to 
learn such terms as "backup)" [and "restore". Drag 
and drop yuur files to tape-just like it's a floppy. 



A Load Software twice as fast - Because the 
Doubleplay floppy section is doublespeed, you 
can load software applications in half the time. 

Q Reliability - With roughly half the parts of 
comparable individual drives, the Doubleplay is 
much more reliable. 

Q Use any length tape Tape lengths are all 
over the map. Because we don't believe it's your 
problem to sort out, we engineered the Doubleplay 
drive to be smart enough to read and write any 
length QIC 80 tape including the new 1000 foot, 
800 Megabyte cartridges by Verbatim* and 
Gigatek® 










O 





Tape 
Drive 


Floppy 
Drive 


ComByte 
Doubleplay 


Reads and writes all floppy formats. 




• 


• 


Doublespeed floppy. 






• 


Copies files from Windows File Manager. 




V 


• 


Windows '95 ready - gives user either backup 
media choice in one device as defined within 
Windows '95 application. 






• 


Reads and writes standard Q!C tape formats. 


• 




• 



^ Industry Standard - Using industry standard 
formats on both the tape and floppy means that 
you can exchange data with any 1 .44 Mbyte or 720 
Kbyte floppy drive and exchange tapes with 
Colorado*, Conner? Iomega* or any other QIC80 
format tape drive. 



© 



Three year warranty - we feel so confident 

about our products that we offer this spectacular 
warranty. 

CompuiLT 

EeseJkrJSfcws 





^0^ mSYNNEX 1-800-756-9888 HiVU 1-800-340-1001 



Liuski 



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1-800-454-8754 



tOrnPlyJCGc 4424 Innovation Drive, Fort Collins, CO 80525 For product information or your nearest dealer call: 1-800-990-BYTE 

Circle 323 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 324). 



Powered by the 
GLINT™ 300SX 

Order today, 

1-800-995-OMNI. 

Dealer inquiries 

welcome. 



' 




3 year warranty 



uj&p 






f» m 






For applications 
such as: 

MicroStation® 

Openlnventor 

Pro/ENGINEER 

Pro/JR.~ 

AutoCAD® 

3D Studio® 

trueSpace™ 

and others 



Call for information on 

our complete line of PC 

and VMEbus graphics 

products. 



pr- 



^ST 



GVTE 




M1F» V 



u , v i iJlfi 

WORKSTATION 
GRAPHICS 



your graphics application. Omnicomp now 
brings you a PCI based graphics accelera- 
tor board capable of 3-D workstation class 
performance at affordable PC prices. The 
3DEMON accelerates rendering with 24-bit 
Zrbuffering, anti-aliasing, alpha-blending, 
texture mapping and fast clear features. 
For Windows NT™, the 3Demon provides 
double buffering and optimizes OpenGL™ 



UUUL 

appl 



ications. 



Tomorrow's Vision Today 




APIs and Libraries 

supported by the 

3DEMON 



' SiliconGraphics, Inc. 



n 
I! 






RENOERMORPHICS 



RendeiWare* 

criterion 



% 



BRender 1 

Argonaut 



3DR™ 

Inter 



msiDE 



OMNICOMP GRAPHICS 

CORPORATION 
1734 W. SAM HOUSTON 

PKWY N 
HOUSTON, TEXAS 77043 

PHONE: (713) 464-2990 

FAX: (713) 827-7540 

email: 
omnicmp@phoenlx.phoenlx.net 

World Wide Web: 
http://phoenlx.phoenlx.net:80>omnlcmp 

Omnicomp and 3DEMON are trademarks of Omnicomp Graphics Corporation. GLINT 300SX is a trademark of 3Dlabs Inc., Ltd. Windows NT is a trademark of Microsoft, Inc. OpenGL is a 
trademark and a copyright, and Open Inventor is a copyright of Silicon Graphics, Inc. RenderMorphics and Reality Lab are trademarks of RenderMorphics.Ltd. BRender and Argonaut are 
trademarks of Argonaut Software.Ltd. RenderWare and Criterion are trademarks of Criterion Software.lnc. X Inside is a registered trademark of X Inside, Inc. 3DR is atrademark and Intel 
is a registered trademark of Intel, Inc. MicroStation is a registered trademark of Bentley Systems Inc. Pro/ENGINEER is a registered trademark and Pro/JR. is a trademark of Parametric 
Technology Corporation. trueSpace is a trademark of Caligari Corporation. 3DEMON is not an Autodesk product. The Autodesk logo is registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office 
by Autodesk, Inc. All other trademarks or registered trademarks are the property of their respective owners and are hereby acknowledged. The specifications in this document are subject 
to change without notice. 

Circle 297 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 298). 




Circle 328 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 329). 



E-Mail Made Easy. 



f£\ 



View 



Move 



Read 



i Copy | 



■ 



Adcte 
Book 



r"ffFofW. 



Now PC users on a 
Unix network can 
have a Windows-style, 
Windows-fast & easy 
interface to Internet 
and Unix email. 

Just use EMBLA 
and you'll see email 
couldn't be easier. 
• It's Windows "drag 
& drop" simple 

Remote users — save on your phone bill! 

You can select and download only the 

mail you need. 

Supports MIME, IMAP & standard 

Windows socket API. 



Fold 

'Adm. 



H5 Rep| y 



EMBLA is available now for just $99. 
Call one of the resellers listed 
below to order. For more 
information, contact ICL 
ProSystems at: 
marcomms@pro.icl.se 
http://www.pro.icl.se 







EMBLA 



UniDire£*^ software.net j.p. Browne Canada 
800-755-8649 800-61 7-SOFT 41 6-494-0472 



sales@unidirect.com 



http://www.software.net davef%jpbrown@ uunet.ca 




168 BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 



You'll find it in the heartland of America. You'll find it in demanding environments 



.in the hot and dusty cab of a giant combine, 
using a GPS and recording crop yields 



.such as hospitals supplying critical Point-Of-Care 
information at the touch of a finger 




h; -x :;/■■■■■* 





When faced with selecting 
a PC for control or data 
processing systems, 
designers usually must 
choose between a desktop 
system, notebook or an 
expensive single board 
industrial computer. 



DATALUX now offers an 
alternative with the 
essential PC system 
components in a series 
of unique packages that 
both save space and are 
easy to integrate. 



THE DATABRICK from DATALUX 

A tOUgh, COfnpaCt PC solution that offers the modularity of a desktop 
system and the Small Size of a notebook. 




Stand-Alone LCD Monitors 

DATALUX is in its 4th year of LCD monitor 
manufacture and is an industry leader. Its 
new LCD Monitors use brighter 10.4" 
diagonal Dual-Scan orTFf Color panel in a 
rugged, sealed, yet attractive housing with a 
selection of 8 wall or base mounting options. 
Resolution is 640 x 480. The monitors can 
be driven directly from a Databrick or 
through an ISA bus controller. No externa! 
power is required. An integrated resistive 
Touch Screen is optional with input 
through one of the Com Ports. Monitors may 
be extended to 50' from the CPU. 



Keyboards 

The Space-Saver keyboard is the smallest full 
function 100 key keyboard available. With 
standard left right spacing touch typing is easy 
yet the overall size is only 6" x 10.75". 
It is available in a flat, panel mount or desktop 
model. The Glidepoint* pointing device is avail- 
able as an option. 



FAX BACK 
DATA SHEETS 
(540) 662-1675 



Circle 291 on Inquiry Card. 



Data brick Vertical Systems 

The new DATALUX Databrick 
Vertical System (DVS) combines 
the Databrick, LCD Monitor and the 
Space-Saver Keyboard in a unique 
enclosure for Wall, Swing Arm, or 
Pedestal Mounting. The all alu- 
minum housing provides compact- 
ness and security. The monitor 
screen tilts to accommodate the 
height of the user. A variety of 
options include bar code and mag 
stripe readers, speakers, or a small 
printer. The DVS measures 13.5" x 
19.6" x 3.2". 



Databrick 

The Databrick is the heart of the DATALUX system. In performance and fea- 
tures it is more like a desktop unit, in size comparable a notebook 
(10.25" x 4.8" x 2"), yet more rugged and more 
easily mounted than either. 
Specifications: 
486DX2/66 or DX4/100 CPU 
2-64 Meg Standard SIMM DRAM 
Internal or External FDD 
Internal HDD to 540 Meg 
SVGA CRT and LCD Video Ports w/1 Meg 




2 Serial, 1 Extended Parallel Port 

Options: 

2 slot PCMCIA 

lOBt Ethernet LAN 

Com Ports 3 & 4 

DC-DC Power converter 



DVS shown here 
on Rolling Stand 



■* 



* i 



Datalux Corporation 

155 Aviation Drive 
Winchester, Virginia 22602 
Phone: (540)662-1500 

Fax: (540) 662-1 682 

Toll Free: 1 -800-328-2589 
(1 -800-DATALUX) 



Datalux International, LTD 

Euro House Curtis Road, 
1 1 Old Water Yard 
Dorking, Surrey 
UNITED KINGDOM RH41 EJ 
Phone: 44+(1)306-876718 
Fax: 44+0)306-876742 



WE ACCEPT PO'S 
FROM QUALIFIED FIRMS 



WILL TRY TO MATCH OR BEAT ANY ADVERTISED PRICE. CALL FOR LATEST PRICING! 



MEMORY 



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8087-1 
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CYRIX DRx 3 386 to 486 Upgrade 

Clock Doubter 



' Single chip upgrade solution 

' Clock doubting technology 

' Compatible with I ndustry standard 386DX CPU so 



■ Compatible with DOS, V 

* Uses Industry standard m 

• Easy to Install— ebouM 5 



S,3J(. OS/21.3 and 2.x 



CX486 0Rx2-25/30 22900 

CX485 0Rx 2 -33/66 279.00 

CX486SRX2 25/50 229.00 



MODULES 



SIMM MODULES (Add $5*00 for SIPP) 



256x9 

1Megx 9 (3 chip) 
1Meg x 9 (9 chip) 
4Megx 9 
16Megx9(9chip) 



70NS 

10.00 
42.00 
43.00 



72 PIN SIMMS (EISA), EDO 



1 meg x 36 4 mg 

2 x 3t> 8 mg 
4 x 36 16 mg 
8x36 32 mg 
16<35 64mg 
1 1 32 4 mg 
2x328(00. 
4x32 16 mo 

1 «324mgED0 
2x32 8mgEDO 
4 (32 16 mg EDO 
8»32 32mgEOO 



189 00 


179 00 


179.00 


379 00 


364.00 


364.00 


569.00 


549.00 


549.00 


189 00 


1 1 49.00 


1149.00 


279900 






56900 


164.00 


16400 


34900 




329 00 


499 00 


47900 
189.00 


479.00 




38900 




- 


689.00 


- 



CYRIX FASMATH PROCESSOR 



Programs executed up to 3X taster • Plug & object code compat. w/lntel 

83D87-40MH2- 79.00 83D87-33MHZ- 49.00 83S87-25SXVar.-49.D0 

83S87-33SX - 65.00 PC Week 1 *' rated #1 over all math chips 

5 Year Warranty "All Downward Compatible" 



AST MEMORY 



MODEL 

Bravo LC Series. Bravo MT. Bravo MS, 

MS-L. Advantage Pro 0x33. SX25 

PremmiaLX P/60. MX4/66d,4/IOOT. P/60 



IT.UPGRAOED 
4Meg 
IMid 

1BMeg 



Piemm:a4133 4133S.4'5M.4.-$0d BMeg 

13. 4.«d. P.« 16Meg 

Prtmmia MTE 433. 4,86d. P«0 32 Meg 

Manhattan G. V Series Server 64 Meg 

Power Prerr..um 333 403. 433S. 4 50d. 4,66d BMeg 
PirrvjTi 4EC- 25 li>. 25; •!:■: 33 J;o 32L 

;•■•".„■■ 222 }:\\ ■■■'.:■ :-:"- 4?e '-:~i 
Pre.t). II 3S6-55. 3B6 33. 486.33, 486SX20 

2 486733 

Adva-itasi 486.25. 48633. 4=6 33P. 4E6 SX20 

Premium SE4/22 ■■ mi 

?i'.~ jtiS* J 53. fl.66fl.P26O Uleg 

5 -■'.'.: 

< P/90. P/100 8MegKit/16MegKit 

32Mecjh'- " 
AST Cupid Board 0-32 Meg 



AST PART * 

■ ■ ■ 
. . . | 
■-■••■■ 

500780-"' 



1-005 1 
1-001 l 72pi 



2 Meg Kit SQ07B0-O0S 



PRICE 
154.00 
30800 
539.00 
1078.00 



1)8.00 



80-001 \. M . 
60-003 >64pi 
80-004 J 



500780-001 

50O780-0C* 

500780-OC. _ 

I 501568-001 378/699 
■i 501588-001 135B/2699 

500318-001 



Ambra Pentium-60 
Ambra NC 425SL 
Ambra N Series 
Ambra SN Series 
Ambra SprintaSLC II 
Ambra N-75.N-100 



AMBRA 



4/8/16 Meg 
274/8 Meg 

4/8/12/16 Meg 

4/16 Meg 

2.£i.-..-:i 

4/8/16 



175.00/369.00/619.00 

109.00/209.00/366.00 
189,00/349.00/569.00/619.00 



ZENITH MEMORY MODULES 



MODEL AMT. UPGRADED 

Z386/33.25. 20. 33E 1Meg 

Z386/33.25, 20. 33E, 486/25E 4Meg 

Z386SX 2Meg 



MFG. PART * 
ZA3800ME 
ZA3800MK 
Z-605-1 modules 



MAGNAVOX 




16 BIT MEMORY BD. FOR 2B6. 3B6 AT * OK-BMeg Bd. 4.0 LIM Compat. • 
Yr. Warr. Convent., Expnd. & Extnd. Memory • Supports DOS, OS/2. LIM/EMS & 
EEMS • Versatile Split Memory Addressing • Operates w/CPU Speeds lo 33 MHz • 
Supports Desqview, Multitask operations • Bd. made by Boca Research, AT plus I 
OK -$84.00 2Meg- $159.00 4Meg- $239.00 BMeg- $399.00 



BOCA XT 8 BIT BUS 



• Expanded memory tor XT • Lim 4.0 compat. 0-2Meg • Uses 256x1-100 
0-K - 599.00 1 Meg $189.00 2Meg - $229.00 



IBM P/S2 32BIT EXPANSION BD 



0-16Meg. Ext.-Expnd. Memory Bd. for P/S2 70, 80, 90, Lim 4, 

2Meg 4Meg 8Meg 16Me< 

$238.00 S3 19.00 $499.00 $859.01 



BAnERIES 



• • CALL FOR NOTEBOOK ANO LAPTOP BATTERIES • • 



IBM PS/1, PS/2 MEMORY MODULES 



PART HO. 

30F534B(512K) 
30F5360 |2Meg) 
6450375 (II.'-tj) 
6450379 (2Meg 
8451080 mm 
6450604/KG7196[2Heg) 

645060B (2Men) 
78X8955 I 28K) 
34F2933 |4Meg| 

...-■-... \ ;. <-,'•< 

>.:■ ;:..,-.. i.-Ki 
92F9935 (2Meg) 
..:■•.; ::'. 



- . - ' . 

■■ - . 

92G7543 (16Meg) 

92G7545 (32Meg] 

■ G7203(BMeg) 
i I2G7204 !6Meg) 
:■ 
6450902 (2Meg) 

64S0t28/92G720O(4Meg> 



6451158fl2G7206|4Megecc) 
6451159 (BMeg eccl 
92G7209<32GJ7JO(1 &M«S eccl 



WORKS WITHM08ELN0. 

30-286 



.0-286, 25-286. 50 MTHR BO 

80-04! 

80-111, 311-121, 321,081, 161 
" ■:■■■ '■ i 2: ■ ■ ■ ■ 
'70-061. £61. 121, 502, 55SX.65SX.P-70, 
55LS. 65LS. X-Statlon 1 20 fi 130, 3SSX, 35LS, 40SX 
7Q-A21.A-61 B-21 L'i. ■ ■ <■ ■ ■ ■ iOSX.Val Pi. 325T 
25 

35SX. 40SX, 55SX. S5SX, 55LS. 65LS 
55SX.55L5 65SX.40SX,35SX.35LS 
P.-S1-236 

P.-21 <■; I2SI/3665X-2121 
P/S1 8. P/S1/36GSX. 
P5I Expert, Consultant. Willow 
Value Point PerlormarsCE. PCS 
Aptrva 310. 330, 350. 510, 530 710 730 
.-■■.•■ ; : .: 

Aptiva310.330.350.510 S2 

:■•■'..- ■■.!■. 
Value Point Performance, Fi.: i 
.■ ;.-! : ■:■■ 
56.57.57SX.90.95.P-75.57SLC 

'"-::: :• - " ■ : 

57SX.90 95 .P-75 SI. 386SX. 

l'.::-2m 21-33 a{55, Va" Pi 77. 4S6CS2. 486SX. SVR85 

Value Pom! 77 436DX2. 486SX. SVR 85 
35SX.40SX 

E78X SO. 95. P-75. 57SLC 

:■■.■■■-■■■. ■ ■■•■'•■,:•:.■.:. 

• C| "'»,' -\, install in pairs) 
486: 95XP;95A(titi1llltn pairs) 



79.00 
84,00 
189.00 
99.00 



169.00 
164.00 

559 00 
114900 
329.00 
609.00 
1239.00 



PS/2 MCA 0-8MEG EXPANSION BD 



I 0-8Meg Extended and/or Expanded Memory for all IBM 
P/S2 Models 50, 50Z, 60, 55SX, 65SX, 16 Bit. 4.0 LIM Compat. / " ifs 'Ts^fl; 
OK -139.00 2Meg -228.00 4Meg-30B.OO 8Meg - 477.00 /_ Bflfe 



IBM NOTEBOOK & LAPTOP MEMORY 



,:■;. :::■■■■ 

66G0094 
-.•.v: :■•■•- 
B185093 
6189 



6l,1eg) 
4Meg) 

■".'■ v 

'„}■• -;l 

■:!.'.-U' 



8189113 

■'■■.■• 



■ 
0i4Meg 
. ..1 lltas 

:r,'»g,7t0Meg]) 
(4Ueg/l6Meg) 
|4MeQ.'i6Meow;Adap 
60G0378 (8Meg) 
ISMtg) 
92F8804 (2Meg) 
92G7259(4Meg) 
523726'- ISMsgi 
92G7263 16Meg) 



■ C. 700, C, 720. C, CL57SX 189.00 

i ,■ l - 359.00 

Thlnkpad 750. C 629.00 

' ■ 179.00 

Ti' • "255 360 355,340,450 339,00 

:■- "' ,: :.' 59900 

: jiOCS (3.3 volt) 189.00 

ThinkPad 500. 510CS (3.3 volt 369.00 

..IOCS (3.3 volt 619.00 

' ISXPSNotl 103.00 

ISX, PS Note, Tkpd 350, 350C, PS Note 425 189.00 

■-PS Hole 349.00 

ThinkPad 750. 755.360. 355 949.00/1149.00 

755 C -m Modules 209.00.699.00 

Tfcr-.pad 755 239X0.745 CD 

ia5O.350( Hi 'Jot* 425 339.00 

569.00 

N45SI 109.00 

ThinkpaJ 701 C. CS. Butlerdy 189.00 

Thinkpad 701C.CS, Butterfly 369.00 

Thinkparj 781ft CS, Butterfly 649 00 



COMPAQ MEMORY MODULES 



MODEL 

J86V33.386V33L, 

4BtV?5, 486/33L, 
4B8/50L. System Pro 

.■-.■:/■ ■: ::. 

DeskPro 386/25. 385/20 
DeskPro3BBS-16MHl 



DeskPro 286N.3B6N.3B6SX20. 
all 'M" series. sylemLTseiies, 
allT series 



DeskPro 286 1 ALL OF 

56M 5 CSV THESE 
Prosignia 5.60 ^MACHINES 

Proliant 100 5/60 { USE 

< 30, 5/66 THESE 

- " ' . i 



2Meg Module 

(Exp Bd) 

' 
4!.':; >.}■:::-.:> 
IMegEipBd 
4Ueo Exp Bd 

■'- .;'.'.:.;...: 

•.. ■■.:• ■• 

,' ■.: ■ :"'■ 

4Hsg E<p Bd 

if>u U;:-I.r,- 

4t,'.;g H&.i> 
M'.-.i !,M.!-i ; « 

ZMeg Module 

4Meg Module 

a'.Vicj r.'o :■ 

D-64MM 

1 Meg Kit 

4Meg Kit 

1-2MegE»pBS 

4-BMegtirpBd 

512E Kit 

;Y,J'.: 

: 

'V.'.V.; K I 



CMPOPAflTI 

115144-001 

11856*001 

116569-001 

113546-001 

... i" i 

II - :, ■-■:.[: 

113131-001 
113132-001 



PRICE 

9900 
349.00 



118639-001 
118690-001 
128877-001 
129100-001 

■ ■ ■: 
108072-001 



■ ■ 

...... 

141683-001 
141684-001 

141685-001 
149320-001 
149147-001 



169 00 
355.00 
169.00 
99 00 
299.00 
239.00 



676 00 
1420.00 
247600 
5076 00 
90 00 
29800 
95 00 
169.00 
339.00 

59900 
1199.00 



COMPAQ LAPTOPS & NOTEBOOKS 



LTFJ286 
LTE/366S/20 
LTELITE/20 25 23C 
LTE LITE/20. 25, 25C 
LTE LITE/20, 25. 25C 
; ,. •! 
li" 

I ;: I 

SLT/285 
SLT/386 
SLT/386 
Concerto. LTE EMe 



Conlura320,325 



4MegBrJ 
4MegModuie 

4MegModule 

BMeg Module 

16MegModule 

4MegModule 

BMegModule 

16MegModule 

4MegModuie 

2Meg Module 

4Meg Module 

4Meg 

BMeg 

16Meg 

BMeg 
4Megr8Meg/l6Meg 
4Meg 
BMeg 
iBMeg 
4Meg 



117081-003 

: .■ 
i ■ ..-: 
129769-003 
i: V'-iii;- 

I -■ - . ..'-- .-!.- 

11 

II. ,•■■!. 

1111 ' .1 

118304-001 
i- i il 
144790-001 

'.:.■■ :.■;,-. 

139499-001 
146520-001 

• ■ .■ ' 
190597-001 



219.00 
43900 
66900 
18900 
359.00 

19900 
109.00 



189.00 

339 00 

189/369/619 

189.00 

61900 
184.00 
349.00 



HARD DISK DRIVES 



COHfJEH 
425MB CPS425A 
540MB CPS540A 
850M8 CFS850A 
2 GIG CFS1275A 



2( 

275 



MAXTOfl 
540MB 7540 AV 
B50MB 7850 AV 
1.2GIG 71260AV 



22s 



WESTERN DIGITAL 
540MB AC2540 
850MB AC2850 
1.2 GIG AC312O0 
1.6 GIG AC316O0 



11 ■ ■ ■ 

■•.■.-> .;'■. • ■ , - . 

wrong parts arc :■ . ■ - j lee (Memsn' chips n=! mstai'efl in board! ) We accept IMermtonal 

: ; .: .;. .., ...... . . ■ ..■■;■:.:■•:;■:.■ 



CUSTOMER SERVICE & TECHNICAL: OPEN M-F, 9-4 PST 

Al I products brand new & guaranteed • We buy excess inventory 

Trademarks are registered with their respective companies. 




22825 Lockness Avenue • Torrance, CA 90501 



TOSHIBA LAPTOP MEMORY 



T2OO0SXFJ2200SXT18O3, 1850, C 

■■,.■ . : 

r0SX/T1800, 1850, C 
T2100. 2105. 2150 
■2100,2105,2150 

■..'■■ 
■-.400.T6500 

■ . . 

...... ; . 



■■:: . ■■ ■■ ■ . , 

74700, 4800, 4850 (Hard F 23 
1 3400CT, T240D, T3600 



T2400, T3600 

"■■■; 
T3100SX 

".: 
i 

T3200SX 

. 
": 



8Meg 

li'.'cg 

4Mtj 

BMeg 

l6Meo 

i24Meg/7lOMog 



3Meg 
2Meg 



4Meg/BMeg/l6Meg 



MANU.PARTt 

PC-PA2000U 
PC-PA2001U 
PC-PA2002U 



PC-PA2O04U 
PC-PA2005U 
PC-PA2010U 
PC-PA2012U 
PC-PA2013U 
PC-PA2014U 

PC-PA2019U 
PC-PA2020U 
PC-PA2021U 

PC15-PA8308U 

.•■:■ :• 
: . • : : ... 

PC10-PA8304U 
PC10-PA8313U 



PRICE 

89 00 
189 00 
359 00 
189/379 
729/1249 
18900 

ir- r ,: 

349.00 
65200 
799/1098 
189.00 
359 00 
619.00 
1549.00 
10900 
189 00 



NOTEBOOK, LAPTOP MEMORY 



ACER 750' 

A.= Vi-:.,-: 
Aitima Virage 



2.»:c4/33Sl 



Bo!rtws!lB3lO, Plus 
Bond.vellB310V.5X 
Bonaive1IB310V.SX 

■ ova Book ISO 

Canon innova Book 20OLS 
Canon innora 466 
Canon Innova 486-10 



■ . :'.■■■-: 
4Meg/8M(g7i6Meg 

4 Mi-; Sf.'-cij '.C'.'iJ 

4Meg 

4 Meg/ 16 Meg 

4Mtg.'BM<evl6"-- 



501255-001.-002 
<Meg 500814-003 

4Meg/l6Meg SMW 
4Meg/16Meg 501318-001.002 

4Mig/8Meg/taieg 



' ' ! -'2 






'/eg/BMerj.'if:?.:.-. 
2Meg'-r.: 

4Mcrj/16Meg 



PfllCE 

'■:■::., 22 
■,r* :■.:■■■. ■■■, 

•:j22: ..-; 

199 679 

'-.-2-' .. 

189379.629 

189.679 

\ ■:.:■:'■■ 
194/769 

259.00 

199 699 
69.00 

:'222 

229 00 

199.-769 

189/379/639/Call 



J6,425,433C,453t;X.450,450CX 

1 OOP Notebook 
nwte 650. 650c 
Epson AclionMole 700. 700c. 700cx 



■ 
199-389 

- 
r'Mr,,-'! 
• 2 

■■:■ -.--• : -:-j 

■ • ■■ 
■ 



- 

2 33. 45LC2-50 
n 0, Carrier 



4MeoflM(g.'i6V 



"';'^ .1 . ■■ .. 



H?0mnihook40O0 

.2^:-:EyeAvtva 
Lexmark SE10 
Magraitu Means 

: 

: 55-75, 05-90 
NCR Satan 3180 
NEC Piospeed 386 
NECPro5peed366 

'.:;'•■.; 

I .. I v.,r;a.E.V 

. 
NEC Versa S 4^ 

Bi ::i=6SX,286 
Packard Bell Si. itei 
Panasonic CF170.CF270.CF370 
?Z"w.K.".-\: i2i. ;:•;.! --:-1K : 

V2IP.CF-580 
Sanyo 17/18 NB 

Sharp 67B1. 6881, 6785. 6700. 6800, 6741 
' 7700,7750 
■11 J A 8900 4 

■ ■ lnjatl2W0 
' - - .le 30-00 
TMQ0OE 
TNOOOM 

TI5000 4 

2310. 3810 

2:20, 3B3D ! 

T .-.-"■: 4-L-iC :-:.:.-; -H5' 0< tir:,-4!M 
",-, --:-:: S -.? ;:e5 4 

Ultra 4B6 TS38 i 

. 'eoook (not the . version) 
Zenith Master Sport IF™ 



i22'-2' 

PC31-22 

PC21-22. FC43-22 



286. 386SX 
CF-BA165 






2A-300-1 

ZA-4-4 

ZA-180-66 

ZA-1SD-64 

I ZA-1B0-B6SA-180-87 



10900 
199.769 
129/219 

199,639 

2:2:22 
109'199 

119 00 
22 2 ■ : j 

199 DO 

:22 v.-:.------ 

■ 

12} 17" 

119/369 

59.00 

119/199/309 

T09-199 
199,679 

■'■-.• 

79,00 
84 00 
■ 
1 99-768 

2- ■<■■-■ ■■■■■: 

■■ :■ 
■ 

199 679 

109 00 

55 22 
,, . 

11900 

199379 519 
119369 



S-flAM Cards 1MEG 
S-flAM Cards 2MEG 

28.3/28 8 Data/Fax Modem 
l4.400'l4,400Data'Fax Modem 

a rr<J(15ASIOl) 

Lan Ethernet Combo 

■ m*1 (10 Base T) 
Lan El ham el (Coax] 

FLASH MEMORY 2Meg-109.00 



IS 



PRICE MODEL PRICE 

159 5250 I8M Emulatin Card 495 

229 Bus Toaster IHiori speed SCSI II) 199 

259 Wavtawrw *Jcart) 275 

119 Multimedia Combo, Sound/SCSI 499 

149 Panasonic KXL-D720 port CDRom player 339 

Call Type III 12i2 

169 Type III 170 Mo Hard Drive 499 

169 Xi- 1 !.'.! inll2;8.8A;1i|i:i::fi-'.!l 

6 Meg -299.00 1 0tVte(h349.00 16Meg-529.00 



RY UPGRADES 



AWOUHT UPC RACED 



-crrB! 

Canon LBP 430 

Canon LBPB60 

Canon LBP4,4Lite,4plus 

Epson 6000. Action User 

Ecici Ac: en Laser 1100, 1600 

E::r.-:::*i Laser II 

Ets^BOM. IS-30 iC-2-2 i'->3 J2 22 

tpm WOO. 1500, 5000.521)3 

HP2.2LV 

■r- 2 22- 3P 2P2P* 

HP4,4M.4SI.4S1MX.4P,4MP 

hFJL 
-=22 
HP4SI 
HP5P 
HP Design Jel 600. 650,200 

-: 
HPDesljet1200C.1200DP 
HP Laiei.tt 
HP Pamtjcl XL300 
IBM Laser 40 19, 401 9E 
IBM Laser 4029, 4037 
IBM Laser 4039, 4079 
KonicaLP-311D 
■ 22 ;.•;.: 
'. 
Oki 400 

I0EX 410E.410EX 
Oki 830, 840 
Packard Bell PB 9500 
Packard Bell 9815 
Panasonic 442C-4450I 
Panasonic 4410/4430 
Panasonic 4450 
Panasonic 4400/5400 
'■i-'Q. 5410 
Sharp 9400. 9460, 960O.97OOE 

■ H. 9700, H 
Tl XUPS17/PS35 
Tl MicroUser Pro E. Powerpro. 

Pro 600 
Tl Microliter 





m 


m 




- 189 

- 179 




- 349 


669 1249 




159 


















■;■■ 




- 229 










« 


" 




- 169 




- 379 


599 - 




84 




?08 












89 




?oa 




32/ 


- Call 


Call Call 






109 




- 23! 








: 


: 


99 




- 179 

- 169 


; 


: : 


; " 






89 




- 169 




- 349 






















69 






- 169 




- 349 




'. 1 




89 
89 


~ 


- 175 

- 155 


- 


- 349 

- 305 


539 



175 - - 349 

179 - - 379 679 

249 - - 428 837 













169 
- 169 












4H 




- 169 


- 350 








119 


189 


239 










_ 














94 
















1114 










- 


: 


135 


189 
109 
139 
159 


- 


- 227 

- 269 - 


: : : 


- 








129 




- 229 






; 




99 


126 




- 195 


: : : 




" 


■ 


89 
109 


129 


: 


- 229 

- Call 


: : 


- 


- 


': 


89 
109 
49 


149 


: 


- 249 

- 279 


- - - 


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COMPATIBLE FONT CARTRIDGE 



BAft CODES Bar Code Reader Fonts 99.00 

DESKJET SOLUTION : lis, 4 5 pt-30 pt 99.00 

IBM 4019, 4019E. FONT CARTRIDGE 209 Fonts. Turbo Card 105.00 

TURBO 25 Comparable to Pacific Data's 25 CARTRIDGES IN ONE!™, 143 

Fonts (compat with Epson Action Laser It and Ml HP Printers) 69.00 

TURBOSCRIPT - M HP2D. 3. 3D. 3P. 2P. 2P+....149 00 

TURBOSCRIPr"109. 109 Any Point Sue HP2 17900 

TAX & FINANCE FOR IBM 4D19, 4D19E, 4029 13900 

TAX & FINANCE CARTHIOGE 84.00 

OKI 400, BOO 41 fonts, 1 1 typestyles 169.00 



310-539-0019 
FAXj 310-539-5844 



SECURITY WILL 

CALL WINDOW 

NOW OPEN 



CALL 
TOLL FREE 



800-433- 

(US and Canada) 



3726 



ESTAB. 
1985 



Prices & Availability 

Subject to Change 

Without Notice 



Mon-Fri, 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. PST 
Sat. 10:00 a.m. to 12:00 noon 



IMaSSliEHEBiiailgaBiBEaBEaM 

Circle 310 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 311). 



I 



Move to the Plus Side of Math - 



X^' 






IMSL. Math Module 

for C++ • • • 

positively the easiest way 
to develop technical applications! 



Get your math from the math experts. 

Now the object-oriented development tools you need are available from the name you have 
relied on for nearly 25 years for numerical analysis and technical application development. 
The IMSL Math Module for C++ is the first release from Visual Numerics' new family of 
object-oriented development tools, Visual Numerics ObjectSuite™. 

The IMSL Math Module for C++ uses the power and flexibility inherent in the C++ language to 
greatly reduce coding requirements. The combination of powerful algorithms and ease-of-use makes 
the IMSL Math Module for C++ ideally suited for object-oriented programmers building business, 
scientific, and research applications. The Module s object-oriented interface provides a natural algebraic 
approach to mathematical programming. 



> Includes classes in a variety of precisions for 

• complex arithmetic 

• vectors 

• matrices (symmetric, positive definite, general) 

• matrix decomposition 

(QR, LU, Cholesky, SVD, Diagonal Pivoting) 

• interpolation and approximation 

• pseudorandom number generation 

(uniform, normal, Poisson, gamma, beta, exponential) 

>■ Conforms to established conventions of C++ programming. 

> Built upon efficient algorithms. 

>■ Includes comprehensive online documentation. 



Here's why you should build 
your applications with the IMSL 
Math Module for C++: 

>* Speed your application 
development. 

> Reuse our code and expertise. 

>- Reduce complexity 

and simplify maintenance. 

> Develop object-oriented 
cross-platform solutions. 

V No run-time fees. 



Supported systems: 

• Intel-based PCs running Windows with 
Win32s or Windows NT 

• Sun Microsystems and Hewlett-Packard 
workstations 

• Coming soon for Windows 95 and 
IBM RS/6000 

Circle 333 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 334). 



See why over 250,000 developers worldwide use IMSL 
for mission-critical applications. 



Get your math from the math experts. Call today! 



1 -800-364-8880 



T A /f C T Fortran and C/C++ 
J_lVXs3.L/ application develop 



application development tools 

Visual Numerics and IMSL are registered trademarks and ObjectSuite is a trademark of Visual Numerics, 
Inc. Windows, Windows NT and Windows 95 are trademarks of Microsoft Corp. All other product names 
are trademarks of their respective owners. 



Visual^umerics* 

phone (713) 954-6785 fax (713) 781-9260 

e-mail: marketing@houston.vni.com 

http://www.vni.com 

London +44 (0) 1753-790600 • Paris +33-1-46-93-94-20 
Stuttgart +49-71 1 -1 3287-0 • Tokyo +81 -3-5689-7550 



PURIFY'd. 



AD95116 



EASYCOM GALILEO 

Just Plug & Phone! 

The true PC and telephone integration. 

f, 




Record instantly your telephone conversation while speaking and replay it a moment 
later to the person you are speaking to ... or paste it into any of your documents or 
presentations! Play your new CD on the telephone to your remote interlocutor while 
speaking! Talk on the phone while playing the most sophisticated games! Scan 
documents with your local fax machine while phoning or receiving an external fax! 
Drive EasyCom Galileo phone functions through DTMF keys! ... and much more! 

All communication features integrated: 
Telephony + Sound / Voice / Modem / Fax 



General specifications: 

ISA 16 bits Plug & Play, powerful proprietary 
interface (COM port independent), totally evolutive 
(DSP based), auxiliary COM port emulation for full 
compatibility with any communication software. 
Windows 3.1, 3.11 and DOS drivers. 
External I/O connections: 
Microphone input, line-in, CD-in, line-out, 
> motherboard speaker in, speakers out, phone line, 
handset line. 

Integrated Telephony: 

Twin independent lines (handset/local fax and 
external phone line), powerful handset 
management, full duplex handset and/or 
speakerphone, spy mode, recording and replay 
3 phone conversation, PBX management directly 
: fi'ora the PC (calls transfer and routing), access to 
telephone directories in any database. 



Audio & Sounds: 

16 bits Stereo / 48 Khz sound and OPL3 

synthesis, MPC II & Microsoft Sound System 

compatible, Sound Blaster and Ad Lib games 

compatibility, MPU 401 MIDI Interface (uart), 

IDE CD-ROM interface. 

Voice Mail System: 

Countless Voice servers and Answering 

machines, Fax on demand and remote querying 

/ DTMF keys. 

Fax/ Modem 14400: 

V32bis, V32, V22bis, V22, V42, V42bis. 

Terminal emulation and transfer. 

V17,V29,V27ter,V21,V23. 

Std. COM port, Class 1 & 2 protocols. 

Software: 

All functions are fully integrated and managed 

by the powerful native EasyCom software 

under Windows 3.1,3.11 and Windows 95. 



By BuroBotics 

Rte Suisse 9, 1295 Mies, SWITZERLAND 

+41 22 7792255 tel. or 22 7791504 fax 

CompuServe : 100063,2624 




Visit us at COMDEX 95 



Windows standards compatibility, all Windows compatible networks supported. 

PTT approval in more than 1 5 worldwide countries in process. Competitive price policy. 

Distributors and OEM integrators welcomed. 

Circle 331 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 332). 



Disooorganized? 




BiskEasy 



is the easy-to-use 
Diskette Management,! nventory and Labeling 
program designed for everyday computer 
use. DiskEasy is the only tool you need to 

■ Automatic Diskette Inventory 

Simply insert the disk and click on the Read & Store button 
to automatically add it to your inventory. 

■ Full Search/Find Features 

Locate files and documents contained on a specific diskette in 
just seconds. No more searching through stacks of diskettes. 



organize, manage, label and catalog your 
diskettes - and the information they contain. 
Now compatible with 



"Wmlows95 



Re-usable Label Sheets 

Choose which labels on a sheet to print, and 
run sheet through the printer multiple times. 

New On-Screen Graphic Format 

Easy graphic format for data entry lets you see 
your information as it will appear on your label. 



Order DiskEasy today! 

Receive DiskEasy plus FREE 180 laser diskette labels for only $34.95.* 
Call 800-7 7 1 -EASY or outside the us ca " 214 526 2446 or fax 214 526 6436 

'Includes Shipping and Handling. Texas customers add 8.25% sales tax. We accept Phone Check, Mastercard and Visa ' 



30-day money-back guarantee (less S6.95 shipping/handling charges). Prices are for US only. Canadian residents add $3.00, other countries add S20.00. Prices subject to change without notice. IBM PC or 
compatible running Windows 3.1, VGA or better. Mouse compatible device, and minimum 4MB RAM required. ©1995, Verot Publishing Group, Incorporated. DiskEasy is a product of the Verot Publishing 
Group, Incorporated. All other products, names or logos are copyrights of their respective owners. Verot Publishing Group, Incorporated, 4514 Cole Avenue, Suite 600, Dallas, TX 75205 800-771-EASY 

Circle 337 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 338). 




Yes ma'am, ^ 



you can drive those 

UNIX apps from 

your PC now. 



I 

4 




XoftWare® PC X servers. 
The full-service solution. 



Where can you find a one-stop solution for desktop-to-UNIX connectivity? With XoftWare, it's 
all in one place. In fact, it's the only X server that connects all your Windows, Windows NT, 
DOS, OS/2, Macintosh and PowerPC systems to your UNIX destinations. What's more, it's 
built for speed (fasten your seatbelt!) and fully loaded with administrative tools. The result? An easy 
maintenance, IS-friendly X server with high-performance UNIX access from all your desktop systems. So 
why not take it for a test drive? Call us at 1 -800-PICK-AGE (1-800-742-5243) KJfSTp 
or e-mail us at sales@age.com for your introductory copy. 




age 



1 ST-TIME OFFER 



Circle 303 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 304). 
AGE Logic, Inc. 12651 High Bluff Drive, San Diego, CA 92130 
Tel: 619.755.1000 Toll Free: 1.800.742.5243 East Coast: 1 .800.722.3702 
Fax: 619.755.3998 e-mail: sales@age.com Internet: http://www.age.com 

XoftWare is a registered trademark of AGE Logie, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. 



ie Micro International 7600 Noteb 



THE BEST NOTEBOOK VALUE 
COMES FROM HOUSTON! 



t Rdw power is just the 
^beginning of what 
4 you get for only 



660 



Built-in multimedia speakers 
for the built-in soundblaster 
compatible 16-bit soundcard ! 

Two type II PCMCIA card 
slots (equal to 1 type 3) 



340mb removable local bus 
HD(upto 810mb available) 



8mb RAM (up to 40mb using 
user-upgradeable modules) 
and 256K L2 cache! 




Brilliant 10.3" Dual-scan 
Passive Matrix Color 
screen (Active Matrix 
also available). 



PEnrsum 



_ I w riHZ 



Mic in / Speaker / 
Headphone out jacks 

3,5" floppy drive 



— 19mm trackball in 
just the right spot 



Dependable 
NiMH Battery 



R focus onservicelmdstipport since 1984, 

We give you free lifetime toll-free tech support. We preload the latest versions of DO: 
and Windows for Workgroups, including all video, sound, and PCMCIA card utilitie - 
Our 1 Year parts and Labor Warranty includes our outstanding 48 hour warranty servic 
turnaround time, proving that we understand how you depend on our products. Oi 
30-day money back guarantee is pretty simple: you get a refund* if you're not satisfie 
for any reason. Our RealHelp disk included with every notebook allows us to servio 
your technical configuration files by remote access. Our 48-hour+ extensive burn-i 
and testing period on every single notebook, before it leaves our facility, ensures a 
absolute minimum of failures in your notebook. Anything less is just not mint! 

* Shipping Charges will be withheld from the refund. 



Micro International, 10850 Seaboard Loop, Houston, Texas 77099. Top quality service and support since 19841 

Full information (including specifications, all options & prices) available by fax or mail on request. 

Fax (7 1 3) 495-779 1 Hours: 8-6 Monday-Friday. Call today toll free: 

'Pentium is a registered trademark of Intel Corporation. 

l-buu-/67-»o67 



Take the Reins of 
Consolidated Control! 






AutoBoot Commander 
Personal Commander 

The industry standard AutoBoot 
Commander allows you to 
monitor and control up to 96 
PCs or file servers with just one 
keyboard, monitor and mouse. 
For desktop control of smaller 
installations, give our Personal 
Commander a try! 



Cybex Corporation 
4912 Research Drive 



Slimline Commander 
Magnum Commander 

The most streamlined members 
of the AutoBoot family, these 
Commanders are designed spe- 
cifically for all your rack mount 
applications. Choose the 1 .75 " 
(1 U) Slimline for 1 9 " racks, or 
the 3.5" (2U) Magnum for 19, 
23, or 24" racks. 




AutoBoot Commander 
4xP/lxP 

The most advanced AutoBoot 
products yet, the 4xP and lxP 
add multiuser, multiplatform 
and multimedia capabilities to 
the Commander world. Control 
PC, Mac and Sun computers 
from one location! Use the 4xP 
for larger installations; try the 
1 xP for desktop control of 
smaller configurations. 




Huntsville, AL 35805 USA 

(205) 430-4000 (205) 430-4030 fax 

http://www.cybex.com/ 

PC is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. Mac is a registered 
trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. Sun is a registered trademark of Sun Microsystems. Cybex, AutoBoot, 
Commander, Slimline, 4xP and 1 xP are trademarks of Cybex Corporation. 



COME SEE US AT 

Networks Expo, Dallas, TX; Sept. 12-14 1995 Booth #1696 & 
Networld + Interop, Atlanta, GA; Sept. 27-29 1995 Booth #5166 




TM 



Circle 287 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 288). 



Web Site, Internet Gateway, and 
Workgroup Suite — All In One. 



I 








■ 



■ 







1 * ][ 






- 




1 «j&iroiu:!iw>''" , "< 










■ m\L 











ft I ! I i i t i i mi t i ii i i i w ■ v v \ v \ : . 






Introducing Worldgroup Internet Server 



Workgroup Stuff 


Internet Stuff 


And More Stuff 


Free Windows Client 


SLIP/CSLIP/PPP Access 


Up to 256 Connections 


Teleconferencing/Chat 


Pass-Thru Web Browsing 


Interactive Sessions 


Electronic Moil 


Web Server 


Multithreaded Engine 


Group Message Forums 


Web Forms Support 


ASCII/ANSI Access 


File Libraries 


VRML & Java Support 


Administrative Reports 


Polls & Questionnaires 


CGI Web Server API 


Locks & Keys Security 


Multimedia File Launch 


Web Usage Reporting 


Unlimited User Classes 


Modem Access 


SMTP Send & Receive 


Remote Management 


LAN Access 


NNTP Send & Receive 


Visual Basic API 


Internet (TCP/IP) Access 


IRC Client 


ISV Credit Card Verifier 


ISDN Access 


Telnet Client & Server 


ISV Photograph Database 


X.25 Access 


Rlogin Client & Server 


ISV Group Calendar 


Offline Client Use 


FTP Client & Server 


ISV Document Retrieval 


Transparent Updates 


Finger Client & Server 


ISV Shopping Mall 



On one PC, you can easily provide full 
access to and from the Internet. You can 
have a stunning Web site that engages a 
client/server workgroup environment. 
And you can provide a gateway to the 
Web for your modem and LAN users. 

You can do all of this and more with 
the Worldgroup Internet Server — on a 



single 486 or Pentium DOS machine. 
Minimal maintenance. Maximum 
impact. With airtight security and easy 
administration. Starting at $1,495. 

You can add client/server databases, 
order entry, voice/ image conferencing, 
and more with a quick "A: INSTALL" — 
no laborious HTML work. 



Worldgroup is a trademark of Galacticomm, Inc. All other products are trademarks of their respective companies. 

Circle 292 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 293). 



To use the Internet for real business, 
give us a call at 1-800-328-1128 (outside 
U.S. and Canada call 305-583-5990). Or 
browse us at http://www.gcomm.com. 



MICROSOFT* 
W'IMXMS. 

COMR\na£ 



brunswrlh 
NetVNfare 







(^GALACTICOMM 

Bringing your vision online 



Step up to the best. 
DesignCAD. 
Only $99. 



(competitive upgrade) 



Now, for the first time in our ten 
year history of CAD software, we 
are offering a $99 competitive 
upgrade to DesignCAD. What 
does this mean? If you own any 
other CAD, Drawing, or Design 
software, you can step up to the 
best - DesignCAD. This is the 
complete, up-to-date package - 
not an older or limited version. 
For $99 you get your choice of 
the DesignCAD 2D for Windows 
(version 7.0) or the new Windows 
95 version. 



Why are we doing this? Why are 
we offering $349 CAD software 
for $99? Because we believe it's 
the best, and we're sure you'll 
find it a significant improvement. 
In fact, we're so sure you'll like 
it we're offering a 30-day 
money back guarantee. Get 
the DesignCAD Competitive 
Upgrade for only $99, try it out, 
and if you're not satisfied for any 
reason send it back for a 
refund, no questions asked. 



30 Day Money 
Back Guarantee 



Free Technical 
Support 



■ i 
I J 



EDITORS' 
CHOICE 






YES! Send me the DesignCAD Competitive Upgrade for only $99. ' 
am the owner of the following CAD, Drawing, or Design software: 



I would like DesignCAD for: □ Windows 3.1 □ Windows 95 
Payment Method: 

□ Visa QMC QAmex □ Discover QCOD □ Check/Money Order 

Card Number: Exp: 

Name: 

Address: 

Address: 



City, State, Zip : 
Phone: 



Call, Mail, or Fax your order: 
American Small Business Computers, One American Way, Pryor, OK 74361 
(800) 233-3223 (91 8) 825-7555 fax (91 8) 825-6359 



^120 






To get yours, call (800) 233-3223 

v Card (RESELLERS- 2Rfi^ 



Circle 285 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 286) 




One Portable CD-ROM Drive — Two Simple Steps 




With the backpack quad-speed 
CD-ROM drive, you're one cable 
connection away from a world of 
multimedia business advantages: 
Plug it into your PC parallel port 
to access a universe of CD-ROM 
titles. Take it with you for portable 
data retrieval. Or share it with 
other PCs. 



backpack 

MicroSolutions 

Call Toll Free -800.295.1 21 4 



No compatibility problems with 
virtually any IBM-compatible PC — 
Windows, DOS or OS/2. No 
taking your PC apart to install this 
quad-speed drive. Just plug it into 
your PC printer port — plug your 
printer into the backpack. A simple 
solution from the backpack family 
of tape, diskette and hard drives. 



NOW AVAILABLE WITH 16-BIT BUILT-IN SOUND OPTION! 



I32W. Lincoln Hwy. DeKalb, Illinois 601 15 • Telephone 8 1 5.756.341 1 • FAX 8 1 5.756.2928 
Circle 294 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 295). 




PC MALL 
(800) 555-6255 
Tiger Direct (FL) 
(800) 888-4437 
USA Flex (IL) 
(800) 477-8323 



W 



^sa? 



The Tympani - More Bang For Your Monitor Buck! 




The Orchestra Diva is singing again. This 
time, it's about our new 17" Tympani mon- 
itor. Now, for $469, you can have a 17" 
it^t ^1/ screen » w ^ n two-thirds more Windows 
vHK# screen area than a 15" screen. Get a bigger, 
better and brighter image for larger text and 
more vivid multi-media impact. 

All that extra screen area, with a maxi- 
mum non-interlaced resolution of 
1024x768, for an estimated street price of 
only $469! 

More Screen For Your Buck 

Even with a $469 price tag, the Tympani 
offers pincushioning control and Energy 
Star compliance, with DPMS power man- 
agement. 

For more features and performance, look 
to Orchestra's newest 15" and 17" displays, 
the French Horn II and the Tuba II. 

You're In Control With 
Advanced On-Screen Display 

The French Horn II and Tuba II support high refresh rates 
and have advanced On-Screen Display controls for adjust- 



ing image geometry and color. Adjust the tilt/rotation, pin- 
cushion/barreling and trapeziod aspects, so your image is 
sharp, square and stable, just the way you like it. 

Moreover, color balancing allows adjustment of Red, 
Green and Blue, so you can match your screen color to 
your printer output, or maybe just your mood. 

Call us at (800) 237-9988 from 8:30am to 5:30pm, PST 
and ask a product specialist about the 
full line of Orchestra 14'; 15" and 17" 
displays as well as the Tempo Series of 
PCI and Vesa Local Bus video 
adaptors. 

For all your monitor -™™- 
needs, Orchestra has a model BJhiI 
to lit your computing style. ^g|j^j 
For more information, or to find a 
dealer nearest you, call today The Diva 
is singing for Orchestra; let Orchestra 
perform for you. 



Doi Pitch(mm) 


D.42 


0.28 


0.28 


Maximum Resolution 


1024x768 


1600x1280 


1280x1024 


(Noninterlaced) 








Trapezoidal Control 


NO 


YES 


YES 


lilt/Rotation Control 


NO 


YES 


YES 


Pincushion Control 


YES 


YES 


YES 


Cotor Batance Control 


NO 


YES 


YES 


Color Temp. Control 


NO 


YES 


YES 


Microprocessor Controls 


NO 


YES 


YES 


On-screen Controls 


NO 


YES 


YES 


Estimated Street Price 


$469 


S699 


S499 




(800) 237-9988 



© 1995 Orcheslra MulliSystems, Inc. All trade names are 
trademarks ol their respective companies 



MultiSystems, Inc. 
Technology in Concert 



Circle 130 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 131). 




E-mail messages are like 
fish: You don't want to let 
the big ones get away, 
but you need to screen 
out the little stinky ones. 
Eudora Pro has message 
filters that you can pre- 
set to separate the Big 
Mouths from the Barra- 
cudas. 



Eudora Pro™ is like an Ultimate Cruising Machine. Since it 
uses TCP/IP, your messages glide effortlessly across WANs 
and through LANs, without having to pass through cumber- 
some gateways. That's why it's 

the e-mail of choice for the ( x^^V^fcl >^/ 

Internet. ^\'SJf'h 



When buying 

proprietary e-mail, 

you may just get 

more than you 

bargained for. 



Over two million Mac and PC 
users aren't the only ones 
applauding Eudora. MacUser 
selected Eudora Pro as the 
best communications software 
of 1994. 




Most proprietary e-mail applications 
have really great front ends (GUIs) and 
tons of features. But try pushing one 
through a gateway without getting 
something trampled on... like your 
message. Not a pretty sight! 



Want security? Eudora Pro uses a 
sophisticated authentication system 
called Kerberos to guard your mailbox 





For more information, contact your local dealer. For a listing of authorized Eudora resellers 
and distributors, call: 1-800-2-EUDORA ext. 6083; e-mail: eudora-sales12@qualcomm.com; 
fax: 619-658-1500; worldwide web address: http://www.qualcomm.com/QualHome.html. 



Circle 307 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 308). 



Is your system administration 
group balancing proprietary 
e-mail systems against low 
maintenance, interoperability 
and ease of use? Can't be 
done! Try an open system. 
Try Eudora Pro! 



UALCO/WVA 



The Apple logo is a trademark of Apple Computer Inc. 



Circle 326 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 327). 



DefactoRAID 

High-Performance SCSI RAID Systems 



Discover the best RAID price/per- 
formance in the industry. Raidtec 
is the affordable, open, SCSI-to- 
SCSI hardware RAID solution for 
complete data protection. Ideal 
for mission critical applications, 
document imaging & multimedia. 
It's time to re-visit the 
ultimate in high- 



• Fast & Wide SCSI II 

• RAID levels 0, 1, 10, 3/5 

• Programmable RAID Level 
selection 

• On-the-f ly hardware parity 
generation eliminates read, 
modify, write-back 
performance overhead 



• Downloadable flash firmware 

Remote alarms, configuration 
& monitoring 

• Environmental sensor ports 

• "Hot Replaceable" disk drive 
bays & power supplies 

Single SCSI ID 

• Solid state load sharing power 
subsystem 

LCD control panel status 
display 




availability 
storage. Contact 
Raidtec today at 
(404) 664-6066. 



Tut Standard In Advanced Mass Storage Systems 

Raidtec USA Raidtec EUROPE 

10S Hembtee Park Dt* Suite C Glen Mervyn House • Glanmire 

Rosvvell, GA 30076 Cork, Ireland 

Tel.: (404) 664-6066 Te!.: (353) 21-821454 

VAX: (404) 664-6166 ... FAX: (353) 21-821654 




If you are looking to purchase a computer or computer-related product, 

Computer Purchaser's Help Line is a research company that has been sourcing vendors for large corporate and government 
contractors for years. Now we are offering the same service to the public. We can give you access to vendors who normally do not 
sell to the public. If you have decided what product to buy, we can tell you who has the lowest price. 

If you find a vendor who will sell you the same product for a lower price than the source 
we gave you, we will pay you $10!* You have nothing to lose! You just save $$$ on your purchases! 

Just imagine how much you can save on your next Computers, Printers, Memory, Fax/Modems, Hard Disk Drives, 
CD-ROM Drives, Multimedia Upgrades, Plotters, Digitizers, Software, Networking Products... 



To Save on Your Next 
Purchase, Calk 



(900) 9-SOURCE 



Mon-Fri 9-5 PST 
(900)976-8723 




«B«fi 



Our charges are only $4.99 for the first minute plus $1 .99 for each additional minute. You can check on as many prices as you want with only one call. 

Computer Purchaser's Help Line 



All price guarantees are for 24 hours. The vendor who is offering you the lower price must sell nationwide and must offer the same price to everyone and have stock. You need to call us at (714) 852-8249 and give us the name of 
the vendor, phone number and your referral number. We will give you an approval number and mail you a check for $1 0. 

182 BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 



m SciTcch **gija&» =- 

Software for Science 




MICROSOFT 8 FORTRAN 
POWERSTATION 

Develop & run Fortran programs of virtually any size 
P . _ & complexity with Microsoft FORTRAN PowerStation 

;H( l|/l k/\N family of 32-bit development systems! Migrate 
'" ' - -- Fortran code from other platforms with little or no 
modification! Get unparalleled price/performance! 
Save time in code development and maintenance using the Windows integrated 
development environment. Call NOW to order or request a FREE Test Drive Kit! 

DOS & Windows price $349 

Windows NT price $519 




EndNote Plus 

Bibliography maker that creates bibliographies 
in your word processor. Comes with a collection 
of bibliographic styles for more than 240 lead- 
ing academic journals. Choose from these or 
create your own. Flexible searching and sort- 
ing functions help you to organize your refer- 
ences. EndLink, sold separately, imports refer- 
ences downloaded from online or CD-ROM 



directly into your End Note database. New Windows Version! 
Windows, Mac price , 




JMP 3.1 

Statistical Discovery Software 
from SAS Institute, Inc. 

Statistics is not just data reduction and analysis, it's 
data discovery. JMP's unique graphical approach to 
statistics allows you to see your data from many dif- 
ferent perspectives quickly, easily. JMP's ever-growing 
list of statistical features includes: extensive linear ond 

nonlinear model fitting, including regression, ANOVA, MANOVA, and random effects 

models. Statistical qualily control analysis, extensive survival analysis, and exclusive 

integrated design of experiments. 

Mac, Windows price $599 



STANFORD GRAPHICS 

With Stanford Graphics' Graph Gallery of 171 
graph types, you'll always find the right 
graph for your technical data. Error bar 
charts, X-Y plots, bubble plots, histograms, 3D 
surfaces and contours, and curve fitting are 
just a few of the graph types available. Link 
your Excel, Lotus 1-2-3 or ASCII files directly 
into a powerful 4-dimensional spreadsheet. 

Windows price $99 

Windows NT price $229 



"grffw*" 



MICROSOFT® 
VISUAL C++ 

If you program in C or C++ and use MS DOS , 
Windows® or Windows NT™, Microsoft Visual C++™ 
(version 2.0) is THE product to use. Visual C++ fea- 
tures an optimizing compiler and a state-of-the-art 
Integrated Development Environment that includes a 
project manager, incremental linking; just in time debugging; books online and a 
whole lot more! Get outstanding value by enrolling in the subscription program. 

Single product price $399 

Subscription price $499 



MathType 

Upgrade your Equation Editor to MathType. 
Get the full-featured version of the 
Equation Editor that comes with Microsoft 
Word and many other Windows and 
Macintosh applications. MathType is as 
| easy to use as Equation Editor and you get 
a lot more features to help you work faster 
and produce better looking documents. 

I Windows, Mac price $129 

Upgrade from Equation Editor $89 



MWfl 

I ' lit iu '■ ■■■ 
EXPOHENTGMMB. 



IMSL EXPONENT 
GRAPHICS 

2D and 3D graphics library for technical 
applications that includes a Fortran and C 
application programming interface, built- 
in GUI for Graph customization and hun- 
dreds of code samples. Works with 
Microsoft's PowerStation 32 and Visual 
C++ compilers. 

NT price $895 

Academic price $715 



\M 



SCIENTIFIC, 
ENGINEERING 
& TECHNICAL 
SOFTWARE 
IS OUR 

specialty: 

get expert 
technical 

SUPPORT 
BEFORE YOU 
BUY. 



To order or for more information call 

1.800.622.3345 

ask for our free 1 1 6-page catalog with 
more than 2,000 products! 

[M-F, 7:30am - 6pm CST) 

(Fax 312.486.9234, 24 hours) 
See us on the Internet! Our URL is http://www.scitechint.com/scitech/ 

S<lTe(h Sti,ech Internatianal. Inc. 2525 It. Elston Avenue, Chicogo, IL 60647-2003 Tel 31 2.486.9191 
^_^_ Reselleiscoll 1.800.622.3320 for a Confidential Reseller Piite List 

Circle 309 on Inquiry Card. 



CALL FOR 
MOREINFOR- 
MATION& 
FREE DEMO 
DISKS. 



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Watch The Pieces Come Together. 



Version 
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Complex 
licensing 
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r DALLAS^ 

I AC* 



Introducing The ON Button™ For Your Software 

Now you can protect your software by AH Buttons contain a unique 64- bit serial number: 



controBingtherighttotise. 

Buttons are microchips packaged in coin-shaped, 
stainless steel cans that contain critical 

information to make your 
software run. 





DS1420 ID Button': 

Basic security. 

DS1422 UniqueWore Button : 

IK bit of memory 
separated into A, one-time- 
write pages. 




DS1425 Multi Button : 

2K bits of RAM can protect 
multiple applications. 

DS1427 Time Button": 

4K bits of RAM, along with a 
tamper-proof real time clock. 



°2^tnX Buttons tie together the pieces off your business puzzle. 

^ DALLAS 

SEMICONDUCTOR 

1 South Beltwood Parkway ♦ Dallas, Texas 75244-3292 ♦ TeL 800-258-5061 ♦ Fax: 214450-3869 

Circle 306 on Inquiry Card. 



Special Introductory Price $299.00 

THE 2-LINE VOICE/DATA/FAX AND AUDIO SOLUTION YOU'VE BEEN WAITING FOR. 



_ wsEssammsm 

tile £etup Vol ce m»ii Qata Com ro fax gpcakerPhone H^P 



Line 1: MAILBOX 



Caller ID: 0904 at 1345 B3926G00 / CLINTON BOB 



j Curienl Mailboa: | DEFAULT" 



H Diitinctivc ding On 

Mutic / Mtg On Hold 
□ Enable PBX 

D Fax Menage Find 
£J Voice Menage Fwd 



[ Reset J |j t?uk J 



RING-SPECIAL 3 



Total Colli 5 
Voice Mtgi 1 

Fax Colli 5 




SupeiVoice lor Windows, ESS AudioDrive and 
Windows are trademarks otthe Pacitic Image Com- 
munications Inc., ESS Technology, Inc., and 
Microsoft Corp., respectively. All other product 
names aretrademarksot their respectiveowners. 



Voice Pro +2 

The 1st Affordable 2-line VoiceMail/Fax/Data & Sound System 



U&aU LteteJ UStiwJ .UtifcJ! UfettJ 



The VoicePro+2 handles voice, voice-mail, 
fax and data calls on two separate phone lines 
simultaneously, while continuing to run your ex- 
isting Windows™ applications. The VoicePro+2's 
internal 14.4kbps modem automatically manages 
your (ax & data communications while an inde- 
pendent 1 6-bit, multimedia compatible audio sec- 
tion plays .WAV files, FM synthesized MIDI mu- 
sic, entertainment or CD audio. An on-board fax 
discriminator/switcher connects a second modem 
orexisting plain-paper fax, allowing simultaneous 
2-line transmission. Fax calls can be directed 
to either the internal modem or external de- 
vice for added flexibility. 

The VP+2 also provides unattended Caller I.D. 
and distinctive ring mailbox switching, adding extra 
versatility to each available phone line. Calls are 
routed however you desire, by ring type, by call- 
ing number, or both. PBX type switched "hook/ 
flash" calls are directed and managed by the VP+2's 
Auto-Attendant features. Additionally, you'll get a 
Full-Duplex speaker phone*, Voice & Fax Mes- 
sage Forwarding, Autodial Pager, full Fax-Back and 
Fax On Demand, and Message/Music on Hold. 



No other system offers s o much i n one integrated, 
affordable package. 

All of these features, plus easy upgrades to Re- 
mote Voice Recognition, Unattended Message De- 
livery and TAPI drivers for Windows '95 makes the 
VoicePro+2 the wise choice for your 2-line com- 
munications needs, bothnowand inthefuture.Wealso 
provide free technical support for the first 90 days 
and all the installation assistance you'll ever need. 

Give us a call today and put the power of the 
VoicePro+2 to work for you! At a list price of $329, 
the VoicePro+2 is the most versatile and powerful 
device ever plugged into a single slot in yourcomputer. 
Includes: 

Teledapter VoicePro+2 Message Center (TM), SuperVoice (TM)anrJ ESS 
AudioDrive (TM) software, cables and complete operating instructions. 
*Externalspeaker& microphone optional. 

Minimum Fequitemenls: 386-33mhz and Microsoft Windows 3.1 for 2-line operation. 

Teledapter Systems Inc.™ 

Making Tlie Pieces Fit 

Sales: 1-800-997-PR02 

Info: 1-512-392-6600 

Fax-On Demand: 1-512-392-3991 



184 BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 



Circle 330 on Inquiry Card. 



Come To The Source 






♦♦♦ 



X, i 



Who owns patents and maskworks on the original CMOS 6502 microprocessor? 
No, it's not Rockwell. No, it's not NCR. These companies and over 30 others are 

licensees of The Western Design Center, Inc. - WDC 



,etnu*^ 










is the original source of this valuable technology. 

This is the 20th anniversary issue of BYTE Magazine 

and WDC is pleased to be celebrating the 20th 

anniversary of the introduction of the 6502. 

The founder of WDC was at the St. Francis Hotel, 

San Francisco, in September 1975 where the 6502 

was first sold for $25 (revolutionary pricing). 



**»&»* 



Irvf 



\vUef^< 



JL4K& 






nftofaf 




The 65C02 technology had an interesting beginning. ..having been used in many original 
consumer and game products such as Commodore, Atari, Nintendo and the 
^fee /-?.* Apple II. The 6502 has now evolved into a family of compatible 




•6 



f% 



*™t^^ 







'ffyktih* 







W,*^* 



microprocessors and microcontrollers currently being 
■ used worldwide in products such as the Super 
NES, heart defibrillators, pacemakers, 
dashboard controllers, and set top cable 
converters, to name a few. 

WDC is continuing to evolve and is unveiling a system 

level product based on our proprietary technology. Our 

mission is to bring together the talents and creativity ofj ndividuals whg^ 

recognize this product as a^aradigm shifi^e are looking forward Jt6^earing .> 

from men and women who wWlbpaiticipate in the continuing^ioneering 

efforts of WDC We now look for something different as WDC unv^ls a new 

system - affectionately called... \^ ^SCA CtMipf^M 

The Mensch Computer represents functionality with boundaries and limitations 

. for digital messaging. This is a solipl-kate computer, 

Y : \ 
a Model A for the information superhighway. 




tips 










p/U 



The Western Design Center, Inc. • E-mail wdesignc@indirectcom 

2166 E, Brown Rd • Mesa, AZ 85213 • 602-962-4545 • Fax 602-835-6442 

All products and company names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders. 

Circle 335 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 336). 



Circle 296 on Inquiry Card. 



The first true 32-bit 
client/server BBS - 
reserved for a few 
select MIS Managers. 

Mustang Software's top secret project Wildcat! BBS re-write, code- 
named Atmihilator, is now available to 5000 select MIS Managers, offering 
a glimpse of this breakthrough 32-bit client/server technology - from the 
manufacturer of the world's most popular BBS software. And when you 
purchase one of the limited Pre-Release Atmihilator CDs for only $49, 
you'll save 75% off the regular purchase price later this year. 

Interactive Multimedia Can Expand Your Company's On-line 
Experience 

Atmihilator blends Windows 95 multitasking, NT robust server operations, 
and MAPI technology, with BBS technology to offer full on-line multimedia 
to every caller. And you never have to retrieve the information. Whether 
it's sent from a node on your LAN, a remote location, or an address on the 
Internet, it all shows up right on your E-mail system. 

Deliver Even More Information - At Much 
Greater Speeds 

Atmihilator 's Preview CD will show how 

the true power of client/server functionality 

can be unleashed to provide users with broad, 

BBS-based solutions. They'll learn how to 

implement a BBS with a core information server, 

and route that information using a number of 

application clients. And be able to establish a true 

distributed processing system that delivers more 

information at greater speed, even on a single PC. 

Call today. Your copy of Atmihilator is waiting. 




Single PC Running 
Windows 95 or Windows NT 



CLIENTS 

Individual tattrtatte Programs 



USERDATABASE 



— ; SERVER 



A single executable 

program mi a single 

ctxnputef thai handles 

3U requests for 



FILEDATABASE 



Security validation 

is also controlled 

at Hits lev-el. 



« - 



Local or Netwtuk PC Module 
Tel uel tom Module | ri Inet Server) 

HTML Module (Well Sem't) 



I 




The client/ senxr model of Atmihilator can be easily installed with the server and all clients naming on a 
single PC. The computer can operate under Windows 95 or Windows NT Workstation or Server. Tliis 
configuration offers the most compact system and allows for total management fiom the single BBS computer. 



Buy The Pre-Release Annihilate*? CD For $49* 
And Save Up To 75° /o Off The Purchase Price 

Instructions and information on the Prc-Release Atmihilator CD provides 
MIS Managers with an inside look into the future of BBS technology. 

Purchase of the Pre-Release Atmihilatar CD establishes eligibility for a 75% 
discount off the manufacturers suggested retail price when Atmihilator is released 
later this year. 

Only 5000 Copies Of The Pre-Release Atmihilator CD Will Be Mastered. Get The 
Inside Track And Stay On The Leading Edge Of BBS Technology By Getting Your Copy. 
Call Today To Reserve A Copy 
1-800-663-7509 



"Add $10 for shipping and handling 



^SsEwc Connecting The World 

som wc Mustang Software, Inc. • 6200 Lake Ming Road • Bakersfield. CA 93306 

805-873-2500 • FAX 805-873-2599 • BBS 805-873-2400 • WWW:http://www.mustang.com 




Although the BBS on tlieCD will k opcrati 



at intended to be usedas a commercial BBS because it wilt' not have completed testing nor will it include f til printed documentation. © 1995 Mustang Software, Inc. All names are trademarks of their respective companies. 




i^MB [jfjr-rirtfs fn to rnfrf 





Call today for free catalog 

♦ Print servers 

♦ Data switches 

♦ Keyboard/video control 

800-333-9343 



P.O. Box 742571 ♦ Houston, Texas 77274 
TEL 713/933-7673 ♦ FAX 713/933-0044 



with a Rose keyboard monitor switch 



Streamline your computer room by reducing excess equipment. 
Access up to 256 CPU's from a single keyboard, monitor, and 
mouse. Serve View is our best-selling switch, has every feature 
you can imagine, and installs in minutes. Compare price, fea- 
tures, performance, quality, and support and youll find Rose 
can't be beat. 

Call us to discuss your application 
or to receive your free information kit. 



m 



ELECTRONICS 



186 BY rE SEPTEMBER 1995 



Circle 299 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 300). 




'at booth S^ Expo and Convention 




Copy ffctecfc>K 



0**0* 




Hmmmm^m 



WIBU-KEY - Secure against systematic "crackers"! 

WIBU®-BOX for LPT, COM, ADB, as card for (E)ISA slots 

and as PC-Card (PCMCIA Type II) 

WIBU-BOX is smallest ASIC based dongle! 

Protection for DOS, Windows and networks without 

requiring source code modification 

Windows™, Windows™95+NT, Mac™OS, OS/2®, Novell 



• CD-ROM Install-Shield 



WIBU-KEY 

The most 
complete 
palette of 

copy 
protection 
hardware 



Ca« o^lo 
800-986-6578 



Order your 

evaluation 

package 

today! 




MacOS 



MICROSOFT 
WINDOWS- 
COMPATIBLE 




IBU-KEY 

uality in Software Protection 



UIBU 

SYSTEMS 



WIBU-SYSTEMS GmbH 
Rueppurrer Strasse 54 
D-76137 Karlsruhe, Germany 
Phone: +49-721-93172-0 
FAX: +49-721-93172-22 
CIS: 100142,1674 



EUROPEAN SOFTWARE 

!5 CONNECTION 

1617 St. Andrews Drive, Lawrence, KS 66047 
Phone: (913) 832-2070, FAX: (913) 832-8787 
Techn.Support:(913) 832-1623, CIS: 71141,3624 



Circle 313 on Inquiry Card. 



See your business data in a 

minute... 

...with RegioGraph, the 

desktop mapping system 




The powerful GIS technology for business is used in RegioGraph for 
professional presentation and reports, regional analysis, site selection, 
sales district planning, market delineation and controlling. 

Functions 

Thematic mapping and shading; 2-D, 3-D pie charts, bar graphs; dot den- 
sity maps; scaled symbol maps; 3-D prism and contour lines; portfolio 
technique: presentation of cross tables in maps; easy creation of sales 
territories; fast aggregation of maps and data; spatial selection and data 
filter in maps and data; geocoding of pointfiles (customers); unlimited 
number of layers; multimedia layer; ODBC/OLE; interface to SPSS; import 
capability of different graphic formats; digitizing module; high quality, 
scalable output. 



VIW^N 



MACON GmbH 
Schoenbornstrasse 21 
D-68753 Waghaeusel, Germany 
Phone:+49-7254-983-0 
FAX: +49-7254-983-290 



Circle 314 on Inquiry Card. 



Companies from Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany together at COMDEX/Fall'95 



Kleinmann GmbH 

AmTrieb 13, D-72820 Sonnenbuehl, Germany 
Phone: +49-7128-9292-0, FAX +49-7128-9292-92 



Computer Cleaning Products 

Not for Endusers. Exclusive with private Label. 



Circle 315 on Inquiry Card. 



.vVU 



ikijj. 



. ^ PENTIUM^ , 
MOTHERBOARD 



With Built-in Adaptec SCSI-2/IDE 

Controller. Accomodates 75, 90 or 

100MHz CPU's. 

3 PCI, 5 ISA Slots, 128Mb Allowable. 

Cooling Fan Included. 

MB-P54AS $419 

Pentium Motherboardw/o CPU 



%AltexEle€tronit$ 



1-800-531-5369 

10731 Gulf dale • San Antonio, TX 78216 

210-828-0503 • FAX :2 10-340-2409 
Hours 8am-6pm M-F, 9-5pm Sat CST 



10705 Metric Blvd. • Austin, Texas 78758 

(512)832-9131 • FAX: (512) 835-1328 
Hours8am-6pm M-F,9-5pmSatCST 



(Sadaprec* 

AHA-1542CF 16-Bit SCSI-2 Host 
Adapter (BusMaster) $219 

AHA-1542CFK Kit includes Adapter 
Card, OS Drivers & Cables $285 

AHA-2842VL 64 Bit SCSI-2 VL 
Bus Adapter Kit 
(Drivers,Cables,Adapter) $269 

AHA-2940KT PCI Local Bus 
SCSI BusMaster (RISC-based 
SCSI I/O) $339 



NET WORK MasterView 

CPU Switch allows One Console to 
ACCESS Six Servers/CPUs. Cascadeable, 
built-in buffer, Auto-ScawfJIanual 
Selection(3-40 sec. scan intervals), supports 
VGA to MultiSync. Perfect for access to 
File Servers, Trouble-shooting or Routine 
Monitoring. LED indicators. 

CS-106 AT Only $299 

CS-104 AT or PS2 $279 

VIDEO SEPARATOR is a fast flexible 
solution for VGA duplication. Video Signal 
is enhanced for long distance broadc- 
asting up to 210 ft. (Daisy Chainable) 

VS-104 4 to 1 $129 

VS-108 8to1 $189 



CABLE ASSEMBLIES 



1 1 342 IH-35 North • San Antonio, TX 78233 1 5207 Midway Road • Dallas, Texas 75244 

21 0-637-3200 • F AX:21 0-637-3264 (214) 386-8882 • FAX: (214) 386-9182 

Hours 8am-8pm M-F, 9-5pm Sat CST Hours 8am-7pm M-F, 9-5pm Sat CST 

TERMS: For CO.D. orders add $5 per package. Minimum $25. Cash or Cashiers Check only. For orders under $99 add S3 handling charge. Orders §99 or more 
no handling fee. All shipping is FOB San Antonio, Texas and will be added to your invoice. Texas residents add 7-3/4% sales tax. All returns require RMAfl and 
must be returned in original condition. A 15% restocking fee will be assessed on product returned in non-resa|eable conditipn. No returns on memoiy, cut cable or 
custom cable assemblies Prices subject to change without notice. We are not responsible lor typographical errors. 

CORPORATE, INSTITUTIONAL & GOVERNMENT POs WELCOME. NET 30 TERMS AVAILABLE UPON APPROVAL. 



NETWORKNG 



NfTC 10BASE-T/BNC Adapter Card features software selectable I/O, interrupt & PROM address (Jumpeitess). 
NE2000/IEEE 802.3 compliant with LED indicators for activity & link detection. Supports NOVELL, Microsoft, 
Artisoft, FTP and PC/NFS. Compatible with all Bus systems, 10Mbps transfer & is FCC certified. 
300-017-01 10BaseT/BNC Adapter (8/16bit) s^vHI $® 

400-006-01 16-Port10BaseTHub &J&\ $264 

400-004-01 8Port10BaseTHub [■T^R $135 

700-003-01 Ethernet Bundle Pak (8Poit Hub and 4 Combo Cards) MKSpS $249 

BOCA 16-Port Ethernet 10BASE-T Hub With 10Base-2 and AU I connections. Automatic partitioning upon 
excessive colfision detection with automatic restoral upon correction. Compact, fits easily on a desktop. 
Includes AC adapter, BNC-T Conn and 5 Yr Mfg Warranty. 



BDCH 

28.8KBPS V.34 
MODEMS 

MV.34I 28.8Kbps Internal $174 

M1440E 14.4Kbps External 106 

MV.34E 28.8Kbps External 225 

SE1440 14.4Kbps Modem, VoiceMail, 

Speakerphone 169 

M1440I 14.4Kbps Internal 

Modem & Sound Card 82 



•=6 ft 10 ft 



$3.99 $4.99 
3.99 8.99 
1-9 10+ 
$2.99 $2.54 
2.99 2.54 
2.99 



2.75 



2.99 



'Please fill in ' with length desired 

Printer Cables 

PPC301-* Parallel Piinter Cable 

(DB2510 36P) $2.99 $3.99 

DB-25 Line Cables (Wired Straight Thru, Shielded w/ 
Thumbscrews) 

25MM-* 0825 Male to Male 
25MF-" DB25 Male to Female 
Extension Cables 
5MM-6 DSP M to M (6 foot) 
KEC-6 Keyboard Cable (6 loot) 
PS2-KEC6 PS2 Keyboard Cable (6 loot) 3.39 
PS2-KA AT Keyboard on PS/2 

(MD6P to D5S) 2.89 

MEC-6 Monitor Extension Cable 2.99 
PS2-MECQ VGA Monitor Cable (6 loot) 3.39 
AC Power Cords 1-9 10+ 

ACPC-02 PC Power Cotd, W $2.49 $2.23 

ACPC-03 Monitor Power Adapter, f 2.29 1.99 
ACPC-04 Monitor Power Extension (6') 3.69 2.75 
Drive Cable Assemblies Each 

HD-IDE 40S-40S Single IDE Haid Drive CaMe $1.49 
DFC-U Univeisal Cable Set (5 Connector) 2.95 
2HDIDE Dual IDE Hard Diive Cable 2.99 

YAD-4 Disc Drive T Adapter 4P 1.99 

SCSI Cables 

SCSI-RC Three IDS 50-Pin Sockets (2) 
SCSI-DC 50-Pin Cent (M) - 50-Pin Cent (M) 
SCSI-II 50-Pin Cent (M) - 50-Pin Hall Pitch 
SCSMI3 50-Pin HP to 50-Pin Hall Pitch (3) 
SCSI-2HH 50-Pin HP to 50-Pin HP (B) 
SCSI-EC6 50-Pin Cent (M) ■ 50-Pin Cent (F) 
Gender Changers & Adapters 1-24 25 

ATSCA 9P (F) to25P (M) Adapter $2.49 $2.04 
PCSCA 9P(M)to25P(F) Adapter 2.49 2.04 
TGC-9 9P Ultrathin Gender Changer 2.69 2.45 
TGC-25 25P Ultrathin Gender Changer2.99 2.75 



LINE EXTENDERS/BUFFERS 



Non-Powered Parallel Line Extender safely 
transmit data up to 1300 ft. over 4Pair phone 
line without data loss. Compact, FCC 
Approved. 30' cable 

PLE100 DB25MtoDB25M $49 

PLE110 DB25 Mto36 Pin Cent. M 49 
IC-9V200 9V /200mA , A C extends to 

2000' 6.25 

AUTO SWITCH/BUFFER -Powered Auto 
Switch with a optional Buffer Card. Takes 
data at full speed, cutting wait time. 
AS-411P 4 to 1 Parallel 
AS-811P 8 to 1 Parallel 
AS-251 P 2 lot Parallel (Compact) 
AS-451 P 4 tot Parallel (Compact) 
AS-RAM-256K 256k Ram Buffer 
AS-RAM-1M 1Mb Ram Buffer 
AS-RAM-2M 2 Mb RAM Buffer 



$4.95 
7.99 
29.95 
29.95 
34.95 
9.99 



IC-9V300 



$79 
119 
25 
49 
$59 
129 
215 
9V 7300mA, AC Adaptor 6.25 



BEN220 

BEN210 

BE2000/2 

BEN120 

BEN110 

BEN1VL 

BEN1P1 



$264 
$135 
$67 
$70 
64 
73 



& LONGSHINE 



BOCA 16-Port Ethernet 10Base-T Hub 

BOCAHUB-8 (Eight Port) 10Base-T Concentrator 

BOCA 10BaseT/2 Adapter Card 

BOCALANcard Combo Plug & Play (16-bit) RJ45 & BNC 

BOCALANcard TP Plug & Play (16-bit) RJ45 Only 

BOCALANcard VLB Plug & Play(32-bit) RJ45 Only 

BOCALANcard PCI Plug ft Play(32-bil) RJ45 & BNC 83 

ETHERNET ADAPTER CARDs are NE-2000 /NET BIOS compatible, CSMA, IEEE802.3 protocol, distributed bus, 
10Mbps, supports PC-LAN, MS-NET, NOVELL, built-in high performance transceiver drivers for OOl, NDIS, SCO 
UNIX, TCP/IP and has 8 IRQs for flexibility and on-board ROM socket. 
LCS-8634MI 1 6-Bit NE2000 Ethernet Adapter (BNC, SGL Chip) 
LCS-8634L-T 16 -Bit Ethernet Jumperless Adapt. (R J45 Only) 
LCS-8634TBA 1 6-Bit Ethernet Adapter (AUI.BNC.TP Conn.) 
LCS-8934TBA 32-Bit Ethernet Adapt. (AUI, BNC.TP Conn.) 
LCS-8834-2 PS/2 Ethernet Card (AUI/Cheaper Port, 800 meters) 

Transceiver 1 0Base-T (AU I to RJ-45) 5 Yr Ml g Warranty 

Transceiver for BNC. Connector 5 Yr Mfg Warranty 

8 Port 10Base-T Repeater (AUI.BNC.TP) 

12 Port Repeater w/2 Transceivers 
3COM Etherlinklll "Parallel Tasking" 16-Bit 10BASE-T Network Adapter. SNMP Manageable designed for ISA or 
EISA base Boards. Includes User Guide andAutoLink Software diagnostics and drives. 
3C509B-TP 1 0BASE-T 1 6-Bit Ethernet Adapter (RJ-45) j $139 

3C509B 10BASE-T 16-Bit Ethernet Adapter (BNC) ■ $149 

3C509B-TP 1 0BASE-T/2 1 6-Bit Ethernet Adapter (RJ-45/BNC) 3M*1 1 1 * 5139 



LCS-883T-T 
LCS-883T3 
LCS883R-T8 
LCS883R-2 



$34 

36 

48 

109 

140 

$42 

'$62 

SM 

189 



CATEGORY 5 VOICE/DATA CABLE 



VDC5-4 Level5, 4 Pair, Unshielded CL-2 PVC 

VDC5-4P Level 5, 4 Pair, Plenum 

MP-8S 8-Pin RJ45 Plug (Solid) __ 



1-99' 100-999' 1000' 

.$016 $0.11 $90 

0.50 0.38 270 

0.38 0.30 0.25 



POWER PROTECTION 



BC "Personal" & "PRO" Battery Back-Up Systems provide excellent basic power protection, guards against 
blackouts/brownouts, surges or spikes thus saving data and hardware! Designed for Home or Small Office 
application. Features micro- processor controlled "Pulse Width Modulated Waveform" for increased backup time. 
$25K Ultimate and 2 Yr Mfg Warranty. j ^^ •— ^ 

BCPERS-280 280VA/175W Personal UPS (2 Outlets) $104 

500VA/350W Personal UPS (4 Outlets) 181 

550VA/375W LAN UPS (4 Outlets) 197 

850VA/570W LAN UPS (4 Outlets) 305 

1400VA/990W LAN UPS (6 Outlets) 446 



BCPERS-500 
BCPRO550 
BCPRO850 
BCPRO1400 



TRIPP LITE 



OMNIPRO LINE INTERACTIVE UPS 

Designed for the Poor Power (Voltage Sags/ 
Brownouts) Environment. Combined Line Interactive 
Technology and New Microprocessor Controlled 
standby UPS (On-Board UPS (Voltage Regulator) 
design keeps your computer working through extended 
brownouts without draining battery power. Line 



Interactive voltage correction from 91 to 140 AC, 
back to 120V nominal. Offers Pulse Width Modulated 
Output, Spike and RFI/EMI filtering, 5 second restart 
delay, automatic inverter shutdown and Ultimate 
Lifetime Insurance. 









DB9 LAN 


Backup Time 






Part# 


Output (Volts/Watts) 


NEMA5-15R Outlets 


Port 


(Half Load) 


Lbs 


Each 


OMNIPRO280 


280/175 


4 


No 


17 


13 


$149 


OMNIPRO450 


450/280 


4 


Yes 


17 


15.5 


207 


OMNIPR0675 


675/425 


4 


Yes 


17 


20 


279 


OMNIPRO850 


850/570 


4 


Yes 


21 


27 


369 


OMNIPRO1050 


1050/705 


6 


Yes 


23 


32 


414 


OMNIPRO1400 


1400/940 


6 


Yes 


24 


39 


499 



Happy 20th BYTE! 



MEMORY 



1MEGX9-70 $47 

4MEGX9-60 199 

4MEGPS2-60 197 

4MEGPS2-70 194 

8MEGPS2-60 385 

16MEGPS2-60 698 

1MEGX1-70 $7.00 

44256-70 7.00 

Call for Current Pricing 



"Voyager 64" 

High Speed Graphics Accelerator 
to 1600 x 1200 resolution PCI 
Bus, 2Mb DRAM, "Green PC 
Savings". 

SVGP64 
Voyager 64 PCI 2Mb Accelerator 

$199 



CATEGORY 5 



19"Patch Panels With 110 Blocks 
Part# Desc. 1-4 5-9 10+ 

PP824-5 8 Wire, 24 Port S99 $96 $89 
PP848-5 8 Wire, 48 Port 209 194 181 

| PP896-5 8 Wire, 96 Port 399 372 347 
CATEGORY 5 (100Mbps Standards) 

, Colored Cable ONLY (No Boot) 

| * Simply fill in with one of following cable 

colors desired: 
70 (Gray) 73 (Green) 71 (Black) 
74 (Red) 72 (Blue) 75 (Yellow) 

AltexNo. Length 1-9 10-49 50+ 

73-66 -3 3 ft $4.00 $3.56 $3.20 

73-66 -7 7 ft 5.25 4.67 4.20 

73-66 -15 15 ft 7.80 6.93 6.24 

73-66 -25 25 ft 11.03 9.80 8.82 

73-66 -50 50ft 18.25 16.22 14.60 

Wall Plates for Inserts l=lvory W=White 



Part# 
KWP-1 
KWP-2 
KWP-3 
KWP-4 
KWP-6 



Description 1-9 

1 Port 

2 Port 

3 Port 

4 Port 
6 Port 



$1.49 
1.49 

1.49 
1.49 
1.49 



10-24 25-99 
$1.34 $1.22 



1.34 
1.34 
1.34 
1.34 



1.22 
1.22 
1.22 
1.22 



ftfc -..,,.(, , J. «: . : 



110TypeRJ45 Jack INSERTS 
Available Colors: Ivory, Black, Red, Green, 

Yellow, Orange & Blue 
KJ-110WH White $5.50 $5.00 $4.58 

Other Type inserts Idvory 
KP-IN Blank Insert $0.30 
KP-INW Blank Insert 0.30 
KP-BNC BNC Feed through 

Insert 3.00 

KP-BNCW BNC Feed Thru 

Insert 3.00 

KP-ST ST Insert 6.50 
Wall PlateMountlng Boxes 
MB-IV Ivory $2.50 

MB-WH White 2.50 



W=White 
$0.25 $0.20 
0.25 0.20 



2.73 2.50 



2.73 
5.91 



2.50 
5.42 



$2.27 
2.27 



$2.08 
2.08 



HARD DRIVES 



<SS> Seagate 



IDE 

ST-3491A 428Mb @ 15ms IDE $189 

ST-3660A 545Mb @ 1 4ms IDE ., 209 

ST-3780A 722Mb @ 1 2ms IDE 269 

ST31220A 1.08Gb @ 9ms IDE 349 

SCSI <55> Seagate 

ST31230N 1.05Gb @ 9ms $629 

ST32550N 2.14Gb FSCI 

BARRACUDA 1,149 

ST15150N 4.0Gb FSCSI 1,649 

ST410800N 9Gb FSCSI 

BARRACUDA 2,899 

MXT-7420A 420Mb @ 14ms $189 

MXT-7540A 540Mb @ 12ms 209 

MXT-7850A 850Mb @ 14ms 259 

MXT-71050A 1.05Gb @ EIDE 319 

MXT-71260AT 1.2Gb @ 12ms 349 



188 BYTK SEIH'KMBt-U I99S 



Circle 284 on Inquiry Card. 




TOOLS 



Available on DOS, MS Windows, Windows NT, OS/2 PM, SCO Unix, Interactive Unix, Solaris on 

Intel and SUN SPARC. Your applications written with the GSS Graphic Tools are portable to all platforms. 

32 bit technology also on DOS through support of Pharlap DOS extender, Lahey Fortran LF90, 

Watcom C, Watcom Fortran, MS Visual C/C++, MS Fortran Powerstation and Metaware High C/C++. 



GSS*GDT 

Graphics Development Toolkit enables you to develop 
applications in a device and system independent way. 
Based on the ISO CGI standard GSS*GDT supports a 
variety of input and output devices through device-specific 
CGI drivers. GSS*GDT is completely integrated into the 
underlying windowing system and comes with more than 
160 callable C and Fortran functions. Furthermore, it is 
compatible with the Graphics Development Tools from 
IBM and SCO. 



CGMStoMl 



Computer Graphics Metafile is the ISO/ANSI standard for 
system independent storage of vector and rasterbased 
graphical information. CGM is part of the worldwide CALS 
and ATA initiatives that optimize industrial processes and is 
implemented in hundreds of applications. Together with 
our partner, Henderson Software Inc., whose president 
Lofton Henderson is the technical editor of the CGM 
standard, EMATEK offers a complete product line of CGM 
tools. 
MetaGen: The C function library to generate standard 

compliant CGM metafiles. 
MetaTran: The C function library to interpret CGM 

metafiles. 
MetaCheck: The tool to check CGM metafiles for 

standard conformity. 
MetaPrint: CGM printer driver for MS Windows. 
HSIview: Metafile Interpreter for MS Windows and 

CGM/WMF Converter. 
GSS*CGM: The high level C and FORTRAN function 

libraries to interpret and convert CGM 

metafiles via GSS*GKS and GSS*GDT. 




•^Standard 



GSS*GKS 

Graphical Kernel System is a C and FORTRAN function 
library that enables you to develop portable graphic 
applications which include for example user interaction, 
coordinate transformation and object segmentation, based 
on the ISO GKS Standard. GSS*GKS, which is installed in 
large quantities on the DOS platform and has been proved 
successful for years, is now available for the graphical user 
interfaces and therefore offers the software developer a 
smooth transition to the new windowing systems. 

CGI Print Manager for Xll 

Windows NT shaked the UNIX community decently. But on 
closer examination it is the numerous small features which 
make NT attractiv and which the UNIX system does not 
possess. For example the Windows Graphical Device 
Interface (GDI) is one of these features and allows every 
hardware manufacturer to develop device drivers and to 
deliver them with his devices. Hence every customer can, at 
any point, install additional drivers himself thus optimizing 
the use of his software. Up until now this is impossible 
under UNIX. But EMATEK has just developed a print 
manager for Motif /X1 1 on the base of the Computer 
Graphics Interface (CGI) standard. The final product will 
allow each X1 1 -based application to address printers, 
plotters or output files through the CGI device interface. In 
addition, CGI as an ISO standard adheres to the UNIX open 
systems' philosopy. 

GSS*EasyChart 

This brandnew library for MS Windows provides you with 
functions to easily integrate business charts and graphs into 
your application. For an incredibly low price you can view 
your datasets as pie, bar, line, step or schedule charts and 
customize each detail. Enhance your existing application 
with presentation graphics capabilities. Business Charts and 
Graphs supports various C and Fortran compilers. 

Training & Consulting 

Our training & consulting group deals with a variety of 
activities ranging from customer consulting to training in the 
use of graphical standards as well as designing and 
developing graphical solutions. 

Circle 317 on Inquiry Card. 



EmatekGmbH 

Subbelrather Strasse 17- D-50823 Cologne, Germany 

Phone: +49-221 -51 2074 -Fax: +49-221-529666 

Email: gsscgi@ematek.de 




A sign of Quality for over 1 2 Years 



When disaster strikes 
your computer, he 
prepared with 
aduanced technology 
from micro 2000... 



LL COMPUTER EQUIPMENT will eventually fail. 
^It may take years before your hard drive crash- 
es. It may be months before you have any serious data 
loss, problems with your memory or experience chip 
failure. Then again, it could be today! 

At MICRO 2000 we are constantly thinking ahead to 
provide you with the products you'll need to protect 
yourself from hours of frustration and downtime. Our 
expanding line of products can assist you to recover data 
from a crashed disk when all the others have failed. 

We can help you diagnose what's wrong with your 
PCs in a flash, on-site or remotely — without a modem! 

Tech Support you can count on 
in the crunch... 

Good products are one thing, but how about some- 
one to walk you through the tough stuff? Even though a 
large percentage of our clients are professional techni- 
cians and power users, we regularly receive calls from 
beginning users who need help getting started. After all, 
these are tomorrow's power users and technicians. 

Advanced technology based on 
what you need... 

You can help us to serve you. If you use any of our 
products, please let us know what you like about them, 
or what improvements we could make. We try to make 
each new version fulfill as many needs and wishes as 
possible, as your business and success are important to 
us. Give us a call or write to us with any comments. 

IVIICRO 

EQQQ can 1-800 861-8008 




THIS IS A MUST-HAVE TOOL for PC 
Service Technicians everywhere. 
Supply your customers with this inex- 
pensive software and let MICRO-SCOPE 
CLIENT diagnose what's wrong with 
their PCs without leaving your office! 
When your customer calls you with a service problem, simply 
have him boot his PC with the Micro-Scope CLIENT floppy disk in 
drive A and select either the Quick Test or the Extensive Test. Then just 
look up the resulting error codes in the CLIENT manual and you'll 
know exactly what's wrong and be able to bring the correct replace- 
ment chips, drives, cables, etc. CLIENT also reports the exact system 
configuration so you can insure compatibility. Saves time and money! 




M', 



[TCRO-SCOPE CENSUS LETS YOU 
keep track of hundreds or even 
thousands of computers and know 
each one's exact hardware and system 
configuration at a glance. Many techni- 
cians and MIS Directors use this 
software tool to save hours of downtime in companies with 
multiple computers. 

Simply load the supplied disk into each computer on site (up to 
1 00 PCs recordable on each disk) . CENSUS automatically records 
complete system information and assigns each PC a unique ID num- 
ber. The data can now be downloaded from the disk into any 
database program so it's ready to retrieve at a moments notice. For 
even greater productivity and speed, use CENSUS in combination with 
MICRO-SCOPE CLIENT to remotely diagnose each PC and arrive with 
the exact parts required, fully compatible. You'll be in and out in a 
flash with a greater profit margin. 




o i 



|UITE OFrEN THINGS AREN'T what they 
seem. The rated speed and efficiency of 
a computer can be misleading — and some- 
times absolutely false. You should know 
exactly what you're getting for your money! 

Imagine walking into a computer store, 
pulling out your COMPUTER CONSULTANT 
diskette, placing it into the A drive of a computer 
and having detailed, 100% accurate information about the PC. In a 
matter of minutes you could test every PC in the store, and knowing 
the exact configuration of each, determine which one was best for 
your needs without all the sales hype. That's what COMPUTER CON- 
SULTANT can do for you. 

AT LAST— EXTENSIVE AND FOOLPROOF 
lidata recovery for everyone! The only 
comparable service to 911-RECOVER is a 
professional data recovery company, 
which could take several weeks and cost 
you hundreds or thousands of dollars. 
Avoid the downtime and worry by using 911-RECOVER right in 
your own office. 9 1 1 -RECOVER reads right down to the bit level even 
if the directories and File Allocation Tables are damaged. It can 
recover data that has been damaged by other "recovery software." 
Does not need DOS intact to function. If the data is physically on the 
drive, it can be recovered. 




mm 



iiiophs wiiin any PC & 



WM\\ 



lafca 





call now lor information on special Pricino: 

1-800-66Q-8008 

Br Fa» (818) 507-8397 HflW^ 

1100 East Broadway, Suite 301, Glendale, California 
Phone 818/547-0125 • Fax 818/547-0397 
International Orders please call: 
Micro 2000 Australia: 61-42-574144 
Micro 2000 Europe (UK): 44-462-483-483 







Fuim o/s independent 
diagnostic software... 



Call for upgrade pricing & 
complete new features list! 

MICRO-SCOPE Universal Computer Diagnostics was developed to satisfy 
the expanding need for accurate system diagnosis in the rapidly growing 
desktop computer market. Patterned after super-mini and mainframe diagnos- 
tic routines, MICRO-SCOPE runs independently of any standard operating 
system, and is therefore at home on any machine in the Intel world. Speed, 
ease-of-use, and razor sharp accuracy are a few of the advantages that arise 
from this system independence. Jerry Pournelle awarded MICRO-SCOPE & 
POST-PROBE the User's Choice Award in the May 1994 issue of Byte Magazine: 
"You name it, this tests it. If you maintain PCs you'll love it." 

♦ LOW-LEVEL FORMAT— Performs Low-level format on all drive types 
including IDE drives. This function cannot hurt IDE drives. ♦ USE CON- 
TROLLER BIOS— Program will access BIOS format built into any hard disk 
controller— even Controllers yet to be invented. ♦ O/S INDEPENDENT— 
Does not rely on O/S for diagnostics. Talks to PC on hardware level. All tests 
are full function regardless of O/S (i.e. Novell, UNIX, OS/2). ♦ TRUE HARD- 
WARE DIAGNOSTICS— Accurate testing of CPU, IRQ's, DMA's, memory, 
hard drives, floppy drives, video cards, etc. ♦ BATCH CONTROL— All tests, 
even destructive, may be selected for testing. ♦ ERROR LOGGING — Auto- 
matically inputs errors during testing to an error log. ♦ AUTOMAPPING — 
Automatically bad sector maps errors found on hard disks. ♦ IRQ DIS- 
PLAY — Show bits enabled in IRQ chip for finding cards that are software 
driven. (Network, Tape Backup, etc.) ♦ IRQ CHECK— Talks directly to 
hardware and shows I/O address and IRQ of devices that respond. ♦ MEMO- 
RY EXAMINE — Displays any physical bit of memory under 1 Meg. Vei7 use- 
ful for determining memory conflicts. Very useful for determining available 
memory space. ♦ SECTOR EDITOR — Allows the editing of any sector of 
floppy or hard disk media (even track 0). ♦ AND MUCH MORE... We don't 
have enough space here for everything this software can do! 



.-Jl,^ 



First Inr Universal P.O.S.T. Card far Ail PCs! 



The only power-on sell-Test card you need 
to debug any "dead" PC... 

Vfihis is the only card that will function in every system on the market. The 
J. documentation is extensive, and not only covers the expected POST 
Codes for different BIOS versions, but also includes a detailed reference to the 
bus signals monitored by the card." — Scott Mueller from his globally rec- 
ognized book, 'Upgrading & Repairing PCs, Second Edition* 

♦ Includes pads for voltmeter to attach for actual voltage testing under load. 

♦ 4 LEDs monitor +5vdc -5vdc +12vdc -12vdc. ♦ Monitors Hi & Lo clock 
and OSC cycles to distinguish between clock chip or crystal failure. ♦ Moni- 
tors I/O Write and I/O Read to distinguish between write and read errors. 

♦ Monitors memory write/ read to distinguish between address line failures 
and memory chip failures. ♦ Monitors ALE for proper CPU/DMA operation. 

♦ Monitors Reset to determine if reset is occurring during POST, indicating 
short. ♦ Monitors progress of POST without POST codes. ♦ Reads POST 
codes from any IBM or compatible that emits POST codes. ISA/EISA/MCA. 

♦ Compatible with Micro Channel computers. ♦ Dip switch allows easy selec- 
tion of I/O ports to read. ♦ Includes tri-state LOGIC PROBE to determine 
actual chip failures. ♦ Manual includes chip layouts and detailed POST proce- 
dures for all major BIOS's. ♦ AND MUCH MORE... call for more details. 



IVIICRO 







Govt. Serv. #: GS-00K-94AGS-5396 



Circle 301 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 302). 



Rock 'n'Roll is big business with a 
need for powerful software 
solutions. ^^ & 3 

DATA 



•Sage* 



When you choose the DataFlex application 
development system, you can count on delivering 
powerful solutions. DataFlex's greatest strength is 
in the language, a 4GL strong enough to sustain 
anything you can build on it. Powerful enough to 
take you far beyond the point at which most other 
products leave you stranded. 

0ver350,000 installationsand 2,000,000 users 
in 40 countries make DataFlex a proven solution 
for a wide range of business applications for 
companies like Mercedes-Benz, Coca-Cola, and 
the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. 

"DataFlex's greatest strength is in the language 
itself. I like knowing my customers, from the 
Pittsburgh Symphony to the Rock and Roll Hall of 
Fame, can depend on their DataF lex-based ap- 
plications to manage their veryhecticschedules. 
I, as the developer, can focus on the business 
requirements of the application, rather than the 
underlying language capabilities and systems. " 

Randy Slapnicka 

Event Software Corp. 

DataFlex means business. We speak your 
language because we want you to speak ours. Call 
us today for a free information kit. 




In the United States, Phone 1-800-451-3539 For Sales Information 



Country 


Telephone 


Fax 


Country 


Telephone 


Fax 


Eastern Australia 


(61) (03) 888-9899 


(61) (03) 888-9950 


Malta 


356-241246 


356-230631 


Western Australia 


(61) (09) 321-3378 


(61) (09) 481-1874 


Mexico 


(525)631-4663 


(525)631-4538 


Brazil 


(55) (01 1)872-9266 


(55) (011) 653-899 


Netherlands 


(31)074-55 56 09 


(31)074-50 34 66 


Canada 


416-226-2181 


416-226-4341 


Poland 


(48) 42-334139 


(48) 42-746434 


Germany 


(49)06172-9568-0 


(49)06172-956812 


Spain 


(34)(1)372-95-17 


(34) (1)372-81-56 


Greece 


(30-1)6517945 


(30-1)6536891 


Thailand 


(66) (02) 276-2559 


(66) (02) 275-9156 


Italy 


(39) (0184) 231.606 


(39) (0184)231.243 


Trinidad 


(809) 628-9330 


(809) 628-9259 


Japan 


(81-3)-3296-7324 


(81-3)-3296-7329 


United Kingdom 


44(1-923)242222 


44(1-923)249269 



DATA ACCESS 



CompuServe: GO DACCESS - Internet (WWW): http://www.daccess.com 



C O 



Circle 325 on Inquiry Card. 




pre-printed forms 



mips TransForm™ 
Scanning Station 



Now, Go From Paper To Electronic Forms 

Automatically. 




Introducing TransForm?" As incredible as it 
sounds, you can now scan your paper forms 
into fully editable, electronic forms in minutes. 
Thanks to its artificial intelligence, TransForm senses boxes 
where data is entered and lets you type into them directly. 
Each form you create with TransForm can be filled or 
merged with variable data, E-mailed and faxed. What's 
more, all your forms can be filled and printed from nearly 



Call the mips authorized 
dealer near you. 



DocuPrint, Sweden: 
46-8-283390 



any computer platform. ■ Another benefit: with TransForm, 
you can quickly make changes to forms at any time and 
print out new forms when you need them. No more 
throwing away stacks of obsolete forms! ■ And for 
convenient form storage, our mips FormShuttle™ and SmartSimm™ 
use flash memory to hold up to 200 forms and insert right into 
your laser printer. Since forms stay printer-resident they'll print 
much faster. ■ Find out more today: QAA a QQQ a QCAA 

mips Technologies GmbH, 
Germany: 49-6127-3845 



DOMINION BLUELINE, Inc. 
Canada: 1-800-561-1237 



Patriot Group, Houston, Dallas PC:\Forms>lnc, Wisconsin: 
San Antonio, TX 1 -800-753-0781 1 - 800-786-8827 



inip!> = 



Dataline America, Inc. 



(619)679-4070 • Fax (619) 679-4073 



LASER 
INKJET 



COMPUTER CHECKS 



CONTINUOUS FEED CHECKS AND 
CHECK SAVERS ALSO AVAILABLE 

AS LOW AS $24.95 

CALL: 1-800-239-4087 

FAX ORDERS: 1-800-774-1118 <r ^ 

(PLEASE CALL FOR A FAX ORDER FORM) *^\ 



• QUICKEN 

• SIMPLY MONEY 

• MICROSOFT MONEY 

• MANY MORE! 

LASER AND CONTINUOUS FEED 
CHECKS AVAILABLE IN: 

• BUSINESS SIZE 

• BUSINESS SIZE with Voucher 

• WALLET SIZE 

Available in Singles and Duplicates. 

Choose From 4 Stylish Colors! 




Destener 



MC.VISA& 

AMERICAN EXPRESS 

ACCEPTED 



How to Order j 

o 

1 . Enclose reorder form or voided check from <5 
existing check supply, noting c 

2. Include deposit slip from existing check supply. 

3. Enclose payment check. 

4. All orders will be shipped within 7 working days. 

5. Complete the order form and mail with items 1,2, & 3 to: 
Designer Checks • P.O. Box 13387 • Birmingham, AL 35202 



ORDER FORM 

Software: 

Start my checks with nur 

a Singles O Duplicates 
Pick ONE Color: □ Classi 
Laser/Inkjet Checks 


nber: 


P09204B5 
BYTE 

Version: 


(if not given 1001 will be used) 
r call for prices) 

c Blue □ Tan □ Classic Green □ Prestige 
250 500 1000 2000 


I Business Size 


$29.95 


$44.95 


$59.95 


$88.95 


$ 


[ Business Size w/voucher 


$39.95 


$57.95 


$79.95 


$128.95 


$ 


Wallet Size 


$24.95 


$39.95 


$63.95 


$89.95 


$ 


Continuous Feed Checks 250 500 


1000 2000 




1 Business Size 


$26.95 


$39.95 


$57.95 


$89.95 


$ 


I Business Size w/voucher 


$29.95 


$42.95 


$64.95 


$99.95 


$ 


Wallet Size 


$26.95 


$39.95 


$59.95 


$89.95 


$ 


I Shipping & handling 


$ 


5.00 


[ Shipping & handling by AirBorne add S2.50 


$ 


[ Subtotal 


$ 


[ Alabama residents add 8% sales tax 


$ 


TOTAL AMOUNT 


$ 





Circle 316 on Inquiry Card. 



SEPTEMBER 1995 BYTE 193 




o GjT&cx/^ /J21S. . . 





in the time it's taking to build this 



L1S& 



/J21S. 



CLARION 



Introducing Clarion for Windows™ the only Rapid Application 
Development environment and programming tool that delivers the 
promise - Productivity, Performance and Maintainability - for both 16 and 
FOR WINDOWS™ 32 bit applications. 

YouVe More Productive - because you write less code than other RAD tools. Any visual design tool can draw a user inter- 
face object. But Clarion's templates generate the functionality behind the objects, creating not just a button but a business 
solution, such as a look-up or a record update. 

Your Applications Fly - because Clarion delivers a higher level of performance! Our optimizing compiler creates applications 
that perform tens of times faster than Visual Basic™ or Power Builder™ applications. And, going from prototype to applica- 
tion is quick and easy. Your end users will love it! 

Maintenance is Simplified - because only Clarion's development environment is designed to cut the time needed for 

long-term maintenance. Change an option in the data dictionary, such as a Referential Integrity 

constraint, and your application is automatically updated, evolving to meet your end users *w r» i * {^1 

needs. Plus, Clarion is an expressive, compact language that's easy to learn and read. ™*W*^ 

Better. Faster. Smarter. That's Clarion for Windows. Call today for a FREE TRIALPAK CD 1-Bflfl.99G.fl7Q4 
and let us prove that Clarion delivers what it promises. ' ^ U U LLU U/Ul 

Copyrights) 1995 TopSpeed Corporation. All products and company names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. 

Circle 343 on Inquiry Card. 



r S-^- r i 



CORPORATION 



Circle 318 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 319). 



Examples of Multi-Server-Network-Centers 



ONE FOR ALL 



Single access system 

- Basic units available for 2*, 4, 8, 12 , 
16,24, and32CPUs 

- Remote control optionally 

- distance up to 328 ft (100 m) 

- highquality videoathigh resolution 
and refresh rate 

- mixed use of serial and PS/2 mice 
within onesingleunit 

- microprocessor-controlled keyboard 
and mouse emulation forerror-free 
booting 

Multi access system 

- Basic units available for 8, 1 6, and 
32* CPUs 

- access from consoles on upto four 
locations to many CPUs without 
interfering each other(real matrix) 

- allfeaturesofthesingleaccess 
system build in 



CPUr CPU2 CPU 3 CPU4 CPU 5 CPU8 CPU7 CPU. 



ill 




and all on one 



on 



CPU 1 CPU 2 CPU 3 CPU 4 CPU 6 CPU 6 CPU 7 CPU 




m ws p& m 

£=233 l— U E=2fj E^-U 



TheonlyrecommeMedsystembyCompuServeInc.andMicrosoftC.EJ 



MultYCon 



See us at: 

Networks Expo, Dallas 
Networld & Interop, Atlanta 
Systems, Munich (Germany) 
Comdex Fall, Las Vegas 

Distributors and system inte- 
grators worldwide welcome! 




.p.-- ipprj 



ff^' 



North America: 
ELSNERTechnologiesCompany 

5020 Mark IV Parkway 

761 06 Fort Worth Texas 

Tel.: 1-800-243-2228 

Fax: 1-817-626-5330 

Mail: CompuServe 75457,1 377 

International (Germany): 
PolyCon Data Systems 

Tel.: +49-5204-9134-21 
Fax: +49-5204-9134-22 
Mail: CompuServe 100020, 1571 




Finalist 



1024 CPUs under control using the 

MultYcon Console Switching 
and Management System 

Save monitors, keyboards, and mice! 

Save administration costs, hardware, office 

fixtures, energy, and space! 



InterCon -NetProducts 

PrintServers and NetworkPeripherals 
Built-in Printservers for 

EPSON ^KyacERa 

HEWLETT PACKARD BROTHER 




InterCon-box InterCon-pocket 




NetWare ttrunjwtth 

Tes*od and UnixWare' Microsoet 

Approved £!».,££» WINDOWS 




'Plug and Play ? InterCon-PrintServers 
with Multiprotocol support of 

• NOVELL (IPX), UNIX (TCP/IP) 

• Apple Ether/TokenTalk 

• MS LanManager / Advanced Server / IBM LanServer 

• WindowsNT, Windows for Workgroups, Windows '95 

Hardware Support 

• Ethernet 10Base2 (BNC), 10Base5 (AUI), 10BaseT(RJ-45) 

• Token Ring STP (IBM 'type 1/2), UTP (IBM Type 3) 
• 

Features 

• Automatic recognition of the used network connector 

• Software-Update/Upgrade via Download in Flash-EPROM 

• Status report of the printer dicrectly from Host computer 

• Automatic protocol recognition 

• Configuration parameters can be edited by software 

• Automatic recognition and reaction to network changes 

• Support of 64 queues on 16 servers under Novell 

• Easy installation with Novell's PCONSOLE 



For more information contact: 

SEH Computertechnik GmbH 
Sunderweg4 D-33649 Bielefeld 



Phone: 




+49 / 521 / 942260 


Fax: 




+49/521 / 444049 


CompuServe 


Id: 


100016,3703 


Internet: 




rcl@sehgmbh.bi.eunet.de 



SEH 



Computertechnik GmbH 



Ik 



Circle 321 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 322). 



SEPTEMBER 1995 BYTE 195 




Simplify Access to All Applications and Their Features. 

Convert any Use any bitmap as Helpful popup Use innovative tab Embed or attach custom toolpads 

application into button face or combine ButtonClues™ buttons to create multiple on any program window 

a Windows shell text and bitmaps button "layers" 




Buttons can launch 
programs, run 
recorded macros, 
send menu/keystroke 
commands and 
execute DDE 
commands 



Create floating pad 
palettes that pop up 
automatically 
or on-demand. 



Add a macro 
recorder, task 
manager and run., 
processor to any 
toolpad 



Embed Customizable Toolbars in Any Application! 



• Standardize the look, reel and runction 
across applications rrom dirrerent 
vendors . 

• Create customized shell to replace 
Program Manager. 

• Add BalloonHelp and ButtonClues to 
any application ror ease or use. 

• Automate repetitive and complex tasks 
with macros, DDE, scripts, etc. 

• Automate data sharing across Windows, 
DOS and host-hased applications. 

Circle 320 on Inquiry Card. 




Special Offer! 



Reviews 

"The toolbar utility to end all toolbar utilities" 

- PC World 
"Almost revolutionary " 

- Windows Sources 
"Among the most impressive 

inter-application automation tools 

for Windows" 

- Computer Shopper 

"Stands head and shoulders above anything 

else of its type in my experience" 

- Windows On- Line 



BSindows 

M^» MAGAZINE 

1995 WIN lOO 



Standard Edition $89 

Professional Edition $199 



SoftNox 



30-Day Money Back Guarantee 



1201 West Peachtree Street / Atlanta, Georgia 30309 
Fax. 404.892.0981 



Call us today! 800-434-0202 



* For more info call our FAXBACK LINE 404-892-1309 





' 




of Approval 

FerodOUS Computing Devices If your working conditions bring out the rigors A 

of the environment, you need the only line of computers with the outdoor stamp of W^ 
approval Badger is the most extensive line of rugged mobile computers available f ^ 
anywhere in the world. Badger offers custom configurations with numerous Nr ;.■ 

wireless connectivity options including ARDIS, RAM, Cellular/CDPD, Spread 
Spectrum, CDPD, and Private Network. Barcode scanners and integrated GPS 
are also available. Products are DOS/Windows-compatible and designed for 
mobile data collection, distributed processing, and communications to support 
any of your computing needs. For more information call 1-800-3-BADGER 
and takea BYTE out of your workload today. 





G T-4S6T1 



.-^., 



BADGER Computers • 10901 Malcolm McKinley Drive • Tampa, Florida 33612 * (813) 972-6246 • FAX (813) 972-6715 

A Division of Group Technologies Corporation 
Circle 312 on Inquiry Card. 







.hink memory, hink Kingston. 




Windows? NT. Windows 95. OS/2. All the hype about these power- 
ful, new operating systems overlooks one tiny fact — most PCs and servers 
simply can't run them unless you add more memory. But Kingston 
can help you meet the demands of today's memory-hungry software, no 
matter what kind of systems you have. 

You see, Kingston makes memory modules for more than 2,300 
kinds of PCs, workstations, and printers. Not just all of the newest 
models from the leading brands, we make memory for all of the 




older systems too. Plus, we're the only ones who actually test 100% of our 

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Circle 225 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 226). 



STATE OF THE ART 



Colli 



lsion 



Despite cultural differences and compatibility problems, integration 
of computers and telephony is fast becoming reality 




The wait is over. After years of broken promises and in- 
compatible "standards," CTI (computer telephony in- 
tegration) is ready. Hundreds of vendors have intro- 
duced products — from headsets, to vertical-market 
telephony applications, to development and design tools, to turn- 
key phone systems — that will enable your telephones, computers, 
and networks to work together. 

Tying together today's two most important connectivity tech- 
nologies isn't a new idea. CTI's promise has been discussed for 
years. But radically different technologies, competing interests, 
and incompatible standards have, until recently, put the connec- 
tion process on hold. Now all that is changing. 

Look at the histories and business practices of the telephone and 
computer industries, and you might wonder how they could ever 
find common ground. For a variety of technical, economic, and 
legal reasons, the two industries have walked vastly different 
paths. But the potential has become too great to ignore. Savvy 
computer users now realize that harnessing the link between 
phone and computer can increase users' efficiency and improve 
customer relations — two code terms for making money. 

In "Standard Issue," James Burton discusses the basic techni- 
cal issues of CTI. Architectural and standards issues are far from 
settled, and the company that wants to use CTI has to make im- 
portant decisions concerning a bewildering variety of APIs, stan- 
dards, protocols, and hardware configurations. Burton sorts 
through this mass of conflicting information and three-letter 
acronyms, identifying the major issues and players. 

In "Building Telephony Applications," Burton looks at the 



types of applications that CTI makes possible. Since CTI is still 
in its early stages, it's probable that you'll have to develop your 
own custom CTI application. Burton discusses what you should 
look for in evaluating and choosing a development toolkit. 

Finally, in "Telephony's Killer App," John P. Mello Jr. looks at 
several of the most interesting new telephony applications to 
be found. ■ 

— Russell Kay, Technical Editor 



Standard Issue 


Building Telephony 


Telephony's Killer 


CTI design models, architec- 


Applications 


App 


tures, industiy standards, 


What you need to consider 


A look at commercial appli- 


APIs, and other issues that 


when picking a development 


cations with the potential to 


affect hardware/software in- 


toolkit for creating an inte- 


revolutionize the way you do 


tegration and interoperabil- 


grated voice-processing ap- 


business and organize your 


ity issues 201 


plication 211 


operations 215 






ILLUSTRATIONS: VICTOR GAD© 1995 



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Circle 99 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 100). 



STATE OF THE ART 



Standard Issue 

Integrating your computers and phones? Here's a guide through the maze of design approaches, 
technologies, standards, APIs, and industry politics. 



JAMES BURTON 




Things used to be so simple. There was 
only one type of light bulb. Gasoline 
was all leaded. Mustard was only yellow. 
Now incandescent lights are being replaced 
with fluorescents and halogens, gasoline 
has at least three octane ratings, and mus- 
tard fills three shelves at the supermarket. 
It's the same with telephones and com- 
puters. When they didn't need to talk to 
each other much, a modem was more than 
sufficient. But now, the business advan- 
tages of computer-based call control are 
forcing this unnatural bond. Springing up 
to cement the union are myriad APIs and 
hardware designs. Without an understand- 
ing of how they work and which are most 
likely to succeed, you could wind up with 
a CTI (computer telephony integration) 
system destined for the scrap heap. 

CTI Architectures 

Today's CTI systems generally fall into 
one of four different architectures or con- 
figurations, based on their approach to 
making the actual connections and man- 
aging calls. (See the figure "Four CTI Ar- 
chitectures" on page 202.) 

Phone-centric systems are the easiest to 
implement; they only require a direct link 
from the phone to an external adapter that 
connects to the PC's serial or parallel port. 
They don't require extensive changes to 
an existing phone system. Users can have 
direct control over call routing (known as 
fir st- party call control). To transfer a call, 
for example, the user just clicks on an icon, 
and the PC sends a message to the switch 
that emulates a command from the phone 
requesting the switch to transfer the call. 

Many PBX vendors offer adapters that 
give that kind of control to the PC. Un- 
fortunately, these adapters don't provide a 
connection to the phone line and can't be 
used to connect data or fax lines to the PC. 

Server-centric systems connect your tele- 
phone switch to a server on your LAN. 
Here, the phone system becomes another 

SEPTEMBER 1995 BYTE 201 



FOUR CTI ARCHITECTURES 



Phone-Centric 

The phone is linked via an 
external adapter that con- 
nects to the PC's serial or 
parallel port (and soon via 
a USB [universal serial bus]). 
The PC is not directly con- 
nection to the phone line, 
but rather to the adapter. 

Such systems 
are easy to implement and 
don't necessitate extensive 
changes to an existing tele- 
phone system. 

Today's 
adapters don't provide a con- 
nection to the phone One and 
cannot be used to connect 
data or fax lines to the PC. 
This will change with USB. 



Switch 




Server-Centric 

Here the phone lines con- 
nect to a switch, which in 
turn connects to a telephony 
server on the LAN. The LAN 
server manages call routing, 
although it has to have the 
switch perform the actual 
transfers. 

No physical 
connection is needed be- 
tween the phone and the 
desktop PC. Third-party call 
control is good for work- 
groups and call centers. 

The server 
can't perform automated, 
intelligent switching of dif- 
ferent types of calls— fax, 
voice, and data. 



Computer 

telephony 

link 



Switch 



KfC 



£ 



£ 



c^# 



LAN 



Voice-Server 

Phone lines are connected 
to a board in a voice server 
that sits on the LAN. The 
server gets the voice or data 
call, but not control infor- 
mation—just the opposite 
of what happens in the serv- 
er-centric configuration. 

1 This config- 

uration provides access to 
the media stream (e.g., 
voice, data, and fax). 

A phone 
line can only control a call 
that it has received or 
placed; it can't send other 
types of instructions to the 
switch. This architecture can 
be too slow for call-center 




PC-Centric 

The telephone line and the 
phone itself are connected 
directly to an add-in board 
in the PC. The telephony 
board emulates the phone 
to the switch. 

This config- 
uration provides a direct 
voice path from the phone 
into the PC, which is useful 
for I/O operations. Ulti- 
mately, it can eliminate the 
PBX entirely. 

This isan 
expensive sol ution , beca use 
considerable processing 
power is required in each 
PC. If the system uses pro- 
prietary phones, it's even 
more costly. 




part of the computer network, and you 
don't need a physical connection between 
the phone and individual desktop PCs. The 
LAN server, not the switch or the user, is re- 
sponsible for routing calls (thus, it's termed 
third- party call control). 

To transfer a call, the user clicks on the 
transfer icon, which sends a message to 
the server requesting that it transfer the 
call. The third party (the server) sends a 
message telling the switch where to route 
the call. The server's processing power 
lets it screen and route incoming calls. For 
example, caller-ID information may help 
route the call to the proper person. Third- 
party call control is particularly helpful in 
workgroups and call centers. 

But the server-centric model manages 
only call control. The switch-to-server link 
is for status and requests only. It doesn't 
carry the voice path and in no way physi- 
cally connects a phone line to the server. 
For a server to send and receive faxes and 



data, a physical phone line would have 
to be connected to a fax-modem board in 
the server. 

Voice-server systems are a variation on 
the server-centric model. Where server- 
centric systems deliver call-control links 
but not the calls themselves, voice-server 
systems deliver the calls directly, but not a 
separate control-and-status link. 

In a voice-server model, phone lines 
from the switch connect to a board in the 
voice server. Depending on the board's 
capabilities, the lines can be analog, ISDN, 
or proprietary digital. The board can do 
anything that the phone it replaces can do; 
for example, it can issue a flash hook to 
transfer, conference, hold, call park, call 
forward, initiate call pickup from another 
office, and so forth. Digital phones usual- 
ly have other features, such as speaker- 
phone control and caller-ID display. 

With the phone line going into a voice 
server, you get the media — that is, the 



voice path, or the data path for faxes and 
modem calls — but you don't get all the 
information and control that's available 
on the server-centric model. For example, 
a phone line can't force the switch to take 
control of another call; it can only control 
a call that it has received or placed. It can't 
tell the switch to forward a call from the 
next office to another phone. 

In a server-centric call-center applica- 
tion, the server receives the caller ID and 
tells the switch where to send the call. In 
the voice-server model, on the other hand, 
the call is sent to the server, which must 
then answer it and transfer the call. But 
this is just too slow for a call center. 

PC-centric systems have the telephone 
line and the telephone itself connected di- 
rectly to an add-in board in the PC. The 
telephony board emulates the type of tele- 
phone that the switch is designed to sup- 
port, whether analog or proprietary digital. 

When we have isochronous Ethernet or 



202 BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 



Standard Issue 



STATE OF THE ART 



Strategic Industry Alliances 



Versit 

An important alliance is Versit, 
formed by Apple, AT&T, IBM, 
and Siemens in 1994. It aims 
to define a comprehensive so- 
lution, enabling the develop- 
ment of configuration-indepen- 
dent CTI applications that work 
in direct-connect or client/serv- 
er configurations. 

Versit will support PDAs (per- 
sonal digital assistants), per- 
sonal computers, pay phones, 
proprietary digital phones, and 
servers. The planned Versit CTI 
Encyclopedia will define termi- 
nology, configurations, feature 
sets, call flows, protocols, the 
Versit TSAPI (Telephony Serv- 
er API) procedural API, and ob- 
ject classes. 

In June, Versit released its 
first specifications on the World 
Wide Web (www.versit.com). 



ECTF 

In April, Dialogic, Digital Equip- 
ment, Ericsson Business Net- 
works, Hewlett-Packard, and 
Northern Telecom formed the 
ECTF (Enterprise Computer Te- 
lephony Forum) to promote an 
open, competitive market for 
CTI. ECTF is the first consor- 
tium of end users, vendors, sys- 
tems integrators, and software 
developers to work toward im- 
plementing CTI based on inter- 
national standards. 

ECTF will promote imple- 
mentations for CTI elements 
and will also deal with both call- 
control and media-stream-pro- 
cessing issues. The forum will 
not select or promote specif- 
ic CTI technologies (as Versit 
has), but it will work toward in- 
teroperability among standards 
and technologies. 



ECMA/CSTA 

The ECMA (European Computer 
Manufacturers Association) has 
formulated a standard, called 
CSTA (Computer-Supported 
Telephony Applicatons), to en- 
able computers and telephone 
systems to communicate. 

ButCSTA is not an API— it's 
a communications protocol 
specifying how to make the 
connection between a phone 
switch and a computer. "The 
problem," according to Dialog- 
ic's Carl Strathmeyer, "is that 
while switch vendors all claim 
to support the CSTA standard 
feature set, they all implement 
them differently." For example, 
the transfer command might 
mean one function for one ven- 
dor's CTI product but trigger a 
different response from anoth- 
er vendor's system. 



HBHMi 



ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) data 
pipes going directly into our PCs, which 
looks to be the long-term prospect, we'll 
use PC-centric telephony systems. For the 
shorter term, however, we'll see fax-mo- 
dem boards with telephony features that 
will provide an interim solution. 

TAPI Dancing 

Beyond network configuration, there are 
issues of APIs to iron out before you can 
point and click your way through the phone 
network. Two leading APIs (Microsoft/ 
Intel's TAPI and AT&T/Novell's TSAPI), 
plus an emerging technology (Tmap from 
Nortel, formerly Northern Telecom), are 
designed to bring them together. 

The most widely known current stan- 
dard is TAPI (Telephony API). Developed 
by Intel and Microsoft to support both 
client and server telephony, TAPI's key 
attributes are its tight integration with Win- 
dows, support for coexisting multiple ap- 
plications, telephone network indepen- 
dence, support for all the different CTI 
configurations, and access to the informa- 
tion carried over the telephone line. Of 
course, it can also dial, forward, transfer, 
and perform other signaling operations. 
TAPI supports a wide variety of telephone 
networks, including PSTN (the Public 
Switched Telephone Network), PBXes, 
ISDN, cellular, and Centrex. 

Besides supplying support for first- and 
third-party call control, TAPI provides a 



software interface for accessing media 
streams (i.e., the information carried end- 
to-end over the telephone network). This 
means TAPI can support applications such 
as answering machines, voice mail, con- 
ferencing, faxes, voice recognition, and 
data. TAPI also supports a wide range of 
telephone-switching equipment, such as 
legacy PBXes, voice servers, and PC-based 
switches, as well as a variety of network 
connections, including isochronous LANs 
and ATM networks. 

To date, TAPI has been implemented 
on Windows 3.1 and Windows 95. Mi- 
crosoft has announced the TAPI imple- 
mentation for Windows NT, which will 
allow suitably equipped NT machines to 
be computer-telephony clients (for the end 
user) or telephony servers on a network. 
TAPI allows desktop PCs to be either phys- 
ically connected clients of a switch sys- 
tem or logically connected software clients 
of a Windows NT server. 

So, if the phone and PC are physically 
connected at the desktop with, say, a Corn- 
dial TAPI adapter, TAPI interfaces be- 
tween the Windows application and the 
Comdial hardware. In a server environ- 
ment, TAPI interfaces with the server ap- 
plication running in the NT server. 

This is where Microsoft and TAPI have 
a big edge over TSAPI — tight integration 
into the desktop PC's OS, combined with 
tight integration into the server OS. This is 
a big win for developers because they can 



easily port their software from first-party to 
third-party applications. 

"Since TAPI is a standard part of the 
Windows family, developers and custom- 
ers don't have to pay extra or try to fig- 
ure out how to install a bunch of plumbing 
to enable their applications," says Charles 
Fitzgerald, a product manager in Micro- 
soft's Personal Systems Division. 

TSAPI, Anyone? 

TAPI's main competitor, TSAPI ( Telepho- 
ny Server API), was developed by AT&T 
and Novell. TSAPI is an API for call con- 
trol, call/device monitoring and query, call 
routing, and device/system maintenance 
for workgroups on a NetWare network. It 
integrates NetWare services with the func- 
tionality of a telephone PBX. 

TSAPI uses the link between the PBX 
and the NetWare file server to create a log- 
ical connection at the workstation between 
the individual phone set and the desktop 
computer. This link enables an applica- 
tion to deliver the full capabilities of the 
phone system, control calls from either 
end of the call, or give a third party com- 
plete call-control and monitoring abilities. 

Using TSAPI, many software develop- 
ers are delivering client/server applica- 
tions that provide desktop dialing, visual 
voice mail, integrated messaging (i.e., fax, 
voice mail, and E-mail), conference-call 
bridging, sales-call restriction, and data/ 
call synchronization. For example, the Net- 
Ware Telephony Services product from 
Novell is designed to provide easy server- 
based administration of a CTI environ- 
ment. It also enables applications to gen- 
erate usage reports, as well as access and 
share central network databases. 

However, TSAPI has a problem: It does 
not provide media access — that is, it does 
not provide a physical connection between 
the PC and the phone. Consider this sce- 
nario: A fax call comes in. Because TAPI 
accesses the call directly, it's smart enough 
to recognize a fax tone and can automati- 
cally transfer the call to a designated fax 
application on the user's PC. 

A TSAPI-based server, however, would 
have no direct way of knowing what kind 
of call it is. It might, perhaps, recognize 
the calling phone number as a fax line that 
it already knows about. But even then, it 
can't transfer the call directly; it has to in- 
struct the switch to do so. 

TS API's designers evidently assumed 
that only call control really mattered. Now 
they're playing catch-up. Versit, an in- 
dustry consortium (see the text box "Strate- 



SEPTEMBER 1995 BYTE 203 



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STATE OF THE ART 



Standard Issue 



The End of the PBX 

LAN M 



J 



<$4 






PSTN 

(Public Switched 

Telephone Network) 



dS 



*& 



SCSA server 






^ 



Ufl 



■ 


LAN 






m 

~m- 

/ .,,,,„~2i. 





SCSA server 



We'll say farewell to the PBX as we know it when SCSA (Signal Computing System Architecture) servers on our 
networks are linked to each other and to the telephone company's central office. 



gic Industry Alliances" on page 203), has 
adopted TS API as a cornerstone of its CTI 
solution and says it will develop exten- 
sions to handle media-control services. 

A wide range of PBX companies and 
ISVs (independent software vendors) sup- 
port TSAPI. Many PBX manufacturers in 
the U.S., Europe, and Japan — including 
Alcitel, AT&T, Comdial, Ericsson, Fu- 
jitsu, Mitel, NEC, Nortel, and Siemens/ 
ROLM — have committed to developing 
NetWare drivers for their PBXes. 

TSAPI supplies support for multiple 
desktop OSes, including OS/2, Windows, 
UnixWare, and the Mac OS. In addition, 
Versit has announced that it will extend 
TSAPI support to include Windows NT. 

Tmap Ties APIs 

With the CTI world choosing sides, users 
need a bridge to unite the two main tele- 
phony APIs. Tmap provides that link be- 
tween TAPI and TSAPI, and it has been 
adopted by the ECTF (Enterprise Com- 
puter Telephony Forum). Tmap was de- 
veloped by Nortel, which worked closely 
with Intel and received support from both 
Microsoft and Novell. 

Tmap enables TAPI-based applications 
to work with PBX systems designed to 
support TSAPI. By translating TAPI pro- 
gramming calls to TSAPI requests, Tmap 
also lets TAPI-compatible desktop appli- 
cations run on networks using NetWare 
Telephony Services. Developers can now 
build applications for the universal Win- 
dows client, which enables users to use 
whatever back-end server they choose. 

Susan King, director of CTI at Nortel, 
explains that the company "created Tmap 
with the intention of easing developer con- 



fusion and has made it available to the in- 
dustry free of charge." 

Extending Tmap to the ECTF umbrella 
was a natural extension, and the ECTF will 
be able to define Tmap's evolution based 
on input from multiple vendors, which 
should ensure its viability in the market- 
place. King notes that Nortel "has agreed 
to evolve Tmap based on the ECTF spec- 
ifications and future iterations of TSAPI 
and TAPI." 

Bringing in Resources 

The real bottleneck in cross-platform in- 
teroperability is not the API but the lack of 
a resource model for the API to call. Every 
switch vendor implements a different mod- 
el for each telephony command. Two dif- 
ferent models are vying to become an ar- 
chitectural standard. 

SCSA (Signal Computing System Ar- 
chitecture) is an industry initiative started 
by Dialogic and now supported by more 
than 260 companies. SCSA is a compre- 
hensive hardware and software architec- 
ture for building call-processing systems 
with multiple technologies and standard 
interfaces. The architecture covers many 
facets of system design, from low-level 
bus and hardware interfaces to high-level 
software APIs. 

With SCSA, developers can integrate 
multivendor components within standard 
PCs or larger computer systems using the 
VME bus, which enables them to create 
computer-telephony systems ranging from 
medium to very large in size. The hard- 
ware-independent SCSA software model 
is compatible with TAPI and TSAPI. 

The SCSA TAO (Telephony Applica- 
tion Object) Framework is the software 




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Circle 89 on Inquiry Card. 



STATE OF THE ART 



Standard Issue 



portion of SCSA. This object-oriented ar- 
chitecture provides an open infrastructure 
that lets independent applications share 
a pool of discrete telephony resources — 
generally, call channels and data-stream- 
processing resources. 

This is particularly important because 
one of the big issues (and common require- 
ments) of telephony is real-time transmis- 
sion. Computer-telephony resources re- 
quire more complex resource management 
than does simple data transmission, which 
can often tolerate minor delays. This is 
comparable to a conversation stopping in 
midword and your having to wait for an 
indeterminate amount of time for another 
packet of wisdom to finish the word. 

Client applications to a TAO server run- 
ning in a client or desktop PC typically 
call the server through an SPI (service pro- 
vider interface), which converts one type 
of service to another. (Tmap, which con- 
verts TAPI to TSAPI, is a good example.) 
Usually the SPI is in the client software, 
but it can be in the telephony server. 

An SCSA server can have many differ- 
ent operations and calls going on, and it 
has to be able to support them all in real 
time to avoid annoying delays; this is kiown 
as dynamic resource sharing. For example, 
say two calls come into an SCSA server at 
once. One caller uses an interactive voice- 
response system to retrieve data from a 
database linked to the server, while the 
second caller requests a fax back. 

The SCSA server needs to handle both 
calls simultaneously. And it has to be able 
to hand off the fax call for data-stream 
processing when the second caller sends 
the appropriate command (and has turned 
on his or her fax machine). 

The model makes it simple for an ap- 
plication to pass call-data streams between 
different processing resources (e.g., re- 
corders, recognizers, and phone ports) and 
also between applications. This allows, for 
example, an E-mail message to become a 
database query or another transaction. 



A Checklist for Making CTI Decisions 



■B 


Comdial 


(800) 466-7835 


H 


Charlottesville, VA 
(804) 978-2200 


(214) 684-3726 
SCSA (Signal Computing 


Eh 


ECTF (Enterprise 


System Architecture) 


Kl 


Computer Telephony 


c/o Dialogic Corp. 


Kill 


Forum) 


Parsippany, NJ 


fS 


Foster City, CA 


(201) 993-3000 


■4 


(415) 578-6852 




H 


fax: (415) 378-6692 


Vers ft 

c/o Apple Computer 


k1 


Nortel (formerly North- 


Cupertino, CA 


E4 


ern Telecom) 


(408) 862-5154 




Richardson, TX 





ith the maze of technolo- 
gies, products, and stan- 
dards to choose from, what 
are you to do when faced with 
designing a system or picking 
components? Consider the fol- 
lowing issues when choosing 
a CTI (computer telephony in- 
tegration) platform: 

• Flexibility of the 
network. Is it compatible 
with TCP/IP, IPX/SPX, and 
NetBEUI? 

• Applications. Is the 



environment robust enough 
for multimedia and telephony 
applications development? 

• Multitasking. Does 
the environment allow for 
multiple and simultaneous 
functions to avoid putting 
calls on hold? 

• Reliability. Is the envi- 
ronment stable enough to en- 
sure that a mission-critical 
application, such as call con- 
trol, won't crash? 

• Open design. Is the 
API compatible with a wide 



range of PBX systems? 

• Media stream. Will 

the environment handle multi- 
ple media devices, including 
fax, data, voice, and video 
equipment? 

• Pricing. Is the API bun- 
dled with a comprehensive 
operating environment? 

• Scalability. Does the 
environment support a range 
of form factors, platforms, 
and multimedia applications, 
as well as high-volume user 
traffic? 



SCbus (a part of the SCSA initiative) 
also allows servers to work together more 
easily. If you have multiple SCSA servers, 
for example, one server may need re- 
sources from another. In this situation, the 
time slots of the two servers aren't con- 
tiguous, so a hyperchannel is used to give 
one server access to a time slot in another 
server. SCbus supports this bundling of 
time slots, which is especially useful for 
transmitting services such as video. 

"SCSA solves the fundamental prob- 
lem in CTI today — developing a common 
resource model," comments Carl Strath- 
meyer, director of marketing at Dialogic 
and chairman of the CTI trade association 
ACTAS (Alliance of Computer-Based Te- 
lephony Application Suppliers). "Until 
now, developers would have to modify 
their software to work with each switch ven- 
dor's resource specifications. With SCSA 
and the ECTF, it's very encouraging to 
see industry vendors finally agreeing to a 
single open architecture that software and 
telephone-equipment vendors can build 
around in total confidence." 

Green with MVIP 

An older alternative to the SCSA hard- 
ware platform is MVIP (Multivendor Inte- 
gration Protocol), which is another digi- 
tal auxiliaiy bus. The SCSA TAO software 
environment supports both. 

MVIP is based on the Mitel ST bus ref- 
erence design and was defined in 1990. 
It's a bus developed for use in computer- 
telephony servers as well as to allow video- 
conferencing workstations to hop from an 
ISDN or Tl adapter card to an H.320 vid- 
eoconferencing codec. 

MVIP uses a distributed switching mod- 
el that's similar to modern PBX architec- 
tures and makes software development 
easy, and bandwidth and CPU utilization 



highly efficient. (However, SCbus offers 
even more bandwidth than MVIP.) It's 
used in telephony servers and for distrib- 
uted computer-telephony systems. 

If It's Plug-and-Play, Whose Plug? 

Besides a software API and architectural 
platform, CTI needs a standard mecha- 
nism for connecting peripheral devices. 
The RJ- 1 1 phone jack can't carry the load, 
and the RS-232 serial port is too cumber- 
some. To address these limitations, two 
new contenders have emerged: USB (uni- 
versal serial bus) and GeoPort. Both will be 
used in phone-centric designs, because the 
phone line connects to an adapter or to a 
phone with a built-in interface. 

USB was jointly developed by Com- 
paq, Digital Equipment, IBM, Intel, Mi- 
crosoft, NEC, and Nortel. It has a multi- 
drop interface and uses a single connector 
for phones, modems, keyboards, mice, 
game ports, serial devices, digital audio, 
printers, and scanners. It has a built-in port 
for connecting to PBXes, ISDN lines, Cen- 
trex systems, and even POTS (the indus- 
try acronym for "plain old telephone ser- 
vice"). With the vendor support that it has, 
USB will become a standard feature on 
most PCs by mid- 1996. 

The USB specification will simplify and 
improve the performance of PC-to-pe- 
ripheral and PC-to-telephony applications. 
It will bring support for new computer- 
telephony integration capabilities — com- 
municating mixed-media information, in- 
cluding sound, images, and data — and will 
eliminate the need for special add-in tele- 
phony connections. 

USB runs at 12 Mbps, compared to the 
standard PC serial port's speed of 115 
Kbps. It also offers isochronous and asyn- 
chronous data transfer, a star-hub archi- 
tecture that allows a single PC-port con- 



206 BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 



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BRAND NAMES AND PRODUCT NAMES ARE TRADEMARKS 



OR REGISTERED TRADEMARKS OF THEIR RESPECTIVE HOLDERS. 



Circle 65 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 66). 




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AnthroCarts will knock your socks off! Imagine how 

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STATE OF THE ART 



troller to link up to 63 digital peripherals, 
and automatic recognition and configura- 
tion of external USB-based peripherals. 

GeoPort, the other contender, is Apple's 
point-to-point interface. It suppoils phone/ 
PC connection, as well as devices such as 
Apple's digital camera. In a CTI architec- 
ture, GeoPort provides the connection be- 
tween the PC and the phone, as well as a 
flexible means of attaching peripherals via 
a single, compact, mini-DIN connector. 

GeoPort is a cross-platform interface 
that delivers voice, data, audio, and video 
communications over any analog (POTS) 
or digital (PBX or ISDN) telephone line 
to a PC. It provides a flexible, scalable ar- 
chitecture for multiplexing several dozen 
simultaneous data streams, such as the 24 
channels found in an ISDN primary-rate 
interface. 

Versit opted for Apple' s GeoPort archi- 
tecture, which allows isochronous com- 
munications as fast as 2 Mbps. The Versit 
GeoPort provides up to 200 times the band- 
width of traditional serial ports. 

Bye-Bye, PBX 

We believe the recipe for a successful CTI 
system will likely include the following: 

• Architecture: SCSA 

• API: TAPI (for some NetWare users, 
the Versit version of TSAPI) 

• PC operating environment: Windows 
NT for mission-critical CTI applications 

• Physical interface: USB 

The future of CTI will consist of depart- 
mental and workgroup solutions where 
SCSA-based servers operate behind exist- 
ing switch systems. The trend toward in- 
creasing intelligence in call control will 
result in a platform-independent API that 
will enable cost-effective applications de- 
velopment. The next step will put the switch- 
ing technology into the PC server. 

Emerging CTI applications are trans- 
port-independent — they don't rely on the 
underlying switch architecture. Once we 
arrive at the stage where the phone is just 
another part of the PC, transport-indepen- 
dent CTI applications are running over 
isochronous Ethernet or ATM, and SCSA 
servers are connected directly to the PSTN, 
we can finally say good-bye, once and for 
all, to proprietary PBXes. ■ 

James Burton is the CEO of C-T Link, Inc., 
in Boston, Massachusetts. You can reach him 
on the Internet at jburton@internetmci.com 
or on BIX c/o "editors. " 




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And if you need 14", 15", or 20" displays? 
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PHONE: (310) 537-7000, FAX: (310) 537-1055, TECHNICAL SUPPORT: (800) SAMTRON 

Image: © 1995 A.J. Diamond, Donald Schmitt & Company, and lightscape Technologies, Inc. 

Circle 87 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 88) 



The EPA Energy Star emblem does not represent 
EPA endorsement of any product or service. 
All product names are trademarksof their 
respective companies. © 1995 SAMTRON 





Now build telephony 
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Circle 353 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 354). 



STATE OF THE ART 



Building Telephony 
Applications 



Dozens of development tools, many 
based on Visual Basic, can help you 
create a voice-processing system 



JAMES BURTON 




Press 1 to speak with a sales repre- 
sentative. Press 2 to reach technical 
support. Press 3 to listen to some lovely 
Muzak. ..." We' ve all had firsthand expe- 
rience with infuriating voice-menu sys- 
tems that drone on and on with options we 
don't want to hear. But that's not a fair 
summary of what computer telephony is all 
about. Modern, well-designed telephony 
applications can do much for an organi- 
zation — and for those who call it. 

What is a telephony application? At its 
simplest, it's the automation of the han- 
dling of telephone calls: answering the 
phone, greeting the caller, and responding 
to a request — all without a human operator. 
As it grows more complex, it incorporates 
many other functions, including digit cap- 
ture, storing and forwarding of voice mes- 
sages, database access, automatic speech 
recognition, text-to-speech conversion, 
storing and forwarding of fax data, fax re- 
sponse, dialing out, and tracking usage sta- 
tistics. 

So far, the most successful voice-pro- 
cessing applications automate existing 
manual functions. These usually show a 
rapid, measurable payback. This is prob- 
ably a transitional stage, however. It re- 
flects the relative newness of CTI (com- 
puter telephony integration). As more 
organizations create a wider variety of ap- 
plications, we will begin to better under- 
stand how CTI can serve us. In a few 
years, we'll be using applications that we 
haven' t even thought of now. As more or- 
ganizations use telephony, those that don't 
may be at a competitive disadvantage. 

It's Not Just New Software 

While most of us think of applications pri- 
marily in terms of software, it's important 
to factor in hardware when you're deal- 
ing with telephony. The profusion of tele- 
phony standards (see the article "Standard 
Issue" on page 201) means that you must 
know what hardware you're going to run 

SEPTEMBER 1995 BYTE 211 



a.-tt-'fr- ..- ----- — * 



your telephony application on before you 
create it — and even before you pick a de- 
velopment tool or environment. 

In addition to the hardware you'll run 
your application on, consider the external 
hardware and software you'll connect to. 
Look at the interface to the telephone sys- 
tem and the external database. What kind 
of PBX do you have? What kind of phone 
lines link you to your local telephone com- 
pany's central office? What other services 
are available? You may have analog or 
digital line options. Switching and infor- 
mation services, such as DID (direct in- 
ward dialing) and caller ID (widely but 
not universally available), are important 
to know about at the beginning. 

In addition to selecting the appropriate 
services, you need to make sure that the 
voice-processing boards and the applica- 
tions generator support those services. 
Also, it's important to know how many 
telephone ports you'll need. You can de- 
termine this by estimating the telephone 
traffic during the busiest hour of the day 
and deciding on the quality of service you 
need. Then you can consult telephony traf- 
fic tables to find out just how many ports 
you'll need. If you're connecting to the 
telephone network through a PBX, the 
same basic considerations are required, al- 
though you may find yourself constrained 
by the services and capacities your PBX 
will support. 

One last external factor you need to con- 
sider is any existing databases — customers 
or orders, for example — you will use with 
the telephony application. You'll want to 



Sitting Pretty 



he Henredon Furniture 
Company (Morganton, 
NC) had seven customer- 
service representatives, 
each struggling to handle 
150 dealer inquiries a day 
about stock availability. The 
volume of calls meant that 
many callers were getting 
busy signals. Others were 
put on hold for extended pe- 
riods. West Coast dealers 
were especially upset be- 



cause customer 
service ran on 
East Coast hours, which 
made late-afternoon and 
weekend inquiries virtually 
impossible. 

To help spread the load, 
Henredon used Ease from 
Expert Systems (Atlanta, 
GA) to implement an interac- 
tive voice-response inquiry 
system. This enabled deal- 
ers to find out about such 
things as case goods, fab- 
rics, upholstery frames, 



product availability, order 
status, and other sales 
data. 

The voice-response sys- 
tem handles 480 calls per 
day and generates 11,000 
transactions. The high 
availability of the system is 
another major benefit. Since 
installing the system, 
Henredon has added fax- 
response capability so that 
dealers receive a hard copy 
of order status and inven- 
tory information. 



pick a development tool that integrates 
easily with your database and gives reliable 
access to the information you need. 

Telephone-Taming Toolkits 

OK, you've opted to go the computer tele- 
phony route, and you've got an idea of the 
hardware and other software you'll con- 
nect to, so what's next? A variety of de- 
velopment tools is available, ranging from 
simple programming libraries through tele- 
phony utilities to comprehensive applica- 
tions generators. 

These tools assist in building telephony 
applications for a variety of operating en- 
vironments and with a variety of pro- 
gramming methodologies. The table "Ap- 
plications Generators for Telephony" on 
page 213 gives summary information 
about many toolkits. Some have the ability 



i 



Calling Dr. Blue 

righam and Women's Hospital (Boston, 
MA) has made a major commitment to 
computer telephony. Using the Visual Voice 
applications generator from Stylus Innova- 
tion (Cambridge, MA), it has implemented 
five voice-processing applications. Accord- 
ing to technology planner Pashe Roberts, 
the hospital environment, with its small de- 
partments, creates the need for many 
small-scale voice-processing applications. 

The five applications at Brigham and 
Women's cover a variety of functions and 
areas. One lets nurses call in and report a 
specific environmental problem and its lo- 
cation. With another one, expectant moth- 
ers can register for childbirth classes. A 
third application aids the hospital's 
telecommunications technicians. They can 



test the quality of a phone line by calling 
into the system and recording a message; 
the system calls them back, and they can 
listen to their message. The fourth applica- 
tion lets a centralized monitor provide audi- 
ble information, via telephone, about the 
operational status of the client/server net- 
work. With the latest application, HMO sub- 
scribers can verify referral numbers. 

One big reason the hospital selected Vi- 
sual Voice was that Visual Basic was al- 
ready used extensively within the hospital. 
The hospital had developed a special Visual 
Basic driver to tap into one of its primary 
database systems, one written in MUMPS. 

The hospital plans to add new telephony 
applications. Among the projects it will un- 
dertake are desktop telephony using TAPI 
(telephony API), plus text-to-speech and 
speech-recognition systems. 



to implement or integrate with voice mail, 
fax processing, speech recognition, text- 
to-speech converters, telephony switching 
(e.g., conferencing and call forwarding), 
and data communications capabilities. As 
with any software project, good tools can 
cut the development time and cost sub- 
stantially. They often enable organizations 
to build their own applications rather than 
seeking outside help (see the text box 
"How Much Will It Cost?" on page 214). 

Picking the Right Tool 

All these tools aren't designed to do the 
same job. The right voice-processing ap- 
plications generator is the one that best 
matches your experience and skills and 
the needs of a specific application. Most 
vendors are offering or planning multiple 
products that support multiple methods. 
Among the factors you should consider 
are the programming skills of your devel- 
opers, what platforms you want to use, 
what telephony features you plan to use 
in your application, and the quality of sup- 
port provided by the vendor. 

Menu-driven or script-based? If some or 
all of the development will be done by 
people with little programming experi- 
ence, it makes sense to pick a menu-driven 
product. With these, you construct your 
application by connecting specific func- 
tions — for example, answer phone, play 
prompt, or get digits — which are com- 
monly referred to as actions. Governing 
each action is a set of parameters that is 
presented to the user in a menu, typically 
giving defaults and other choices. Menu- 
based applications generators require a 
minimum learning investment, and they 
are useful when you need to create an ap- 
plication rapidly. 

If the application is complex, however, 



212 BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 



□ Menu-driven ^ GUI 

& Programming language 1/ Speech editor 



Building Telephony Applications 



STATE OF THE ART 



APPLICATIONS GENERATORS FOR TELEPHONY 

PRODUCT 
VENDOR NAME PLATFORM 


PROGRAMMING 
INTERFACE 


PRICE OF DEVELOPERS 
KIT— MINIMUM/FULL 
CONFIGURATION 


PRICE OF RUN-TIME FOR 
4/8/16/24/48 
TELEPHONE PORTS 


INQUIRY 
NUMBER 


Apex Voice Communications, 
Sherman Oaks, CA, (800) 727-3970 or 
(818) 379-8400 


OmniVox 


Unix 


□ 


$2400/ $5600 


$1400 / $2800 / $5600 / $8400 / $16,800 


1238 

1239 

1240 
1241 
1242 


Big Sky Technologies, San Diego, CA, 
(800)736-2751 or (619) 496-2100; 
fax (619) 565-2114 


Remark 


OS/2 


□ 


$6364/ $6364 


$23,164 / $45,564 / $90,364 / $1 35, 1 64 / - 


Cascade Technologies, Inc., New York, NY, 
(212) 768-7380 


CAS Voice 


OS/2 


□ 


$2300/ $19,320 


$1150/$2070/$2760/— / — 


CTI Information Setvices, Reston, VA, 
(703) 648-1 610; fax (703) 648-1678 


Apprentice 


Unix 


w 


$6500 


Varies 


Cypress Research, Sunnyvale, CA, 
(408) 752-2700; fax (408) 752-2735 


PhonePro 


AppleTalk 


□ ** 


$349/ $849 


$199--$548 per port 

$7800 / $1 5,600 / $31 ,200 / $46,000 / $86,520 


Edify, Santa Clara, CA , (800) 944-0056 
or(408) 982-2000 


Electronic 

WorkForce 


OS/2 


□ <* 


$11,400/$13,100 


1243 


Expert Systems, Atlanta, GA, (404) 642-7575 


Ease 3.0 


MS-DOS 


□ ** 


$695/ $16,295 


$495/$945/$1245/$1445/$2045 


1244 


IBM, Research Triangle Park, NC, 
(800)426-4211 


CallPath 
DirectTalk/2 


OS/2 


□ 


$4000/ $11,800 


$4000 / $8000 / $16,000 / $24,000 / $48,000 


1245 


Info Systems, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 
(800)825-5434 or (416) 665-7638; 
fax (716) 855-2244 


Talkie 


MS-DOS 


□ ** 


$715 


$100perport 


1246 


Intelligent Computer Technology, Norcross, GA, 
(800) 441-9077 or (404) 441 -9077; 
fax (404) 441-2727 


PhoneLink 


Windows 


& 


$729 (includes card)/ 
$1745 


$2695 / (hardware add-ons above 4) 


1247 


ITI Logiciel, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 
(514) 597-1692; fax (514) 526-2362 


Multi-Voice 


MS-DOS 


& 


$149/$599 


None 


1248 


International Voice Systems, Hamden, CT, 
(203) 288-4461; fax (203) 288-4552 

KDSCorp., Wilmette, IL, (708)251-2621; 
fax (708) 251 -6489 


Insight 
Vox 


OS/2 


□ 


$3740/ $7084 . 


$1870 / $2618 / $3368 / $3740 / $4488 


1249 


MS-DOS, 
OS/2 


& 


$15,000 (includes 
five run times) 


0/ $600/ $1350/ $2450/ $6650 


1250 


MasterMind Technologies, Vienna, VA, 
(703) 848-9040 


MasterVox 


OS/2 


□ 


$1995/ $3185 


$400 / $800 / $1 600 / $2400 / — 


1251 


MediaSoft Telecom, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 
(800) 558-3839 or (514) 731-3838; 
fax (514) 731-3833 


IVS Builder/ 
Server 


Unix 


□ <* 


$950 


$1980 / $3680 / $5060 / $9200 / $17, 520 


1252 


Parity Software Development, 
San Francisco, CA, (415) 989-0330; 
fax (415) 989-0441 


Vos 


MS-DOS 


& 


$1885/ $20,350 


$660 / $1320 / $2640 / $3960 / $7920 


1253 


PCVoice, Roswell, GA, (800) 443-8201 or 
(404) 343-8201 ; fax (404) 442-3156 


Assist Pro/FP 


Windows 


• 


$325/ $449 


None 


1254 


Pronexus, Carp, Ontario, Canada, 
(613) 839-0033; fax (613) 839-0035 


VBVoice 


Windows/ 
Visual Basic 


'4i 


$395 


$995/ $1295/ $1695/ (32) $1995 


1255 


SpeechSoft, Ringoes, NJ, (609) 466-1100 
fax (609) 466-0757 


Speech Master MS-DOS 


& 
& 




$595/ $3144 


$895 / $ 1 1 45 / $1 395 / $1 395 / — 


1256 


Stylus Innovation, Cambridge, MA, 
(617) 621-9545; fax (617) 621-7862 


Visual Voice 


Windows/ 
Visual Basic 

MS-DOS, 
Windows 

OS/2 

MS-DOS, 
Windows 3.1/ 
Visual Basic 


$495/ $2785 


None 


1257 


Talking Technology, Alameda, CA, 
(510) 522-3800; fax (510) 522-5556 


Peak Toolkit 


$399 


None 


1258 


Technically Speaking, Southborough, MA, 
(508) 229-7777; fax (508) 229-8777 


Show N Tel 


□ *7<^ 


$995/ $7000 


$700 / $1400 / $2800 / $5160 / $1 2,240 


1259 


Telephone Response Technologies, 
Roseville, CA, (916) 784-7777 


ProVide 


□ /^ 


$723/ $12,352 


$ 1145 / $2145 / $3455 / $4069 / $5845 


1260 


' U.S. Telecom International, Joplin, MO, 
(800) 835-7788 or (417) 781 -7000; 
fax (417) 623-2963 


Val 


MS-DOS 
MS-DOS 


€? 


$1995/ $1995 


$600 / $1200 / $2300 / $3300 / $5700 


1261 


Voice Information Systems, Santa Monica, CA, 
(800) 234-8474 or (310) 392-8780 

Voicetek Corp., Chelmsford, MA, 
(508)250-9393 


VFedit 


— 


$395 


None 


1262 


Generations 


VAX/VMS, 
SunOS 


□ ** 


$18,000 


$800 / $1600 / $3200 / $4800 / $9600 


1263 


Voysys, Fremont, CA,(800) 788-9797 

Winters Development, Manti, UT, 
(801)835-0100;fax(801) 835-0103 


VoysAccess 


Windows 3.1 


& 


$595/ $595 


$495 / $990/ $1485/ $1980/— 


1264 


VoiceKrt 


MS-DOS 




$599 


$599 / (12) $799 / (24) $999 / $2599 


1265 



SEPTEMBER 1995 BYTK 213 



STATEOFTHEARTi: 



uilding Telephony Applications 



e 



a menu-driven applications generator may 
not have all the functions you need. Al- 
though many of them are comprehensive, 
they're limited to those features the vendor 
has decided to include. Connectivity is fre- 
quently the most limiting factor. 

Consider, too, whether you want a tool 
that uses a graphical interface or a char- 
acter-based interface. GUI-based applica- 
tions generators appeal to the point-and- 
click oriented. As with many other visual 
programming tools, you build an applica- 
tion by connecting action icons together. 

For organizations with in-house pro- 
gramming expertise, products using a 
scripting language will typically provide 
more flexibility to the developer than 
menu-based products. The price you'll pay 
is an increase in development and support 
times. Also, some vendors' menu-based 
and scripting-language products are com- 
patible with each other, but others aren't. 
If this is important, check it out. 

Consider whether you want your pro- 
grammers to learn a new language, or 
whether you want to use one of the many 
popular voice-processing tools based on 
Visual Basic, such as Stylus Innovation's 
Visual Voice or Pronexus's VBVoice. 
Many applications generators also let you 
include your own C functions. 

Processing platform. Most voice-pro- 
cessing development systems create ap- 
plications for one operating environment. 
You should choose your platform and tool 
carefully. Windows 3. 1 is an inferior mul- 
titasking OS, for example. For telephony 
systems that have many ports, or for crit- 
ical-performance applications, DOS-based 
applications generators typically produce 



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This application was developed using the graphically oriented toolkit Show N Tell from Technically Speaking. It is an 
order-verification system that includes interactive voice response, fax on demand, and database querying. 

the best results. These systems don't ac- 
tually use DOS as the run-time OS; in- 
stead, they rely on their own embedded 
OS, which is designed specifically for 
voice-processing applications and is ex- 
tremely efficient. 

The vendors that have been around the 
longest are Expert Systems, SpeechSoft, 
Telephone Response Technologies, and 
U.S. Telecom. Although all their products 
have improved, they're still essentially 
identical to what they were offering 10 
years ago. For example, they still use DOS. 
Although there's significant pressure to 
migrate to other OSes, the reality is that 
DOS-based systems provide performance 



How Much Will It Cost? 



he price tag on an applications develop- 
ment tool is only one part— and maybe 
a small part— of the final cost of your tele- 
phony application. Two other important con- 
siderations are run-time fees and how many 
telephone ports your system will use. To de- 
termine your true costs, you'll want to fig- 
ure out your expenses on a per-port basis. 
The price leaders are Stylus Innovation 
(with no run-time fees) and SpeechSoft, 
while Apex Voice Communications, Cas- 
cade Technologies, Expert Systems, Mas- 
terMind Technologies, Parity Software, 
Technically Speaking, Telephone Response 
Technologies, and U.S. Telecom are higher. 
The differences are smaller than they ap- 



pear, however, because virtu- 
ally all the vendors also sell 
voice-processing boards, and most bundle 
a board in their basic systems. If you need 
only a few ports, for example, you can get a 
starter kit from TRT, SpeechSoft, or U.S. 
Telecom for less than $1000. All kits in- 
clude a Dialogic board. 

Another difference is how options are 
priced. Most vendors have a laundry list of 
options, all priced extra. A few bundle every- 
thing in the basic product. 

Voice-processing products from Edify, Big 
Sky, and Voicetek are at another level. 
These are expensive systems from total-so- 
lution suppliers. Consider them if you need 
a package that includes applications devel- 
opment, training, and ongoing support. 



TAX MAN 

ackson Hewitt Tax Service (Virginia 
> Beach, VA) issues loans secured by 
anticipated tax refunds. This year, the 
company generated $14 billion worth 
of refund checks, which generated 
many calls from banks to verify that it 
had issued the checks. Most of these 
calls came during a two-week period. 

The company created an interac- 
tive voice-response system using the 
Provide applications generator from 
Telephone Response Technologies 
(Roseville, CA). The programmer, Lee 
Perkins, learned the package and set 
up the entire application in less than 
two weeks. He used the forms-based 
package rather than the scripting lan- 
guage, believing that the ease-of-use 
and support benefits of the forms- 
based product would outweigh the 
time needed to learn it. According to 
Perkins, TRT's documentation made 
the package easy to learn and use. 



and capability that are comparable, or su- 
perior, to systems based on Windows 3.1, 
Unix, or OS/2, and they're less costly. ■ 

James Burton is CEO of C-T Link, Inc., a 
computer telephony consultancy based in 
Boston, Massachusetts. You can reach him 
on the Internet atjburton@internetmci.com 
or on BIX c/o "editors. " 



214 BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 



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CARD 103 



STATE OF THE ART 



Telephony's Killer App 

It'll take an irresistible new application to make computer-telephony integration 
happen everywhere. Will one of these apps do it? 



JOHN P. MELLO JR. 




We'll never look at telephones the 
same way again. New and inno- 
vative systems are tying the easy voice 
connections of the phone system to the 
data transfer and manipulation power of 
computer networks. The combination is 
extraordinarily seductive. 

Over the next five years, we'll see our 
phones and computers transformed from 
separate boxes into a seamless entity that 
will integrate data and voice. Before this 
can happen, users have to want the change. 
What's likely to sell them on the idea is 
an application that captures the imagination 
and provides immediate productivity re- 
wards — in other words, a killer app. 

"The killer app revolves around new 
ways of doing telephony through intelli- 
gent computing," explains Ron Charnock, 
vice chairman of the Multimedia Telecom- 
munications Association (Washington, 
D.C.). "It's thinking of telephony as a com- 
puting resource and less of a telecommu- 
nications resource." 

A phone call will become a digital entity 
that can interact with other digital entities 
on our desktops and networks. It will car- 
ry contact information about its origina- 
tor and trigger the assembly of data from 
computer files. It will become data itself 
and give our organizations crucial infor- 
mation about their operations. 

No More Baffling Buttons 

Current phone systems are a pain for most 
users, whose skill with advanced telepho- 
ny features drops off drastically when they 
need to use more than the 12 buttons on the 
standard phone keypad. For those folks, 
the killer app will turn those incompre- 
hensible extra phone buttons and multi- 
key operations into friendly screen icons. 
§ "Businesses are spending anywhere from 
g $100 to $1000 for these fancy business 

1 phone sets, and people don't use them," 

2 says David Goodtree, a senior analyst with 
8 Forrester Research (Cambridge, MA). 

continued 

SEPTEMBER 1995 BYTE 215 




Telephony's Killer App 



"The killer app will replace those sets with 
$30 software that people will use." 

Killer apps will integrate many diverse 
forms of messaging. Electronic mail will 
convert to voice mail, and voice mail to 
text. The system will read received faxes 
over the phone, and pager messages will 
become voice mail. "The killer app is any 
type of application that unifies your current 
business solutions with the telephony en- 
vironment," notes Michael Durant, a se- 
nior product manager with Novell. 

Does telephony's killer app exist now, 
or is it waiting to be invented? A number 
of new, powerful, and intriguing applica- 
tions are already out there, and it's too ear- 
ly for the marketplace to render a verdict. 
Let's look at some of the contenders. 

Phone, Take Notes 

The killer network app may very well be 
PhoneNotes, telephony groupware from 
Lotus Development that sits on top of 
Notes. PhoneNotes supports applications 
that enable users to tap into a Notes data- 
base through a Touch-Tone phone. One 
such application, Mobile Mail, lets a user 
access, create, forward, or edit Notes doc- 
uments and play documents over the phone 
through text-to-speech technology. 

"One of the attractive features of Notes 
is the increase in productivity it gives you 
through greater mobility," explains Peter 
Klante, Lotus's director of marketing for 
Notes companion products. "This is a log- 
ical extension to that. It turns the most 
ubiquitous client in the world — the tele- 
phone — into a Notes client." 

Data for Dialing 

Some observers believe the guts of a killer 
app lie in the exchange of simple data. 
Versit, a joint development initiative by 
Apple, IBM, AT&T, and Siemens to de- 
velop CTI standards (see "Strategic In- 
dustry Alliances" on page 203), has laid 
the groundwork. One of those standards 
establishes a protocol for the exchange of 
electronic business cards. "This is really, 
really important and potentially a killer 
app," says Jerry Michalski, managing ed- 
itor for the newsletter Release 1.0. "If 
every time people touch electronically, 
they can swap their latest contact infor- 
mation, they can suddenly communicate 
much more efficiently." 

It will also eliminate what Michalski 
calls mode-switching friction — what you 
encounter when you try to mix media such 
as voice mail and E-mail with contacts 
outside your organization. Once these elec- 




One Wild and Not-So-Crazy Helper 







, ne measure of a white- 
| collar worker's status is 
often a personal secre- 
tary or executive assistant. A 
killer app may replace human 
helpers with an intelligent 
agent that would be totally dig- 
ital. Wildfire Communications 
has incorporated this idea into 
a product called Wildfire, a 
HAL-Iike presence eavesdrop- 
ping on every call you make. 
What makes Wildfire such 
an exciting and powerful ap- 
plication, however, is that you 
don't need a computer to use 
it. You can link up with Wild- 
fire from any phone, even a 
cellular or pay phone, or have 
it call you wherever you are. 
No matter where you are, you 
have full access to its capa- 
bilities. 

You can tell Wildfire to sort 
your messages and play them 
back to you, or you can ask it 
to play a message from a 
sender by speaking his or her 
name. You can respond to a 
message immediately by sim- 
ply saying the messenger's 
name or number. Wildfire will 
dial it for you, or send a mes- 
sage to the caller's pager. If 
you're on one call and receive 
another, Wildfire "whispers" 
the caller's name in your ear 
and lets you decide whether 
or not to interrupt your current 
call or relay a specific mes- 
sage to the new caller. It will 
schedule and remind you of 



follow-up calls, and it will for- 
ward calls to different numbers 
(cellular, hotel, home, etc.) 
based on your schedule. And 
Wildfire will let you prioritize 
contacts so it can screen your 
calls during hectic times. 

During a Wildfire session, 
you call up the agent by simply 
saying "Wildfire" and pausing. 
Suddenly, a female voice an- 
nounces "Here I am!"— the 
signal that Wildfire is waiting 
for your instructions. "It acts 
like a person you'd want to 
work with, as opposed to act- 
ing like a machine," says 
William J. Warner, CEO and 
founder of Wildfire Communi- 
cations. "There are a lot of 
telephony applications that are 
Touch-Tone-based that act like 
machines. That's not what 
people want. They want to be 
able to talk to their assistant 
and get stuff done." 

The software uses several 
speech-recognition technolo- 
gies that add up to a natural, 
conversational feel for the 
user. For example, here's a 
typical Wildfire dialog for set- 
ting up a contact: 

User: Wildfire. 
Wildfire: Here I am. 
User: Create a contact. 
Wildfire: What kind? 
User: Person. 

Wildfire: What's the name? 
User: John Mello. 
Wildfire: Once more. 



User: John Mello. 

Wildfire: Which phone number 

should I add? 

User: Work. 

Wildfire: What's the number? 

User: 555-1212. 

Wildfire: Got it. 

Wildfire uses discrete 
speech recognition to under- 
stand responses to its ques- 
tions, such as what kind of 
contact and which phone num- 
ber, because these respons- 
es are single words. When the 
user gives the new contact's 
name, however, the system 
uses trained speech because 
it needs to learn a new pat- 
tern. The system uses a 
speaker-independent continu- 
ous recognizer for numbers. 

As impressive as Wildfire 
is, however, some industry in- 
siders think it lacks one cru- 
cial component that a true CTI 
killer app needs: a seamless 
connection to what's happen- 
ing inside the computer on the 
knowledge-worker's desk. Wild- 
fire handles phone functions 
with elegance, but it doesn't 
connect to the data that's the 
lifeblood of an organization's 
operations, or to applications 
the worker may have running. 

Wildfire runs on a dedicated 
server, a 90-MHz Pentium box 
with 128 MB of memory and 
16 digital signal processors 
from Texas Instruments. Prices 
start at $50,000. 






tronic calling cards become widespread, 
they can be a bridge between the desktop 
and the handset. When you check your 
voice mail, the calling card information is 
sent to your PC, and a screen pop displays 
the information. To return the call, just 
click on the phone number. You'd rather 
send E-mail? Click on the person's E-mail 
address. Fax? Web home page? Just click 
away. Mode-switching friction is reduced 
to zero. "The calling card protocol is so 
low-end and so simple you can do any- 
thing with it," Michalski contends. 

It's Voice— No, It's Data 

For this electronic calling-card idea to fly, 
it has to become easier to send data over 



ordinary phone lines. One promising de- 
velopment is a modem-based technology 
called VoiceView from Radish Commu- 
nications Systems. VoiceView lets a user 
switch between voice and data transmis- 
sion on an analog phone line, without los- 
ing his connection, as long as there's a 
VoiceView-enabled modem at both ends 
of the line. 

Exchanging voice and data on one line 
isn't a new idea. Two years ago, Multi- 
Tech (Mounds View, MN) introduced a 
hardware/software product that allowed 
users to send voice and data simultane- 
ously. But the MultiTech product was 
pricey, and the parallel approach caused 
some degradation of the voice portion of 



216 BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 



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STATE OF THE ART 



Telephony's Killer App 



the call, so it didn't win wide acceptance. 
In contrast, VoiceView is inexpensive, 
doesn't degrade voice, and is being bun- 
dled with a number of modems. 

Companies that have hopped on the 
Radish vegetable cart include Boca Re- 




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Aurora Systems' FastCall endows Windows applications with telephony services. This 
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incoming calls to trigger functions, such as popping up a contact record. 



search (Boca Raton, FL), U.S. Robotics 
(Skokie, IL), Hayes Microcomputer Prod- 
ucts (Atlanta, GA), Diamond Technolo- 
gies (Anaheim, CA), and Zoom Tele- 
phonics (Boston, MA). In addition, 
Microsoft includes driver support for 
VoiceView in Win- 
dows 95. Considering 
its support in Win- 
dows and the number 
of modem makers 
adopting Aurora's 
technology, industry 
pundits expect Voice- 
View to make a big 
splash in the market. 
Some analysts project 
that as many as 1 
million modems will 
incorporate Voice- 
View by 1998. 



Launch My Apps 

Another way to en- 
hance the network pipe 
is through off-the-shelf 
middleware, such as 



FastCall from Aurora Systems. FastCall, 
which works with TAPI (telephony API) 
and TSAPI (telephony services API), en- 
dows almost any Windows application 
with telephony services, such as identifi- 
cation of incoming calls, creation of 
"screen pops" from customer records, and 
simulation of a phone's button functions on 
a computer display. 

FastCall uses the identification of in- 
coming calls to trigger functions selec- 
tively within Windows applications. For 
example, a call from a certain contact can 
be linked to a record in Lotus Organizer so 
when that contact calls, FastCall launches 
Organizer and pops the contact's record 
on the screen. Or the program can be 
trained to bring up a spreadsheet program 
or a personal finance manager when a bill 
collector calls. Or you can set it up to 
launch Tetris whenever a certain long- 
winded acquaintance calls. 

FastCall has killer app potential because 
it works across a broad array of switching 
equipment, APIs, and applications, and 
it's transparent to the user. According to 
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Circle 94 on Inquiry Card. 



STATE OF THE ART 



rora, FastCall is becoming the standard 
for CTI middleware. "If you go to a major 
switch company, they'll supply you with 
TAPI or TSAPI and FastCall," Gasparro 
says. "The reason it's being adopted as a 
standard is because it takes all the pain out 
of computer telephony integration. Before 
FastCall, it would normally take six 
months to get CTI working. With Fast- 
Call, it takes less than four hours." 



And the Winner Is ... 

Any of these apps might turn out to be the 
one that makes the difference. Wildfire is 
certainly the most glamorous, but its fu- 
ture isn't guaranteed (see the text box 
"Wildfire: One Wild and Not-So-Crazy 
Helper" on page 216). PhoneNotes has a 
lot going for it, including widespread cor- 
porate acceptance of its parent product, 
Notes, and the marketing impetus likely 




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to result from IBM's takeover of Lotus. 
Either one could dramatically change our 
daily work habits. VoiceView is a less 
drastic step that is likely to open new doors 
for integrating data into our phone habits. 

Or maybe the killer app will come from 
somewhere else. Novell's NetWare Tele- 
phony Services offers an attractive model 
for unified messaging, but its $ 15,000 price 
could keep it out of many organizations. 

Whenever the killer telephony app ar- 
rives, however, one thing is certain: It will 
pay close attention to the human side of 
the technology equation. 

"This is about social change, not just 
technology change," observes Michalski 
of Release 1.0. "CTI isn't about plugging 
a computer into a telephone. CTI is about 
making life easier for people who want to 
communicate." ■ 



John P. Mello Jr. is a freelance writer living 
in Woonsocket, Rhode Island. You can reach 
him on the Internet as JPMjr61750@aol.com 
or on BIX c/o "editors. " 



FastCall $200-$600 

Aurora Systems 
Acton, MA 
(508) 263-4141 
fax: (508) 635-9756 
Circle 1145 on Inquiry Card. 



NetWare Telephony Services $15,000 

Novell 
Provo, UT 

(800) 638-9273 

(801) 429-7000 
fax: (801) 429-5155 
http://www.novell.com 
Circle 1146 on Inquiry Card. 

PhoneNotes Application Kit $695 

Lotus Development Corp. 

Cambridge, MA 

(800) 343-5414 

(617) 577-8500 

fax: (617) 693-3512 

http://www.lotus.com 

Circle 1147 on Inquiry Card. 

VoiceView 

(bundled with compatible modems) 

Radish Communication Systems 

Boulder, CO 

(800) RADISH8 

(303) 443-5789 

fax: (303) 443-1659 

Circle 1148 on Inquiry Card. 

Wildfire $50,000/24 users; 

$100,000/50 users 
Wildfire Communications 
Lexington, MA 
(800) WILDFIRE 
(617) 674-1500 
fax: (617) 674-1501 
Circle 1149 on Inquiry Card. 



H 



ti 



220 BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 



Circle 103 on Inquiry Card. 






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THE BYTE NETWORK PROJECT 



Web Search 



JON UDELL 




Think the Web is too vast to search? I did, but in- 
dex-and-search engines such as Carnegie Mel- 
lon University's Lycos (http://lycos.cs.cmu.edu/) 
and the University of Washington's WebCrawler 
(http://webcrawler.com/) proved me wrong. These ro- 
botic indexers ceaselessly read and catalog Web pages, 
and they have so far kept up remarkably well with the 
Web's explosive growth. 

They take simple queries — a single term or several 
ANDed together — and return lists of URLs that could oth- 

WAIS,(Wld 

tion Servers) predates the 
Web craze; since 1991, 
people have . 
Z39.50 protocol to search 
a variety of d ?son 

the internet. id VAIS 
clients bypass BYTE's Web 
server and search the col- 
lection directly? I found a 
pair of them (VVinWais at 
ftp://ftp.einet.com and 
WaisMan3atftp://ftp 
.cnidr.org), started the ; 
WAIS service on my NT 
server, and pointed the 
clients at It They worked. 
But so what? Hardly any- 
body uses WAIS clients be- 
cause most WAIS databas- 
es have gateways that 
export Web-style access. 

Still, a client/server pro- 
tocol for searching remote 
databases ought to be use- 
ful. John Duhring, a WAIS 
Inc. vice president, showed 




me that it is. With WAK 
tools, he says, Web 
providers can uniformly 
sent Information drawn 
from remote Web sites. 
Consider The McGra 
Hill Companies, BYTE 
parent; Many of its con 
nies are building Web 
sites. With conventional 
Web technology, the corpo- 
rate Web site can refer visi- 
tors to divisional sites— 
but they might never come 
back. If, on the other hand, 
BYTE and others run both 
Web and WAIS servers, 
and corporate runs both a 
Web server and a WAIS 
gateway (see the figure 
"Web/WAIS interaction" 
below), the divisions can 
appear as players in corpo- 
■ rate's, virtual theater. 
Meanwhile, divisional Web 
sites accessed directly can 
retain their own flavor. 



erwise take you months of point- 
and-click navigation to assemble. 
They typically don't do proximity 
searches (word 1 within so many 
words of word 2). But InfoSeek 
(http://www.infoseek.com), a com- 
mercial service, does. And the 
WAIS Inc. server (http://www 
.wais.com) that powers a number of 
Web sites can even handle natural- 
language queries like What is the 
capital of Peru? For an example, 
see Encyclopedia Britannica at 
http://www.eb.com. 

As good as Web search tools 
are, when you ask a specific ques- 
tion — How do I walk a directory 
tree in Perl? or What's the cheap- 
est laser printer with network sup- 
port for IP, IPX, and Ap- 
pleTalk? — you likely won't find 
an answer in a hurry, and you may 
not find one at all. Brute-force 
searching, even at its best, yields 
hordes of false positives — docu- 




It's easy to 
index: a Web 
document 
collection 
so visitors 
can search 
your site. 
Here are a 
couple of 
ways to do it. 



Web/WAIS Interaction 

Corporate Web site 



Divisional Web sites 




With a WAIS gateway, a central Web site can consolidate many remote sites into a single presentation. 



ments that contain the keywords, 

even perhaps in close proximity, but have nothing to do 

with the question. 

Information providers can help by categorizing docu- 
ments, so users can look for how-to articles on Perl or re- 
views of network-ready laser printers. As we move 
BYTE's content into electronic media, we'll try to provide 
such clues. But will our categories match those used by 
other computer magazines? By book publishers? By peo- 
ple who post to Internet newsgroups? As the Web ab- 
sorbs and extends the world's libraries, authors and edi- 
tors will find that proper classification of their 
contributions to the Web will make those documents eas- 
ier to find and, hence, more valuable. My advice to ma- 
jor Web contributors (and to cre- 
ators of Web authoring tools) is to 
hire a library scientist. 



Basic Indexing 

While you're waiting for a Web 
equivalent of the Dewey decimal 
system, you might as well go ahead 
and add basic indexing to your 
Web site. Because we're running 
Windows NT, the EMWAC (Eu- 
ropean Microsoft Windows NT 
Academic Consortium) WAIS 
(Wide Area Information Servers) 
server and toolkit were the logical 
place to start. These tools are NT 
ports of freeWAIS; you can get 



SEPTEMBER 1995 BYTE 223 



THE BYTE NETWORK PROJECT 1 



Intel, Mips, and Alpha versions of them 
from various places including Microsoft 
(the Windows NT Resource Kit CD), 
EMWAC (http://emwac.ed.ac.uk or its 
mirror sites), and Process Software 
(http://www.process.com). Versions of 
freeWAIS for many Unixes are available 
from CNIDR (the Clearinghouse for Net- 
worked Information Discovery and Re- 
trieval) at ftp://ftp.cnidr.org. 

The tools come in two packages: 
wsXXX.zip for the WAIS server and 
wtXXX.zip for the WAIS toolkit. (Re- 
place XXX with your CPU: i386, Mips, or 
Alpha.) I grabbed both programs from 
Process Software's site, thinking that I'd 
need the toolkit to create indexes and the 
server to access them. As it turned out, I 
really needed only the toolkit. It contains 
both the indexer and a query tool that 
searches an index and returns an HTML- 
formatted report listing URLs for docu- 
ments matching the search. What's the 
WAIS server for? It enables WAIS clients 
to bypass your Web server and access 
your indexed document collection direct- 
ly, using the WAIS Z39.50 protocol (see 
the text box "What About WAIS?" on 
page 223). 

You'll need long filenames to use 
waisindex, the tool that does the index- 
ing. Prior to NT 3.5, that meant you had to 
run it on an NTFS volume, but now that 
NT 3.5's FAT (file allocation table) sup- 
ports long names that's no longer a prob- 
lem. Here's the command I used to index 
the January 1994 issue of BYTE: 



Brain Damage 



waisindex -d index 
art\9401\*.htm 



•r -a -T html 



where - d names the index, - r tells the in- 
dexer to recursively index subdirectories, 
and - a appends to an existing index. First 
time through I skipped the -T html op- 
tion. When I searched the resulting index, 
what came back were filenames, not doc- 
ument titles. That meant the search results 
were cryptic references like "art\ 
9401\sec9\art7.htm" instead of more help- 
ful ones like "January 1994 / Reviews / 
Low-Cost Laser Printers." 

Since the translator that creates our 
HTML files writes the latter style of ref- 
erence in the <title> field of every arti- 
cle's HTML header, adding -T html was 
the quick fix. However, it prompted me 
to reconsider my sequentially generated 
URLs (see the text box "8.3 Brain Dam- 
age" above). 

Once you've got the index built, it's a 
snap to connect Web clients to it. If you 



f you're generating 
HTML mechanically, 
. why not simply create 
long filenames, so that 
URLs themselves carry 
the information stashed 
in the HTML header 
(e.g., "JanuaryjL994/ 
Reviews/Low-Cosf. 
Laser_Printers. htm! " )? 
That I didn't think of this 
at first shows the brain 
damage caused by years 
in the mental prison of 
the DOS 8.3 filename. 
It's nice for URLs to 
be descriptive, but it's 
not necessary. What is 



TOOLWATCH 



essential is that they're 
unique and immutable. 
My scheme, %hich just 
enumerates sections 
and articles, guarantees 
uniqueness-^there will 
be only one art\9401\ 
sec9\art7.htm in the 
collection. But will that 
URL immutably refer to 
the January:'94 review of 
laser printers? Not if we 
find that we've forgotten 
to include another Janu- 
ary '94 article and then 
decide to regenerate the 
collection. Uh oh. Every- 
thing gets renumbered. 



This isn't a problem for 
Web site users because 
the navigation and 
search functions adjust 
to the new structure. But 
if you've saved a book- 
mark to art\9401\ 
sec9\art7.htm, you'd be 
upset If 1 renumber tl 
collection. 

I'm. not aware of g; 
in the 1994 collection 
that's on the Web now, 
and I don't expect we'll 
need to renumber it. But 
I do want to try using de- 
scriptive URLs for 1995 
and future content. 



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created an index named "index," you can 
create a form enabling users to search it by 
simply writing the keyword <isindex> in 
an HTML document called INDEX.HTM. 
When viewed in a browser, this document 
displays the familiar search form "This is 
a searchable index. Enter search key- 
words." When the user enters a search 
term, the Web server passes it to wais- 
look, a program that searches the index 
and returns HTML-formatted results. 
On a pair of NT boxes running 



EMWAC-derived Web servers — a 486 
with Folio's Infobase Web Server, and an 
Alpha with Process Software's Purvey- 
or — these procedures yielded the search- 
able archive that I'm currently testing. It 
works, but since multiple search terms 
combine with OR rather than AND, and 
there's no phrase search ("SQL catalog") 
or proximity search ("SQL within/5 cata- 
log"), you depend on the selective power 
of a single term. An unusual one, like 
"PnP" or "Z39.50," will often net just the 
right bunch of articles; that's what makes 
even this bare-bones indexing system in- 
credibly useful. But it's really just a min- 
imal solution. 

WebSite and SWISH 

To improve matters on the 486 server, I 
turned to Weblndex, the tool that comes 
with O'Reilly & Associates' WebSite 
server for NT and Win 95. You launch 
Weblndex from WebSite 's GUI admin- 
istration tool, and it prompts you graphi- 
cally for URLs to include in the index and 
begins indexing with a mouse click. Un- 
like waislook, WebSite' s WebFind can at 
least join terms together with AND so that 
when you use multiple terms, the result 
set will shrink rather than grow. For small 
collections, it's just what it claims to be: a 
one-button indexer for non-nerds. But 
when I fed it several thousand documents, 
hours of disk thrashing ensued until I 
killed it. 

What remained, from a previous run 
on fewer documents, was a file called in- 
dex.swish. Swish? That's just the sort of 
oddball search term that gets great results 
on the Internet. A WebCrawler search led 
me to Enterprise Integration Technolo- 
gies and the Simple Web Indexing 



224 BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 




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; NAME 


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THE BYTE NE1W0RK PROJECT 



The Road Traveled 




j|y r s column we in- 
troduced a Web server 
on a dial-up PPP link, 
while awaiting installation 
of a 56-Kbps leased line, in 
August, we went iive on the 
leased line, but the names 
www.byte.com and ftp.byte. 
com weren't hooked up 
yet. You could get to the 
server only if you knew its 
IP address. Now the 
names map to IP address- 
es, and we're officially 
open for business. 

How did we register 
our name? We registered 
byte.com with the Inter- 
NIC (Internet Network In- ; : 
formation Center) years 
ago and used it for UUCP 
(dial-up) mail routing. 
Once we got a real !P link 
to the Internet, there 
were three ways:to create ; 
the names www.byte.com 
and ftp.byte.com and de- 
fine their IP mappings: o 
n.„ Leave naming au- 
thority for byte.com in the 
hands of InterNIC and 
ask InterNIC to acid our ; 
names to its database. 
(You do this by mailing a 
form to hostmaster@ih- 
ternic.net; the forms are 
available at ftp://rs.inter- 
nic.net/templates.) 

2. Delegate naming 
authority to our service 
provider MV Communica- 
tions (again by mailing a 
form to hostmaster@in- 
ternic.net) and ask MVto 
add the names to its 
database. 

3. Take over naming 
authority ourselves. 

The problem with 1 is 
that there's a big admin- 
istrative backlog at Inter- 
NIC, so we opted for 2. 
We'll likely want addition- 
al names, and we won't 
want to wait two weeks 
for InterNIC to handle 
each request— MV's far 
more accessible to us. 
Why not 3? In that case, 
we'd have to run our own 
name server. We aren't 



the mass market '"The optical industry in the past, except 

ability to shoot itself in the foot. [PD] may be the way to bictML < 



The PD laser mechanism 

image (15 Kbytes) 

Ths PD ktser mechanism is similar to that of a standard CL 

m 

whi 



The PD laser mechanism 



Micro Optical Head 



r- Photo ctetector 




The PD laser mechanism is similar to that of a standard C&ROMdm 
■r.,v .,*?,, .,-, .j- ., ,. ■>■■,■■■-, ,? ;■■;.. ■„;■..,'■■ ..,,,■ «?.. ■ 



In the BYTE collection, a link to an illustration reports the size of 
the image (aL but to a 

copydght notice around the image (b). 



ready to do that yet 

"The wait is about a 
week for change re- 
quests," said MV's Mark 
Mallet, "and two weeks 
for new records." He re- 
quested the transfer of 
byte.com's name service 
from InterNIC to MV. A 
week later it was done. 
The command whois 
byte.com listed MV's 
name servers, ping 
www.byte.com worked, 
and www.byte.com was 
open for business. 

Magic Hot Links 

When Netscape's news 
reader finds a string like 
http://www.somewhere 
.com in the text of a post- 
ing, it automatically con- 
verts that string into an 
active hypertext link. I've 
added this to BYTE's 
Web site with my Epsilon 



\ 



Extension Language 
translator/It's one regu- 
lar-expression search- 
and-replace statement: 
string_replace( 
"((httplftplgopher):/, 
< A tab><space><nl>\ 
..more non-URL chars.. 
"<a href=#0>#0</a: 
REGEX); 

A similar trick activates 
E-mail addresses that ap- 
pear in the text. 



Well-Mannered GIFs 

I hate downloading bit 
maps I didn't ask for. 
BYTE's server has plenty 
of pictures to offer, but it 
won't shove images down 
your throat. The transla- 
tor now suppresses illus- 
trations, photos, and 
screen shots behind links 
that announce the size of 
each GIF (see the screen 
above). 



System for Humans, which is an alterna- 
tive to freeWAIS. O'Reilly's Weblndex 
derives from version 1.0 of EIT's SWISH. 
I downloaded SWISH 1.1 from ftp:// 
ftp.eit.com, compiled it on our BSDI 2.0 
machine, and tried it. SWISH is tuned for 
HTML — e.g., it can index just fields 
tagged as titles or comments. It can also 
segment a large indexing job into many 
small ones, then merge the segments. 

Since low memory was the likely cause 
of disk thrashing, I thought I'd try the 
merge option described in the SWISH J . 1 
docs. No luck. Weblndex is a pure GUI 
tool that doesn't expose that feature. 

O'Reilly put me in touch with EIT's 
director of Web publishing, Jay Weber. I 
f tp'd the archive to EIT, where Weber 
successfully indexed it with Weblndex 
on several test systems. EIT also added a 
progress meter to Weblndex that revealed 
speedy progress through 10 of 14 BYTE 
issues, then suddenly — molasses. Weber 
sent me a new, memory-optimized update 
(available at http://website.ora.com or 
ftp://ftp.eit.com/pub/website). It did work 
with my data. 

The Folio Alternative 

Folio's Infobase Web Server is a com- 
pletely different way to serve an indexed 
collection to the Web. It's an EMWAC- 
based Web server mated to the Folio 
Views search engine. That means it does 
everything that normal Web servers do, 
and it can also convert existing Views in- 
fobases to HTML on the fly. If you have 
infobases on hand, this is just the ticket. 
Even if you don't, this approach has a lot 
going for it. Views has a lightning-fast 
indexer, handles huge data sets, deals with 
hierarchical documents, and does phrase 
and proximity searches. 

If you're a Views user, you can judge 
for yourself how well this Web converter 
reproduces Folio's Windows user inter- 
face. And while a series of retrieved Web 
pages clearly can't be as richly interac- 
tive or as responsive as a native applica- 
tion, this technique does inject client/serv- 
er capability into Folio Views. 

Visitors to the BYTE Web site have 
been trying all three search mechanisms. 
Folio and Weblndex are more popular 
than the less-capable freeWAIS, but free- 
WAIS is faster for single-term queries. 
Because effective use of the Web requires 
searching, I'll continue to explore these 
types of tools. ■ 

Jon Udell (jitdell@bix.com) is BYTE's executive 
editor for new media. 



226 BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 



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Software 



REVIEWS 



Gateways to the Internet 

America Online, CompuServe, and Prodigy offer Web browsers, FTP, 
and more, but these services aren't for everyone 



GEORGE BOND 

Access to the World Wide Web 
may seem an obvious compo- 
nent of any major on-line ser- 
vice, but the Big Three — America Online 
(or AOL), CompuServe, and Prodigy — 
are just now scrambling aboard the band- 
wagon. All three offer something you don't 
get from an ISP ( Internet service provider): 
a single point of access for Web surfing, 
commercial database browsing, and on- 
line conference discussions. They also de- 
liver single-source access to technical sup- 
port and training. 

The ISP Advantage 

All these service providers — with the pos- 
sible exception of Prodigy — tend to be 
more expensive than ISPs (see the text box 
"Convenience, but at What Price?" be- 
low). And the speed of phone connections 
to the Big Three is still mostly limited to 
14.4 Kbps, a drawback when working with 
the on-line graphics of the Web. 

Also, the three providers promise to up- 
grade their networks, but at the time of 
this writing only a few 28.8-Kbps connec- 
tions were available. In contrast, many ISPs 
offer 28.8 Kbps routinely. But these short- 
comings may be offset by the large number 
of POPs (points of presence, or local phone 
numbers) offered by the Big Three, as well 
as by the convenience of one-stop access to 



CompuServe's What's 

New page links users 

to popular new sites on 

the Internet. 



wmmm^MQ&smE 



j EgJUiMi 




dldc oa th* topic below to -view: 
Ovbl <k lrtCTtro 



services and sup- 
port. 

Prodigy is the 
only major infor- 
mation provider 
currently with an | 
actual Web ser- 
vice. At this writ- 
ing, CompuServe 
and AOL were 
still in beta test- 
ing with their Web 
browsers ( graph- 
ical front ends for 
navigating the In- 
ternet and view- 
ing Web pages) 
and Web services. 
However, users 
of these providers' 
services can walk 
the Web now by 
downloading the 
necessary soft- 
ware. Internet mail, FTP (the Internet's 
file transfer protocol), and Usenet news 
groups are already in place. 

Web-Crawling with CompuServe 

CompuServe uses the Spry Mosaic brows- 
er, TCP/IP stack, and dialer (the company 
purchased Spry to obtain the technology, 
as AOL did with Internetworks and its 
browser). There are so many free sign-up 





' Kid! O/fr 

* MartittelMc 

• Mum 

■ Pconb CorAtciiim 

* Pcnornl finance 

• Rtfcrtce? Dak 



America Online's 
Explorer page 
provides links to 
other Internet 
sites. 



You ran all o browse the Web wing A 



Web ^ 
Brew 



% a r 



(Browiy Nranl rSafch Tooltl THtlo) P/icwtnl Hnfarat Caramel tMykdPWc 

W.k™ h Om PRODIGY W* Bnmr, 

Get radyl You're ttm* to get ctutft up to UK World Wide Web. The "Web 1 it cm 

"" «ffifietSlfl&Ja«<»«a r 



a spot! 



Intriouwl? 
Ent.rtainad? 



■ •' - :', 



girt jftjUntmctin - ""^^ 

bonds get aqua trued lith lam. 
It 'a lik> bainf aakad to viait 
their virtual hoasa. Dig the 

photos, and so auch ■Orel 

(Haavr araphiea) 

Racklrcpoln - A sjrephical booan 

_?nmm imp vht tama qt 



Prodigy's Welcome screen is the 
first thing you see when you jump 
to the World Wide Web. 



deals floating around that this initial ex- 
pense will be nil, or close to it. 

Once you're logged on to CompuServe, 
you use the command go ppp to get to the 
browser-downloading area. Then you ei- 
ther walk through menus to download the 
Windows version of the software or read 
instructions on how to connect via third- 
party Macintosh and OS/2 software. If 
you are using CompuServe's WinCim or 









Convenience, but at What Price? 



Using the Big Three commercial information 

providers can be expensive. Here's what it 

would cost to surf the Internet for 30 hours per 

month with each of them. 

AOL (America Online). The first 5 hours are 
included in the $9.95 monthly fee. You're 
then charged $2.95 for each of the remain- 
ing 25 hours. Total: $83.70. 

CompuServe,. An initial change of $9.95 in- 
cludes unlimited use ©f basic services and 
3 hours of Internet services (i.e., World 
Wide Web, FTP, telnet, and the Usenet- 
news reader). An additional charge of $15 



gets you an Internet Club membership 
with 17 more hours of connect time; 
each of the remaining 10 hours costs 
$1.95. Total: $44.90. 

Prodigy. Youget 30 hours of connect time 
under the 30/30 Plan. Total: $29.95. 

To be fair, these comparisons aren't 
strictly parallel; CompuServe also has a 
mail surcharge (10 cents for the first 
7500 words and 2 cents for each addi- 
tional 7500 words per message) if you 
exceed approximately 90 three-page, full- 
text messages a month. But time spent 
in mail is not counted toward connect 




charges. The oth- 
er services don't 
have a mail sur- 
charge; they ac- 
count for mail in 
their regular con- 
nect-time charges. 

By comparison, ISPs (In- 
ternet service providers), companies that 
offer gateways to the Internet but rarely 
any local databases, have charges rang- 
ing from about $20 to $30 for 20 to 40 
hours of access via 28.8-Kbps or slower 
modems, plus a dollar or two per hour for 
additional time. 



SEPTEMBER 1995 BYTE 229 



Turning an Ugly Duckling into a Hollywood Swan 

To seamlessly integrate the World Wide Web into its existing service, CompuServe faced 
two technical challenges: supporting the Internet protocols and getting the software front 
ends (i.e., the CompuServe access software and the Web browser] to talk to each other. 
Last spring, CompuServe delivered a downloadable Web browser, called NetLauncher, 
that could work from within a PPP (i.e., standard Internet) session established by the 
dialer built into the WinCim 1.4 interface. But if you'd already used WinCim to dial into 
CompuServe, you had to disconnect before dialing the PPP session. 

The latest upgrade to CompuServe's Windows shell, WinCim 2.0, lets you dial a single 
phone number and toggle between any Web browser and the CompuServe interface in the 
same session. The improved integration is principally due to the Windows Sockets, or 
Winsock, DLL. Winsock presents a network-independent interface between Winsock-com- 
pliant applications. This interface sits on top of a network-dependent component that 
supports the specific networking protocol stack (usually, TCP/IP). 

For the new version of WinCim, CompuServe programmers wrote a Winsock networking 
layer for both NetLauncher and 



access is its lack of integration. 
To browse the Web, you must call 
a specific phone number and use 
the Spry software. To peruse news 
groups, or to use FTP to down- 
load a file or use telnet (a remote 
terminal program), you must re- 
sort to a terminal emulator or one 
of CompuServe's custom soft- 
ware packages. CompuServe is 
working to address these issues; 
see the Technology Focus box at 
left. 



WinCim. Both the Web browser and 
the CompuServe front end now hook 
into the Winsock API. This result is 
point-and-click access to both Net- 
Launcher (or any other Winsock- 
compliant Web browser) and Com- 
puServe. 

CompuServe has also met the chal- 
lenge of different software com- 
mands by adding translation algo- 
rithms to the mix. NetLauncher and 
WinCim can now talk each other's 
lingo. For instance, when a user 
types gopoliticsin NetLaunch- 
er, it recognizes the command as 
being intended for a CompuServe Go 
page and passes the command in a 
message to WinCim. 

Navigator software, you simply point and 
click to download the browser. 

You run a single executable to install 
the software. If you already have a TCP/IP 
stack installed, CompuServe's stack will 
rename your stack and install its own. Your 
existing Internet client software probably 
will work with the new stack. 

If you've seen Spry's Mosaic browser 
elsewhere (in the Internet-in-a-Box pack- 
age, for example), you'll immediately rec- 
ognize CompuServe's: It has the familiar 
menu bar and line-of -control buttons along 
the top of the screen, two long boxes in 
which you enter URLs (uniform resource 
locators, which are simply Internet ad- 
dresses), and the familiar Spry globe for in- 
dicating when data is being transferred. 

The browser defaults to the CompuServe 
home page on connection. You have three 
choices for navigating the Web: Clicking 



Where Winsock Fits In 



Any 

Winsock -compliant 

application 



Protocol stack (independent layer) 

- -WiRdews-Soekete -DLLr - 

Protocol stack (dependent layer) 



Protocol stack 



TCP/IP dialer 



Hardware drivers 



Hardware 
serial port and modem, etc.) 



Due out this month, 

WinCim 2.0 

integrates formerly 

separate interfaces 

for accessing 

CompuServe and 

World Wide Web services using WinCim and NetLauncher, respectively. 

Both will also now be able to access the same live PPP connection 

established by CompuServe's dialing software and exchange commands 

intended for each other's domains. 



on one of the hot links on the screen, se- 
lecting a location from a hot list that you 
create, or typing in the URL of the site that 
you want to visit aftery ou use the open URL 
command (by typing Ctrl-0 or selecting 
Open URL... from the File menu). 

The Spry stack and dialer are among 
the more robust that we've used, and Com- 
puServe's version performed without a 
problem. During several weeks of use, our 
CompuServe setup behaved reliably on 
a Gateway P5-60 and an IBM ThinkPad 
360C. The Spry browser also performed 
well, including properly handling home 
pages built with the Netscape extensions. 
Because these extensions aren't part of the 
current HTML (Hypertext Markup Lan- 
guage) standard, they can cause problems 
with the way in which some browsers dis- 
play images. 

The downside of CompuServe's Internet 



On Target with AOL 

Like CompuServe, AOL was still 
beta-testing its Web software dur- 
ing our review period. 
However, unlike Compu- 
Serve' s software, AOL's 
is nicely integrated into 
the regular AOL pack- 
age, as are the clients for 
FTP, news groups, and 
gopher (a database search 
engine). 

You will need special 
software to browse the 
Web from AOL. The cur- 
rent distribution disk is 
version 2.0. You must 
load this version of the 
software to get AOL in 
the first place. To use the 
Web browser, you need 
the version 2.5 preview 
edition, available for 
downloading from AOL. 
If you're working from 
a LAN that is linked to 
a T 1 connection to the Internet, 
you'll find a pleasant surprise: One of the 
setup items in the network-selection pull- 
down menu is TCP/IP. It worked for us 
with no fuss on NetWare networks. We 
were able to connect virtually instantly 
and run AOL at T 1 speeds. AOL is rapid- 
ly adding 28.8-Kbps connections for high- 
speed modem access, but so far they are 
concentrated in major metropolitan areas. 
The browser itself looks a bit different 
from most of its competitors; it's much 
more boxy and industrial looking. The 
usual menu bar and collection of buttons 
span the top of the screen, but the buttons 
are long, horizontal rectangles instead of 
the more common squarish ones (see the 
screen on page 229). 

Walking the Web with AOL is a breeze. 
You simply click on hot-linked icons or 
text links to jump to another page, or you 
type in a URL just as you would with any 



230 BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 



Gateways to the Internet 



REVIEWS 



MSN: Desktop Internet 



With a vision of extending 
the Windows 95 desktop out 
to the world, Microsoft is 
busy building seamless World 
Wide Web access for the Mi- 
crosoft Network, or MSN. 
Microsoft licensed the NCSA 
(National Center for Super- 
computing Applications) 
Mosaic Web Browser from 
Spry International and, more 
significant, bought minority 
interest in UUNet, the world's 
largest ISP (Internet service 
provider). 

Microsoft is now extend- 
ing both, enhancing Mosaic 
to support the Windows desktop (e.g., drag and drop, right 
mouse-clicks, and so on) and branching UUNet into more 
sites worldwide. Currently, the Internet access points are lim- 
ited — we had to call in to New York from New Hampshire — 
but Microsoft intends to open many additional lines shortly. 

The enhanced browser, a component of the Microsoft Plus 
Windows 95 Companion Pack, accesses the Web through 
your own service provider, across the LAN (if you have a 




LAN-based connection), or 
via MSN. The Plus Pack sticks 
an Internet icon on the Win- 
dows 95 desktop. 

You click on this icon to 
launch the browser, starting 
off in a Microsoft Web page 
that serves as an opening menu. 
From there, you can take a tu- 
torial, go surfing on your own, 
or search for specific subjects 
using the Lycos Internet cata- 
log. Once you're out of Micro- 
soft's page, you're navigating 
the Web just as you would ex- 
pect, jumping across various 
sites by clicking on hyperlinks 

or hopping directly to specific addresses. 

From the menu bar, you can create a desktop shortcut to any 

site, build a list of favorite sites, or pull up a history window of 

recently accessed pages. You can drag and ^^m 

droptextorimagestothedesktoportoother I Microsoft Corp. 

,. _ c t .. . W^S Redmond, WA 

applications. To capture an image to disk, K lhJ (2 06) 882-8080 

you simply point at the image, click the right HJ fax: (206) 936-7329 
mouse button, and select Save As. ^M www.microsoft.com 



browser on a standard ISP. Using other 
Internet clients is just as easy. They are 
well integrated, also appearing as launch- 
able icons. A news-group reader, a gopher/ 
WAIS (Wide Area Information Service) 
client, and an FTP client are available. 

Prodigy Plovys Ahead 

Prodigy, after a long, uphill battle against 
skepticism, has gained an edge on its com- 
petition. Its Internet access is easily the 
best integrated of the three services. 

To be sure, most of Prodigy still looks 
like — well, Prodigy. Its screens have a de- 
cided look of NAPLPS (North American 
Presentation-Level Protocol Syntax), an 
older standard that features big characters, 





America Online . . . $9.95 


(614) 529-1349 




(monthly fees, excluding 


fax: (614) 529-1610 


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sales@cis.compuserve.com 


ft 


American Online, Inc. 
Vienna, VA 


Circle 1034 on Inquiry Card. 




(800) 827-6364 


Prodigy $9.95 


1HT 


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(monthly fees, excluding 


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(monthly fees, excluding 


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CompuServe, Inc. 


into99a@prodigy.com 




Columbus, OH 


Circle 1035 on Inquiry Card. 




(800) 848-8199 











crude graphics, and generally an old-days- 
in-cyberspace appearance. However, its 
Web browser propels Prodigy into the 
mid-1990s. With its high-resolution dis- 
play of non-Prodigy pages, it provides a 
sharp contrast to the rest of Prodigy. 

The browser itself is efficiently laid out: 
It has the usual menu bar at the very top, 
and buttons and URL boxes under the bar, 
with an activity indicator next to them. 
There's no special installation needed for 
the browser because it's part of the nor- 
mal Prodigy installation. 

Prodigy's browser is easy and intuitive 
to use. Just click on what you want, and 
you're there. How fast you get there is lim- 
ited by the connection speed of your mo- 
dem — in Prodigy's case, it's 
14.4 Kbps, although 10 ma- 
jor cities were expected to 
get 22.8 Kbps by late July. 
That's better than 9600 bps, 
but it can lead to slow trans- 
fer times when you're deal- 
ing with graphics-intensive 
home pages. The Prodigy 
home page itself is skillfully 
designed to load fast: It has 
a modest-size graphic at the 
top and then, like the Com- 



puServe home page, drops into a heavily 
text-oriented page. 

Do We Have a Winner? 

For general prowling around the Internet, 
we'd select AOL because of its good in- 
tegration and high-speed modem (and Tl) 
connections. Prodigy would run a close 
second, falling somewhat short because 
of its slower modem links and lack of a 
Tl connection. CompuServe brings up the 
rear. Without the upcoming improvements 
in WinCim, it's simply too much work 
having to switch back and forth from the 
main system to the Web browser. 

The wild card is Microsoft Network, or 
MSN, Microsoft's fledgling network (see 
the text box "MSN: Desktop Internet" 
above). Built with Internet integration in 
mind, it should compete as an Internet 
gateway right out of the starting block. ■ 

George Bond is publisher of Sams.net, the 
Internet imprint of Macmillan Computer 
Publishing USA, and publisher of such titles 
as Teach Yourself Web Publishing with 
HTML in a Week and Internet Unleashed. In 
an earlier life, he cofounded BIX. You can 
contact him on the Internet at gbond@sams 
.mcp.com or on BIX as "gbond. " 



SEPTEMBER 1995 BYTE 231 



From the Editors of BYTE Magazine . 



Available 
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Because the Expert ^ decide. 




Hardware 



REVIEWS 



Presentation Quality 

Snap-on, snap-off: IBM's slick new screen technology turns 

the ThinkPad 755CV into a remote -control color presentation pan* 




EDMUND X. DEJESUS 

You've never seen anything like 
IBM's ThinkPad 755CV note- 
book computer — guaranteed. A 
superb blend of at least three interesting 
technologies, the base machine includes 
a 100-MHz 486DX4 processor (upgrad- 
able to a Pentium); a 10.4-inch, 65,536- 
color active-matrix display; a TrackPoint 
III pointer; and PC Card, or PCMCIA, 
slots for one Type III or two Type I or II 
cards. The ThinkPad 755CDV, a 755CV 
with an integrated CD-ROM drive, was 
released in June. 



Double Your Pleasure 

Ted Selker got tired of hearing people say 



W 



that it couldn't be done. So, to prove a point, 
the IBM research scientist performed surgery 
on the back of a ThinkPad that he bought at 
retail. That was the prototype of the 755C V's 
presentation panel. 

Color active-matrix TFT (thin-film transis- 
tor) LCD screens are difficult enough. Be- 
tween the protective surfaces are polarizing 
filters and one plane of liquid-crystal gel for 
each of three colors (red, green, and blue); 
each plane is coated with transistors that 
control each pixel. When a tiny transistor is 
turned on, the liquid crystal at that point 
twists, losing transparency. 

In the 755CV's design, the LCD display is 
held in a rigid die-cast aluminum frame 
whose top holds a CCFT (cold cathode fluo- 
rescent tube) light source, a backing reflec- 
tive Mylar foil, and the power supply for the 
light. When the back casing is in place, a 
switch in the display base activates the light 
source. This interlock prevents safety risks 
while the back is off. 

The 755CV's screen opens flat (see the in- 
set above). Special straps attached to the 
notebook fasten the entire machine onto an 
overhead projector, with the screen suspend- 
ed about 2 inches above the projector's sur- 
face. This space dissipates the heat from the 
projector. The final result is a marvel of engi- 
neering — and a practical product to boot. 



That's pretty good for 

starters. But in addition to 

all that, when you undo a 

latch on either side of the 

screen, the reinforced casing 

lifts off the back of the 

screen, transforming the 

now-transparent screen into 

a presentation panel that 

opens flat for simple at- 
tachment onto any standard 

overhead projector. 

Thus, your presentation 

can be show-fl/?d-tell, with 

the integrated Mwave DSP 
(digital signal proces- 
sor) chip delivering 
audio narration, mu- 
sic clips, and sound effects. This DSP 
chip also supports recording and play- 
back, MIDI and Sound Blaster sup- 
port, and a full-duplex speakeiphone 
in conjunction with the internal 14.4- 
Kbps fax modem. 

And, to enable you to magically 
control your presentation from across 
the room, front and rear infrared ports 
accept commands from the wireless 
MindPath Technologies infrared re- 
mote control. MindPath's Presenta- 
tion F/X software lets you control 
mouse-cursormovements, click and 
double-click, and invoke any of over 
20 special effects. The infrared ports 
also allow the exchange of data with 
IRDA-standard ( Infrared Device As- 
sociation) printers and other com- 
puters at rates as high as 1 15.2 Kbps. 




The Competition 

There are other presentation panels 
that offer remote control; there are 
even other notebooks that can turn 
into presentation panels, including 
Aquiline's Cruiser, Boxlight's Multi- 
book, IntelliView'sDPS-1 andDPS- 
3, and Revered Technology's Pow- 
er Cruiser. But there's nothing else 
that offers the flexibility and gee- 
whiz appeal of the 755CV. And, for 
approximately the same price that 
you would pay for the LCD color 
active-matrix projection panels that 



are currently on the market 
($4000 to $12,000), you can purchase a 
projection panel and a full-featured Think- 
Pad in one box. 

The Class B 755C V weighs 6.6 pounds 
with battery pack, and you can swap out 
the front-mounted 3/4-inch floppy drive 
for another PC Card slot or a wireless mo- 
dem. On BYTE's Thumper 2 battery-life 
test, the Energy Star-approved 755CV 
scored 3 hours, 38 minutes, which is in 
line with the claimed 3.3 to 10 hours (4.1 
to 12 hours with the optional lithium-ion 
battery). 

Two minor complaints are that the sys- 
tem has no handle, and setup for the in- 
frared remote control is not intuitive. But 
if you're weary of making and carrying 
overhead foils — or if you just want to im- 
press other technophiles — you'll find your 
machine in the 755CV. ■ 

Edmund X. DeJesus is a BYTE senior edi- 
tor. He has a Ph.D. in physics and has been 
a professional programmer for over 15 years. 
You can reach him on the Internet or BIX at 
edejesus @ bix. com. 



ThinkPad 755CV $6099 

ThinkPad 755CDV $7099 

(includes integrated CD-ROM drive) 

IBM Corp. 

Armonk, NY 

(914) 765-1900 

(800) 426-2968 

Circle 1032 on Inquiry Card. 



SEPTEMBER 1995 BYTE 233 



When It Comes 
Training, more 
The techn 





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Relax. Datapro's On-Site Training stretches your budget, not your employees. We bring the 
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With Datapro's On-Site Training you can tailor your high-tech curriculum to suit your compa- 
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hands-on instruction. The bottom line: Data- 
pro's custom curriculum means you never have 
to pay for information your employees already 
know or won't really use. 



It's easy to understand why leading companies 
have been taking advantage of Datapro's On- 
Site Training for more than 23 years — among 
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Software 



REVIEWS 



Networking at Warp Speed 

Easy LAN installation and peer services make IBM's OS/2 Warp 
Connect a serious network contender 



BARRY NANCE 

To stem the tide of Windows 95, 
IBM has sweetened the OS/2 pot. 
IBM reasons that if OS/2's tech- 
nical strengths don't overwhelm you, the 
boatload of networking and application 
software in the Warp Connect upgrade will 
be more persuasive, 

OS/2 Warp Connect bundles LAN re- 
questers, peer-to-peer networking, group- 
ware and E-mail, Internet access, a full- 
featured word processor, a spreadsheet, a 
personal information manager, a fax util- 
ity, remote access, communications pro- 
grams, and other goodies. Curiously miss- 
ing from Warp Connect is an NFS client 
for connecting to Unix servers; you have to 
buy NFS separately. 

Thenew Warp is robust, reliable, and re- 
sponsive. That's not surprising, since the 
underlying OS/2 technology has had years 
to mature. 

Warp Connect ($299) costs significant- 
ly more than the $89 basic Warp product, 
and it requires roughly twice as much disk 
space and RAM. 

Warp Connect takes from 25 to 90 MB of 
disk space and at least 1 2 MB of RAM, de- 
pending on which features you install. IBM 
recommends at least 8 MB, but we found 
performance is much better with 12 MB. 

Almost all of Warp Connect' s features, 



including the requesters, LAN Distance, 
CID (Configuration, Installation, and 
Distribution), and the Bonus Pack of 
applications, have been around for a 
while; Warp Connect brings them to- 
gether in one box. How- 
ever, the peer-to-peer net- 
working is new, as is the 
installation program for 
network options. 

We installed Warp 
Connect on a dozen PCs 
(mostly 486s and Pen- 
tiums). The peer-to-peer 
networking services 
worked well and offered 
better security and relia- 
bility than Windows for 
Workgroups. The peer 
networking and LAN Server requester fea- 
tures let Warp Connect access files, print- 
ers, and CD-ROM drives on computers 
running Warp Connect itself; IBM's LAN 
Server and PC LAN Program; Microsoft's 
Windows for Workgroups, Windows NT, 
and LAN Manager; and Artisoft's LAN- 
tastic. Warp Connect peers and LAN Serv- 
er clients can even use the same modems 
via shared serial port access to PCs run- 
ning OS/2-based communications soft- 
ware. These Peer Services are, in fact, a 
superset of the LAN Requester in all ways 
except one: To run the LAN Server graph- 



re 


|-V';;: / * 


a 


a - •-. • - * i g • • - i 


1 a 


■ <».-•-:• !Ov 


1 a- 




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Sh'rftlnio high gear! 





The Networking Difference 

Warp Connect augments basic OS/2 Warp with IBM and third-party network client 
technologies such as NetWare Requester 2. 1 1 , LAN Server 4.0 Requester, OS/2 
Peer to Peer, LAN Distance Remote 1.1, Lotus Notes Express (an entry-level Notes 
client), and support for TCP/IP, IPX, and NetBIOS/NetBEUI. There's also a com- 
prehensive TCP/IP LAN and SLIP/PPP dial-up client that can replace the Bonus 
Pack's TCP/IP client. IBM TCP/IP version 3, which can maintain a dial-up Internet 
connection and a network card connection at the same time, includes FTP and Tel- 
net server software. Curiously missing from Warp Connect is an NFS client for 
connecting to Unix servers; you have to buy NFS separately. 

IBM says it will ship a Warp Connect Extend Pack later this year that will add 
features designed specifically to appeal to larger enterprises, such as Communica- 
tions Manager/2 desktop-to-mainframe software and IBM's multiprotocol connec- 
tivity software, AnyNet/2. IBM also says it's collaborating with Novell to produce 
a 32-bit NetWare Requester for OS/2. 



IBM's Person to Person 
software can now be run 
with Warp's new Peer 
Services to provide 
peer-to-peer 
videoconferencing. 



ical administration tools, you must use the 
LAN Requester instead of Peer Services. 

When we added the NetWare Requester, 
the resulting dual-protocol stack consumed 
extra extended memory, but it still left 
nearly 640 KB of conventional memory 
for each DOS and Windows session. Try- 
ing to use multiple protocols in a DOS or 
a DOS-plus-Windows machine, however, 
left us with insufficient memory to run ap- 
plications. The only problem the NetWare 
Requester exhibited was slow access to 
NetWare drives assigned through the Net- 
work folder. Drive mappings that were es- 
tablished through the NetWare Tools util- 
ity behaved normally. 

For smaller networks (typically 10 or 
fewer PCs), or for a decentralized campus 
environment, Warp Connect' s Peer Ser- 
vices are useful and productive. Beyond 
eight or 10 clients, you'll need a separate 
file server running a product such as Net- 
Ware or LAN Server. 

The networking utilities in OS/2 Warp 
Connect include Network SignOn Coor- 
dinator, a help database, and LAN Dis- 
tance Remote. Network SignOn holds log- 
on names and passwords and sends them 
out to the various services. The help data- 
base lets you perform keyword searches 
for frequently asked questions, setup 
guides, and descriptions of known prob- 
lems. LAN Distance Remote is a client for 
a LAN Distance Server that lets your PC 



SEPTEMBER 1995 BYTE 235 



REVIEWS 



Networking at Warp Speed 



use a modem to access server files, just as 
if your modem were a LAN adapter. 

Warp Connect' s Peer Services also de- 
liver auditing, logging, and an interface to 
REXX, the OS/2 scripting language. You 
can monitor access to shared peer re- 
sources and write REXX scripts to auto- 
mate routine tasks. The Network Clip- 
board/DDE lets you cut and paste 
clipboard data across the LAN or — if you 
use NetBIOS over TCP/IP— across the In- 
ternet. Peer Services also includes an OS/2 
program for playing chess across a net- 
work. And the Person to Person application 
lets you do workgroup and videoconfer- 
encing (see the screen on page 235). 

The Installation Ceremony 

IBM has really improved OS/2's much- 
criticized installation procedure. The sys- 
tem's tool for detecting LAN adapters (see 
"Sniffing Out LAN Hardware" at right) 
correctly identified most network cards 
we tested, failing only with the diff icult-to- 
identify Eagle NE2000 card: An NE2000 
adapter (or clone) doesn't offer software a 
clear-cut ROM address or I/O port signa- 
ture for identification purposes. The in- 
stallation program easily recognized (and 
configured Warp for) cards from such 
manufacturers as Thomas-Conrad, Madge, 
IBM, Intel, and SMC. 

You are offered three ways to install Warp 
Connect: easy, tailored, and hands-off . The 
hands-off installation method (called CID) 
is appropriate for large organizations that 
want to seed Warp onto many LAN-con- 
nected PCs quickly and painlessly. CID is 
an IBM-designed, over-the-wire software 
distribution mechanism that creates a redi- 
rected installation environment. 

To quickly install a CID-enabled prod- 
uct such as Warp Connect across a LAN, 
you modify a template script supplied with 
Warp Connect and run the LAN CID utility. 
A component called the Service Installable 
File System (SRVIFS) handles file redi- 
rection between the code server and the 
client workstation. We found the CID scripts 
easy to set up and run. 

A server-based LAN CID REXX pro- 
gram identifies the products that you want 
to install. Individual product-response files 
contain the menu selections and choices of 
features that you other- 
wise would have to pro- 
vide interactively. A 
SRVIFS configuration 
file sets up the code 
server. The bottom line 
is that you can install 
Warp Connect (or an- 



Snif f ing Out LAN Hardware 

When you want to know what kind of LAN adapter your computer uses, you 
remove the cover and inspect the adapter. But installation software that 
wants to identify your LAN adapter has to use machine instructions to detect 
and identify such hardware. Micro Channel and EISA adapters are relatively 
easy to detect; both architectures supply configuration data to programs. 
ISA-based PCs, on the other hand, present installation software with a mine- 
field of problems. 

Warp Connects installation program invokes functions within a DLL to 
sniff out LAN hardware. This DLL contains code that identifies 250 to 300 
different network adapters; two-thirds of this code is for ISA adapters. IBM 
programmers regularly add new entries to the list. Each addition goes 
through regression tests to make sure the new code doesn't crash in the 
presence of the other listed adapters. 

The DLL steps carefully through a series of adapter-signature tests to find 
out what LAN adapter you have. The tests first look through adapter ROM for 
patterns of bytes. Sometimes the software uses adapter-specific sequences 
of IN and OUT machine instructions to make the query. Because the same 
adapter can often use different I/O addresses and IRQs, the detection soft- 
ware often must make several attempts at identifying it. 

The order of the tests is important. The same sequence of IN/OUT instruc- 
tions that detects one kind of adapter might cause a different kind to freeze 
the computer. And the possibility of trouble- 
some interactions between the detection soft- 
ware and adapters sensitive to certain machine 
instructions makes it important to figure out 
which adapters are examined first. 

To run the detection code outside the instal- 
lation procedure, open a Warp Connect OS/2 
command-line session and run the 0S2SNIFF 
program in the GRPWARE directory. 0S2SNIFF 
will invoke the detection routines in NCD.DLL 
and display the results on-screen. 



iter and Protocol Support 



LAPS Confirpation 



Select a network adapter and then select ptotociAs to go with It 
-Hetwork Adapters 



jhwaTiFnniFffigi8i'iMi'<-iii'iii''iiJ 

)lQm 3C503 EtherUi* II Adaptor 
lJ3Cwn 3C523 EtherLlnk/MC Adapter 
3Com EtrwUrtklin Fwnlty OS/2 



| Add j ;Char^«j [ Other a dapters... j 




Current Conl i juration — 



] Select OK when 
complete. 



The installation program sniffs out 
network adapters, then gives you 
confirmation of those that are installed. 



other CID-enabled product) on about 300 
PCs in a single day. 

Wrapping It Up 

We can't go without faulting the single 
input message queue, which makes it pos- 
sible for one badly behaved Presentation 
Manager application to prevent other ap- 
plications from receiving event-queue mes- 
sages. Also, Warp Connect needs an 
intelligent maintenance utility for CON- 
FIG.SYS statements, especially since net- 
work software can increase the number of 
such statements to 
more than 100. The 
lack of an NFS client is 
a glaring omission. 
And the installation 
program gets confused 
if there's more than one 
LAN adapter in your 



OS/2 Warp Connect 3.0 . . .$299 

(CD-ROM only; includes Windows) 

IBM 

Armonk, NY 10504 

(800) 342-6672 

(914) 765-1900 

fax: (313) 225-4020 

Circle 1144 on Inquiry Card. 



PC (though you can fix such problems by 
editing the CONFIG.SYS, NET.CFG, and 
PROTOCOL.INI files by hand). 

Overall, though, OS/2 Warp Connect 
has a lot to offer. The combination of in- 
the-box networking with a mature 32-bit 
operating system that runs Windows, 
Win32s, DOS, and OS/2 software makes 
this a productive, useful environment. 
Warp Connect offers all the essential fea- 
tures of both Windows 95 and Windows 
NT while adding features (such as the 
Bonus Pack and Notes Express) that the 
competition lacks. ■ 

Contributing editor Barry Nance has been 
a programmer for 25 years. He is the author 
o/Using OS/2 Warp 3.0, Introduction to Net- 
working, and Client/Server LAN Program- 
ming. You can reach him via the Internet at 
banyn@bix.com. 



236 BYXE SEPTEMBER 1995 



Don't just settle for collections of pictures! 




TRAVEL NOTES ON CD is an 
ambitious project, the result of in- 
tensive research work, which will 
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Hardware 



REVIEWS 



To Print a Rainbow 

Next-generation color lasers from Apple and Tektronix set high 
standards for print quality, connectivity, and convenience 



TOM THOMPSON 

The first generation of sub-$ 1 0,000 
color lasers, introduced last year, 
suffered from complicated setup 
and lackluster out-of-the-box network ca- 
pabilities. In short, they didn't work as ad- 
vertised. 

Enter Tektronix, the color printer king- 
pin, and Apple, creator of the desktop pub- 
lishing market. Both companies know the 
color market well, and it shows in their 
latest color lasers: Apple's Color Laser 
12/600 and Tektronix's Phaser 540. (The 
Phaser 540 Plus became available just af- 
ter this review; it's a 540 with legal-size 
printing capability and a somewhat faster 
printing speed for the same $8995 price.) 
Both of these printers readily manage 
true 600-dpi output; are easy to set up, 
thanks to a monocomponent print tech- 
nology that dispenses with the developer 
cartridges; and are platform-agnostic, com- 
ing with drivers for Macintosh, PC, and 
Unix systems. 

Apple's Color Laser 12/600 

Big and heavy, the Apple Color Laser 12/ 
600 occupies a 21- by 23-inch area and 
weighs in at 1 10 pounds. A 25-MHz AMD 
29030 RISC processor manages the print- 
er's smarts, and 8 MB of ROM houses an 
Adobe PostScript Level 2 interpreter, 39 
Type 1 fonts, and code that handles Ap- 
pleTalk, NetWare IPX, and TCP/IP pro- 
tocol stacks. Custom ASICs manage data 
compression and decompression and ac- 
celerate Apple's image-enhancement soft- 
ware. 

Because the printer receives compressed 
image data, it needs less RAM than most 
color printers — only 12 MB (which comes 
in the base $6989 configuration). The 
board holds up to 40 MB of RAM in two 
industry-standard 72-pin SIMM sockets. 

The controller board sports a medley of 
I/O ports: Ethernet (Apple AUI [attach- 
ment unit interface] connector), LocalTalk, 
and IEEE P1284 bidirectional parallel, 
plus an HDI-30 SCSI port for adding font- 
caching hard drives. The controller scans 
all ports for data and can field incoming 
jobs of different network protocols. The 
Canon HX LBP print engine generates up 



Sub-$10,000 color lasers: 
the Tektronix Phaser 540 
(left) and the Apple Color 
Laser 12/600. 




to 3 pages per minute for color output and 
up to 12 ppm for monochrome. 

Phaser 540 

With a 19.5- by 27.4-inch footprint and 
weighing 1 17 pounds, the Phaser 540 is 
also a bruiser. It uses an AMD 29030 con- 
troller (running at 32 MHz instead of 25 
MHz). The ROMs provide Adobe Post- 
Script Level 2 with 39 Type 1 fonts and in- 
clude a PCL5 (Printer Control Language) 
interpreter. Standard RAM is 20 MB, ex- 
pandable to 52 MB. A P 1284 bidirection- 
al parallel port and a SCSI-2 port are both 
standard. 

You can attach the $1695 Phaser Copy- 
Station option to add color-copying ca- 
pability. An optional Phaser Share board 
($595) provides either an Ethernet or a 
Token Ring network in- 
terface; both support Ap- 
pleTalk, IPX, and TCP/IP 
(which is an extra $295). 
The controller switches 
between network proto- 
cols and emulations au- 
tomatically. The Phaser 
540's KME print engine 
can produce 3Yi ppm for 
color and 14 ppm for 
monochrome at 600 dpi. 



Blazing Colors 

Setup for both printers is as easy as it gets: 
Basically, it takes around 15 minutes to 
insert the photoconductor drum/belt and 
the four toner cartridges. Overall, the Phas- 
er 540 handled print jobs faster than the 
Color Laser 12/600 because of its faster 
processor. The overhead of data decom- 
pression may also slow down the Apple 
printer. The Color Laser 1 2/600 processed 
the BYTE color PostScript test (which 
measures the speed of the PostScript in- 
terpreter) in 129 seconds, while the Phas- 
er 540 fielded it in just 59 seconds. 

The Color Laser 1 2/600's operation was 
initially marred by its acute sensitivity to a 
bad cable on BYTE's network. The print- 
er lost data packets and had them resent 
until it finally timed out. After we removed 
the faulty cable, the print- 
er operated flawlessly. 
However, the Phaser 540, 
a Hewlett-Packard La- 
serJet HID, and an Apple 
LaserWriter Pro 630 — 
all located within several 
feet of the Color Laser 1 2/ 
600 and connected to the 
same network — experi- 
enced no network diffi- 
culties from the bad wire. 

continued 



Color Laser 12/600 . . $6989 

Apple Computer, Inc. 

Cupertino, CA 

(800) 538-9696 

(408) 996-1010 

Circle 1030 on Inquiry Card. 

Phaser 540 $8995 

Tektronix, Inc. 

Wilsonville, OR 

(800) 835-6100 

(503) 682-7377 

Circle 1031 on Inquiry Card. 



SEPTEMBER 1995 BYXK 239 



REVIEWS 



To Print a Rainbow 




Squeezing Colors from Pixels 

Printing black text is fairly straightforward: Any given spot on the paper 
either has black pigment on it or does not. To get smoother edges or higher 
resolution, many laser printers adjust the size and even the position of the 
black dots on the image grid by modulating the laser beam. 

Producing photographic images is more complicated because the printer 
must create the illusion of gray shades by tiling varied groups of black dots 
called dithering patterns. The gray shades come at the expense of resolution, 
but, again, laser modulation can help, either by making dithering patterns 
less obvious or by squeezing more gray shades from a smaller pattern. The 
production of dithering patterns is even more complicated with color images, 
because clusters of the four process colors (cyan, magenta, yellow, and 
black) must imitate various hues. 

Both Tektronix and Apple have developed 
methods to effectively coerce more colors 
from smaller dithering patterns. By modifying i 
the laser beam's pulse duration to give some 
pixels more or less energy than others, the 
printer's electronics affect how many uttrafine v - 
toner particles adhere to a each pixel. The 
result: several intensity levels for each color 
instead of all or none. 



;yan, magenta, yellow, and 

€> 

Laser modulation equals smoother color 
gradations. 



Apple is aware of the problem. 

Both printers handled Mac and Win- 
dows print jobs without a hitch. Plain-pa- 
per output from these printers is simply 
outstanding, and output with photograph- 
ic images is good enough to threaten sales 
of dye-sublimation printers. There is lit- 
tle overall quality difference between the 
two printers, although the Apple unit ap- 
peared to do better on more types of im- 
ages than the Tektronix unit did. 

If you're running lots of Windows ap- 
plications that speak PCL5, consider the 
Phaser 540. If you're dealing with Post- 
Script, either printer is suitable. While the 
Phaser 540 is substantially faster, it also 
carries a higher price tag. An Ethernet- 
equipped Phaser 540 with TCP/IP support 
costs $9885, while the Color Laser 12/600 
comes with Ethernet standard (including 
TCP/IP support) for $6989. ■ 

Tom Thompson is a BYTE senior technical 
editor at large with a B.S.E.E. from the Uni- 
versity of Memphis. He is an Associate Apple 
Developer. You can contact him on Apple- 
Link as "T.THOMPSON" or on the Inter- 
net or BIX at tom_thompson@bix.com. 



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Circle 112 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 113). 






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Circle 116 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 117). 




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Hardware 



REVIEWS 



3-D Graphics Go Zoom 

Intergraph and Omnicomp offer different routes to speedy 3-D 




GREG LOVERIA 

ost of us would love to navi- 
| gate through complex virtual 
3-D scenes on our desktop 
PCs. But functions such as real-time 3-D 
animation and Gouraud shading are tough 
jobs for even the swiftest CPU. Most desk- 
top PCs have enough floating-point capa- 
bility for the initial geometry calculations 
required by 3-D modeling, but you need 
specialized 3-D rendering hardware to 
quickly turn those internal geometric rep- 
resentations into realistic-looking images 
on the 2-D surface of your monitor. 

The combination of lower-cost 3-D 
hardware and 3-D APIs — such as Silicon 
Graphics' OpenGL — is making that real- 
ity more affordable. OpenGL is particu- 
larly important because it's built into Win- 
dows NT and will eventually be part of 
Windows 95. Cards that support OpenGL 
will run lots of 3-D applications. 

Here we evaluate two promising ap- 
proaches to 3-D acceleration: a $2385 PCI 
card from Omnicomp that works with sev- 
eral currently popular 3-D APIs, includ- 
ing OpenGL; and a $23,850 Intel-based 
workstation from Intergraph. 

Omnicomp's 3Demon cards are the first 
graphics adapters to use 3DLabs' new 
Glint 3-D accelerator, which promises 
good 3-D performance at a low price. 
(Glint-based cards from Elsa, Fujitsu, and 
others should be available by now.) 



Viewperf OpenGL Results 



F117 



Sphere 



Skull 




Viewperf measures shaded-model rotation rates 

in frames per second using three multicolored, 

multitextured 3-D models: a Stealth F117 jet 

fighter (a mesh consisting of 172 primitives and 

708 vertices per frame), a human skull (3778 

primitives and 14,172 vertices), and a simple 

sphere (2448 primitives and 9792 vertices). A single Viewperf frame consists 

of the model moving or rotating from one rendered x,y,z axes position to the 

next interpolated, rendered position in a 360-degree rotation about any axis. 



Intergraph' s new TDZ-40 
system belongs to a family that 
delivers workstation-level 3- 
D performance on the Intel 
x86 platform. The TDZ-40 
also proves that a good 3-D 
chip is not enough in itself for 
great 3-D performance (see the 
text box "A Whole Lotta 
Buffers" on page 244). 

The dual-Pentium TDZ-40 
is a turnkey acceleration sys- 
tem for MicroStation, a CAD 
package from Intergraph sub- 
sidiary Bentley Systems. It 
uses Intergraph's two-card 
GLZ2, an OpenGL accelera- 
tor that works in conjunction 
with Intergraph's MOGLE 
(MicroStation OpenGL Ex- 
tensions) 3-D API. Omni- 
comp's 3Demon adapters, 
while aimed at improving 
speeds of existing 3-D and 
CAD applications using vari- 
ous 3-D APIs, can also accelerate Micro- 
Station performance speeds using 
MOGLE. 

3-D Demon 

Omnicomp's 3Demon adapters all use the 
Glint 300SX 3-D graphics chip. Board mod- 
els in the 3Demon series range from the 
$ 1 995 SX44 (4 MB each of VRAM and 
DRAM) to the $3535 SX816 (8 MB of 
VRAM, 16 MB of 
DRAM). We tested a 
$2385 SX48, which has 
4 MB of VRAM and 8 
MB of DRAM. (Omni- 
comp plans an October 
release for its 3Demon 
TX series, which 
uses the new Glint 
400TX processor to 
accelerate texture 
mapping.) The SX44 
and SX48 use the 64- 
bit IBM525 RAM- 
DAC for color con- 
versions, while the 
SX816 has a wider 
128-bit IBM528 
RAMDAC. The 
three-quarter-size 




I | GLZ in 24-bit color mode 
3Demon in 24-bit color mode 



I 1 3Demon in 1 2-bit color mode 
All results in frames 
per second. Higher 
numbers indicate better 
performance. 



Intergraph's Pentium-powered TDZ-40 system combines 
workstation-level 3-D performance with Intel x86 software 
compatibility. The Omnicomp 3Demon SX48 board (perched atop 
the monitor) provides good 3-D performance for tighter budgets. 



3Demon cards use DRAM for 32-bit Z- 
buffering. 

Jumperless and self-configuring, the 
SX48 installs easily alongside any existing 
VGA card, which is required for boot-up 
purposes. The SX48 supports display res- 
olutions of 640 by 480 pixels with 24-bit 
color up to 1280 by 1024 pixels with 8- 
bit color. It also supports 24-bit-color, dou- 
ble-buffered, 3-D model acceleration at 
display resolutions of 640 by 480 pixels 
up to 800 by 600 pixels. 

GLZ Sizzler 

Available only in its TDZ line of work- 
stations, Intergraph's PCI-based GLZ se- 
ries of OpenGL graphics accelerators sup- 
ports 24-bit color depth only. The GLZ1 
adapter, which has 12 MB of VRAM, sup- 
ports resolutions as high as 1 152 by 864 
pixels. The two-slot GLZ2 tested here sup- 
ports resolutions of up to 1600 by 1280 
pixels; it has 24 MB of onboard VRAM. 
Housed in an external cabinet, and packed 
with 34 MB of VRAM and 32 MB of 
DRAM, the truly scary GLZ6 supports 
real-time, fully texture-mapped, photo-re- 
alistic model walk-throughs. Other 3-D 
accelerators in this series include the GLZ3 
through GLZ6. All GLZ boards are fully 



SEPTEMBER 1995 BYTK 243 



REVIEWS 



3-D Graphics Go Zoom 



TDZ^40 ....$23,850 

(with two 100-MHz Pentiums, (34 /W&af 
RAM, 2-GB hard drive, 21-inch monitor) 
Intergraph Computer Sys'tems 
Huntsville, AL 
(800) 763-0242 
(205) 730-5441 
http://www.intergraph.com 
Circle 1150 on Inquiry Card. 



compliant with OpenGL and MOGLE and 
have built-in VGA support. 

Prices for TDZ workstations, all with 
GLZ 3-D acceleration, start at $9900 for a 
single-Pentium TDZ-30 system (less mon- 
itor) and climb to $136,800 for the six- 
Pentium TDZ-60DS with GLZ6 accelera- 
tor, a 3- by 2-GB RAID system, 256 MB 
of system RAM, and 27-inch InterVue dis- 
play monitor. Our test system — a 100- 
MHz dual-Pentium TDZ-40, configured 
with the GLZ2 accelerator, 64 MB of 
RAM, 2-GB hard drive, and superb Inter- 
Vue 21-inch monitor—costs $23,850. TDZ 
workstations ship with a quad-speed CD- 
ROM drive and a keyboard with built-in 
microphone and Altec Lansing speakers. 

3-D Performance 

Several factors affect 3-D graphics per- 
formance: the host CPU and system bus, 
operating system, 3-D API, and an appli- 
cation's ability to perform multithreaded 
and multiprocessing operations. As a PCI- 
based system, Intergraph' s TDZ-40 made 
a good base for testing the 3Demon card; 
it eliminated many of these variables. We 
compared the 3Demon to the TDZ-40' s 
own GLZ2 adapter, also a PCI card, under 
Windows NT Workstation 3.5, with both 
MOGLE- and OpenGL-based benchmarks. 

We also compared the 3Demon with a 
Matrox Millennium card, both running in 
the same Micron 120-MHz Pentium sys- 
tem. Though the Millennium accelerates 3- 
D, it didn't yet have OpenGL drivers and 
thus represents a very fast 2-D graphics 
accelerator for comparison purposes. 

To test OpenGL 3-D performance, we 
used the Viewpeif benchmark, developed 
by the OpenGL Performance Characteri- 
zation Committee. It gauges 3-D perfor- 
mance with lines, solids, shaded solids, 
and textures. We tested both cards at res- 
olutions of 640 by 480 pixels and then 
1024 by 768 pixels with 24-bit color. We 
also tested static model rendering with 
MOGLE using MicroStation v5.00.95 and 
two 3-D DGN files ("bearing cutaway" 
and "pool architectural" drawings). The 
MicroStation command functions tested 
on both adapters consisted of wire mesh, 
hidden line, filled hidden line, and con- 



3DemonSX48 .$2385 

(4 MB of VRAM, 8 MB of DRAM) 
Omnicomp Graphics Corp. 
Houston, TX 
(713) 464-2990 
fax: (713) 827-7540 
omnicmp@phoenix.phoenix.com 
http://phoenix.phoenix.net:80/~omnicmp 
Circle 1151 on Inquiry Card. 




stant and smooth shading renders. 

To put the 3-D performance of these 
products in perspective, the 3Demon board 
in its 12-bit color mode ran the Viewperf 
tests three to four times faster than the Ma- 
trox Millennium in its 8-bit mode at both 
640 by 480 pixels and 1024 by 768 pixels. 
With both cards using 24-bit color, the 
3Demon was only one-third to two times 
faster at a resolution of 640 by 480. At 
1024 by 768, the 3Demon's 4 MB of 
VRAM wasn't enough to double buffer, 
and the two cards produced almost identi- 
cal Viewperf results. For rotating and an- 
imating shaded models at a resolution of 
1024 by 768 (or higher) with 24-bit color, 
you should consider the 
3DemonSX88orSX816, 
which have more VRAM. 

Just as the 3Demon beat 
the Millennium, the Inter- 
graph GLZ2 beat the 3De- 
mon with both boards run- 
ning Viewperf in the 
TDZ-40— at least during 
most tests. In 12-bit color 
mode, the3Demon speeded 
up and averaged roughly 
the same as the GLZ2 (al- 
ways in 24-bit mode), but 
that ' s a n unfair comparison. 

The size and complexity 
of the MOGLE pool model 
made real-time Gouraud- 
shaded walk-throughs im- 
possible on the SX48, 
though wireframe-mode 
pans and zooms were fluid. 
The GLZ2 was only 20 per- 
cent to 50 percent faster 
than the SX48 when first 
running the MOGLE 
tests. However, on 
second runs, with 
display-list caching 
in its spacious RAM, 
the GLZ2 ran an 
amazing three to ten 
times faster than the 
SX48 with the 
MOGLE pool 
model. 

During model-ro- 



tation and walk-through tests, the GLZ2, 
like the SX48, showed motion lags in the 
more complex pool model when doing 
Gouraud-shaded pans and zooms. But in 
wireframe and flat shaded modes, motion 
was fluid. Rotations of the MOGLE bear- 
ing-cutaway model at both resolutions and 
using Gouraud shading were less jerky 
with the GLZ2 than with the SX48. With 
the GLZ2, rotations were as smooth as 
glass in wireframe and flat shaded modes. 
Though a bit pricey, an Intergraph TDZ 
workstation with GLZ acceleration tech- 
nology is the top professional 3-D solu- 
tion if you want the software compatibili- 
ty provided by an Intel-based system. For 
budget-conscious people running existing 
3-D applications on a PCI-based system, 
Omnicomp's 3Demon add-in boards are 
an excellent low-cost solution. ■ 

Greg Loverici writes and consults on anima- 
tion and 3-D graphics from Binghamton, 
New York. You can reach him on the Internet 
at gloveria@spectra.net or loveria@bix.com. 



A Whole Lotta Buffers 

While a single smart processor like the Glint 300SX 
can speed up 3-D rendering substantially, there's no 
substitute for lots of buffer space. Like other Inter- 
graph GLZ adapters, the 24-MB GLZ2 employs a 
220-bit-wide memory bus to service 92 video planes 
consisting of two 24-bit RGB buffers (double buffer- 
ing for smooth animation) and one 24-bit 
Z-buffer that caches depth information. Masking, 
overlay, and image window-control bits account 
for the remaining 20 video planes. 

The GLZ2 uses four custom proprietary Intergraph 
ASIC subsystems for 2-D and 3-D graphics accelera- 
tion. The DMA Engine is the main graphics accelera- 
tion processor; according to Intergraph, it touts 3-D 
speeds of up to 450,000 Gouraud-shaded triangles 
per second. The PCI/DMA ASIC controls vertex data 
flow (the vertices of surface polygons) up to burst 
speeds of 4 MBps to and from the PCI bus and the 
GLZ2's 24 MB of VRAM to the FIFO chip subsystem. 
The four-ASIC Resolver 
subsystem controls 
RGBA (RGB and Alpha 
channel) pixel and Z- 
data I/O to the frame 
buffer. A 256-bit-wide 
Analog Devices 
ADV7160DAC handles 
color conversion. 




Omnicomp's 

mon SX48 provides 

iat acceleration with 

ii OpenGL, but the 

TDZ-40's GLZ2 subsystem (pictured) is faster still. 

The SX48 keeps up only in its 12-bit color mode, 

which isn't a fair comparison. 



244 BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 




Increase the processing speed of your 
SPARC S workstations or servers and you get 
more work done in the course of the day — 
simple, right? 

Unfortunately, the decision about how to 
increase your workstation's or server's 
processing speed usually complicates matters. 
Until now, that is. ROSS Technology proudly 
announces the 125 MHz hyperSPARC™ Upgrade, 
available in single, dual and quad processor 
configurations. These Upgrades improve the 
performance and add multiprocessing 
capability to SPARCstation'" 10, SPARCstation 20 
and SPARCserver'" 630/670/690 machines. 

Not only are ROSS SPARC Upgrade proces- 
sors the fastest on the market, they are a risk- 
free way to upgrade your workstation and 
server performance. ROSS is the original source 
of Sun's multiprocessors, and we are currently 
powering Sun's highest-performance desktop 
workstations. 



How Fast? Way Fast. At ROSS we say, 
"When in doubt, check the data." Compare 
ROSS' numbers with the performance of major 
high-end SPARC microprocessors, as reported 
by Dataquest: 



SPECint 92 


SPECf p 92 


hyperSPARC 125 MHz 


133 


154 


MIPS 175 MHz 


130 


100 


Alpha 166 MHz 


108 


135 


superSPARC 75 MHz 


126 


121 


microSPARC-I1 100 MHz 


75 


65 



Think about what this means for your 
business. You can extend the useful life of your 
machines for minimal cost. You'll see 
performance increases in the range of two to 
five times current processing speed, while 
leaving the chassis, memory, disk and 
peripherals intact. Our hyperSPARC Upgrades 
feature compact multi-die packaging, which 



allows each MBus slot to contain up to two 
processors; they take less than 30 minutes 
to install. 

Most importantly, ROSS will continue to 
produce Upgrades that keep your SPARC 
workstations and servers on the blazing edge. 
Call your ROSS representative today to get 
more details on hyperSPARC multiprocessing, 
or send e-mail to ross_infoa)ross.com. 

1-800-774-ROSS 
http://www.ross.com 




ROSS Technology, Inc. 

5316 Hwy.290 W., Austin, TX 78735 

1-800-774-ROSS in U.S. • 512-919-5207 Global 

512-919-5200 Fax 



©1995 ROSS Technology. All rights reserved. All SPARC trademarks are trademarks or registered trademarks of SPARC International, Inc. hyperSPARC is licensed exclusively to ROSS Technology, Inc 

SPARCstation and SPARCserver are licensed exclusively to Sun Microsystems, Inc. Products bearing SPARC trademarks are based upon architecture developed by Sun Microsystems, [nc 

All other product or service names mentioned herein are trademarks of their respective owners. 

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HANDS-ON TESTING 



Fast, Reliable 
RAID Subsystems 

If network server downtime has you singing the blues, 
the disk array subsystems tested here will keep you and 




your organization up and running 



MICHELE GUY 



Your organization's network file server 
dies. Day-to-day operations are para- 
lyzed. What do you do? This scenario 
occurs more and more frequently in 
today's office environments. However, 
the trends in computer use (e.g., central- 
izing data and applications on file servers and down- 
sizing from mainframes to PC-size servers) mean 
that more companies are no longer tolerating server 
downtime — they want a solution. We tested 16 fast 
and reliable disk array subsystems that deliver multi- 
gigabyte storage and 
ensure that the data on 
your file server is 
always available. The 
price for this kind of in- 
surance starts at about 
$10,000. 

The disk arrays we 
tested employ a data 
storage technology 
called RAID (redundant 
array of independent 
disks). RAID addresses 
three key aspects of disk 
storage: (1) capacity, (2) 
speed, and (3) reli- 
ability. A disk array 
connects multiple small- 
er-capacity drives into 
a device that can appear 
to an OS as a large, sin- 



gle logical drive. The overall speed is better on these 
drives than on a large single drive because the heads 
on the smaller-capacity drives travel a shorter dis- 
tance to perform read/write operations, and multiple 
drives support multiple simultaneous read/writes. 
RAID controller hardware provides data redundancy 
to improve reliability, either with a second mirrored 
copy of the original data or through various parity 
schemes; this allows a RAID array to continue to 
operate if one drive fails. (Unlike most other com- 
ponents in a computer, fixed drives contain moving 



How to use this guide 



We selected the best disk array subsystems by evaluating speed, features, and 
usability. 



I 1JII.\ I ]1M II Digital StorageWorks RAID Array 230 
i nif ii l t f i in subsystem 



The Digital StorageWorks RAID Array 230 Subsystem was Ute 
this category. Its tost performance and wide range of features, including 
redundant and hol-swappable drives, power supplies, fans, a sixth drive for 
a hot spare, and a write cache with battery backup, placed It well above the 
other subsystems. Its Online Management Utility lor Windows NT provides 
enact and readable status during a drive failure and rebullrJoperstion. 



m 



The Overall Score 
combines a 
product's 
weighted scores 
for performance 
(i.e., speed), 
features, and 
usability. 
Performance 
counted for half of 
the overall score; 
features and 
usability each was 
one-fourth of the 
overall score. 



We evaluated the disk arrays on their features (e.g., 
warranty length and coverage), numberof redundant and 
hot-swappable components, support for a hot spare drive, 
and alarm types. 




DEC Slora3eWoiksRAIDAiray230 S12.183 

Mega Drive EnterpnseE-8 PCI 

Sfcxase Selirtws RacaRay CM2- S13.595 

Cor\nerCR!2.RAID 

Winchester Systems FlastiDsk SCSI 




Usability was 
judged on the 
quality of 
documentation, 
ease of 

configuration, and 
the ease with 
which the array 
was able to 
recover from a 
single drive failure. 

Relative speed on 
a scale of 1 to 10 
in a single-thread 
and a multithread 
environment. 



Relative overall speed on a 
scale of 1 to 10. 



248 BYTE/NSTL LAB REPORT SEPTEMBER 1995 



PHOTOGRAPHY: STEVE BELKOW1TZ ©1995 



A Pillar of Reliability 



E2D 



BEST 



REDUNDANT 
POWER 
SUPPLIES 
Self-contained 
units that 
supply power to 
the array. If 
one fails, the 
other will keep 
the array 
going. 



REDUNDANT FANS 
Self-contained units that cool 
the array. If one fails, the 
other will keep operating. 




INTERFACE 
CONNECTION TO 
THE HOST 
On most of the 
units, this is a 
SCSI-2 Fast/Wide 
68-pin female 
connection on the 
back of the RAID 
enclosure. 



SCSI BACKPLANE 
Each drive connects to 
this when installed in the 
RAID enclosure. 



ENCLOSURE KEYLOCK 
Depending on the design, the RAID cabinet 
keylock prevents entry either to just the 
drives or to the drives and other 
components (e.g., power supplies and fans). 



FRONT-PANEL DISPLAY 
AND KEYPAD 
Depending on the 
manufacturer, a keypad 
with LEDs can give the 
current status of the 
array and let you 
configure the array and 
perform maintenance 
(e.g., a rebuild). 



DRIVES IN 
INDIVIDUAL DRIVE 
SHUTTLES 
We tested arrays 
with five half -height 
(3%-inch form 
factor) SCSI drives 
of 2-GB capacity 
each. Arrays are 
designed to let you 
easily install and 
remove drives. 



INDIVIDUAL DRIVE KEYLOCKS 
Some models prevent 
unintended drive removal with 
a keylock for each drive; 
typically, the keylock must be 
in the locked position for the 
drive to operate. 



BEST OVERALL 

Digital StorageWorks RAID 
Array 230 Subsystem 

The Digital StorageWorks RAID 
Array 230 Subsystem has it ati — 
superior speed and features at a 
reasonable price. Its sieek 
enclosure houses redundant and 
hot-swappable disks, power 
supplies and fans, and a battery- 
secured write cache. It also 
supports a hot spare drive. 
PAGE 250 



BEST FOR DATABASE 
SERVERS 

Digital StorageWorks RAID 
Array 230 Subsystem 

The StorageWorks RAID Array 230 
Subsystem outperformed the 
competition in handling 
transactions typical in a database 
server environment. 
PAGE 252 

BEST FOR AUDIO/ 
VIDEOSERVERS 

Digital StorageWorks RAID 
Array 230 Subsystem 

When it came to our audio/video 
benchmarks, the StorageWorks 
RAID Array 230 Subsystem was 
only the third-fastest subsystem, 
but its features and usability put it 
over the top once again. 
PAGE 256 



parts that make them more susceptible to failure). 

RAID was originally defined as having five different 
levels. Each level addresses the issue of data redun- 
dancy in a different way. RAID level 1 , which mirrors 
data, and RAID 3 and 5, which store parity information 
(also known as ECCs, or error-correction codes), are the 
most commonly used RAID implementations (for more 
on RAID level definitions, see the text box "On the 
Levels" on page 259). 

We configured the arrays in our test to use RAID 5, 
which gives you a reasonable trade-off between cost 
and performance. RAID 5 distributes data and ECCs 
across the entire array (see the text box "How Error 
Correction Works" on page 250). RAID 1 offers faster 
performance but at a higher per-megabyte price, because 
half of the total storage space is sacrificed to the mir- 
rored data. On a typical five-drive RAID 5 array, parity 
information takes up only about 20 percent of total 
storage space. However, some performance is sacri- 
ficed because writes to disk must also include an addi- 



tional operation to update parity information. 

When RAID was first conceived at the University 
of California at Berkeley in 1 987, the I in RAID stood 
for inexpensive. One of the original motivating forces 
for the RAID developers was to create the most storage 
for the lowest cost. They found it was cheaper to string 
several small-capacity drives together than it was to 
use a single, large expensive drive. Today, companies 
are more likely to use disk arrays for their redundancy 
features than to achieve cost savings. Large-capacity 
drives are no longer necessarily more expensive than an 
array made up of smaller-capacity drives. As the price- 
per-megabyte of disk storage continues to fall due to 
ever-cheaper drives, more users may find a RAID 1 
mirrored drive configuration as economical as a RAID 
3 or a RAID 5 solution. Another trend may make the 
focus on RAID levels less crucial. So-called adaptive 
RAID controllers that dynamically select the best RAID 
level, using whichever level is optimal for a given set of 
data, may soon be available. 



ILLUSTRATION: BRUCE SANDERS © 1995 



SEPTEMBER 1995 BYTE/NSTL EAB REPORT 249 



BEST OVERALL 



DISK ARRAYS 



E 



ach of the 16 disk ar- 
rays we tested, with a 
I few minor exceptions, 
I consisted of a case 
enclosing an array of five half- 
height 2-GB drives, an array 
controller board or compara- 
ble hardware, a power supply 
and fan, and a configuration 
utility and LCD panel that lets 
you select the RAID level and 
make other array configuration 
selections. Most products pro- 
vided some additional level of 
hardware redundancy, such as 
a sixth drive to be used as a hot 




From left: Winchester Systems' Flash Disk, Mega Drive's Enterprise, Conner's 
CR12-RAID, Storage Solutions' Raca-Ray, and Digital's StorageWorks. 



spare, a second power supply, fan, controller, or some com- 
bination of these. All these arrays were designed to survive a 
single-drive failure. 

For RAID 5 testing, we connected each array to a file server 
running Microsoft Windows NT 3.5 and formatted the array 
as one large drive (the formatted capacity of these arrays 
averaged about 8 GB). We ran a series of automated low- 
level disk tests that were designed to simulate the real-world 
conditions found on a typical disk subsystem connected to a 
PC file server. 



The Best Overall winneris 
Digital Equipment's Stor- 
ageWorks RAID Array 230 
Subsystem. The Storage- 
Works h a d t h e fastest perf or- 
mance and the widest range 
of features, including redun- 
dant and hot-swappable 
drives, power supplies, fans, 
a drive for a hot spare, and a 
write cache with battery 
backup. The three-channel 
controller is designed to install 
in a PCI-based file server and 
can support two additional 
enclosures for up to 90.3 GB 



of storage. The Storage Works' Online Management Utility for 
NT does a good job of giving you an exact and readable status 
during a drive failure and rebuild operation. The StorageWorks 
is also one of the least-expensive units we tested. 

The second- and third-ranked products from Mega Drive 
and Storage Solutions, respectively, had virtually identical 
overall scores. Of the two, the Storage Solutions' Raca-Ray 
CM2+ was faster and had the best multithread performance 
score of any array we tested. The Raca-Ray' s speed comes in 
a not-so-glamorous package; its drives sit in open, trackless 



HOW ERROR CORRECTION WORKS 



RAID 5 uses a technique that (1) writes a block of data across 
several disks (i.e., striping), (2) calculates a code from this data 
and stores the code on another disk (i.e., parity), and (3) in the 
event of a single-disk failure, uses the data on the working 
drives and the calculated code to "interpolate" what the miss- 
ing data should be (i.e., rebuilding). A RAID 5 array "rotates" 
data and parity among all the drives on the array, in contrast 
with RAID 3, which stores all calculated parity values on one 
particular drive. The following is a simplified explanation of how 
RAID 5 calculates ECCs (error-correction codes), 
Say, for example, that you have a five-drive 
array on which you intend to store four values: The 
numbers 172, 106, 240, and 156. For the pur- 
pose of this example, the RAID controller stores 
the value 172 as the binary number 10101100 on 
disk 1 of the array, the value 106 as the binary 
number 01101010 on disk 2, and so on as shown 
in the table "Error Detection: Bit by Bit" at right. 
When our four values have been written to disks 
1 through 4, the RAID controller examines the 
sum of each bit position. If the sum of the num- 
bers of bit position x on disks 1 through 4 is an 
odd number, then the value of that bit posi- 
tion on disk 5 is assigned a 1; if the sum is an 



even number, the bit position on disk 5 is assigned a 0. 

Now assume that disk 2 fails. The RAID controller can no 
longer seethe value at bit 7 on disk 2. However, the controller 
knows that its value can be only a or a 1. And as disks 1, 3, 
4, and 5 are still operating, the controller can perform the 
following calculation: 1 + ? + 1 + 1 = an odd number. Since 1 
+ (0) + 1 + 1 = an odd number (3), the missing value on disk 
2 must be 0. The RAID controller then performs the same cal- 
culation for the remaining bit positions. In this way, data miss- 





ingdu 


etoa 


drive 1 


Failure is 


rebuilt 










ERROR DETECTION 


: BIT BY BIT 














A RAID controller examines the sum of each bit position to assign an even or ar 


odd number to 


disk 5. If 


a disk fails, it assigns a 


or a 1 to the missing value and performs a 


simple 


calcula- 


tion. It repeats this process across each bit position, rebuilding the data as it goes. 






CONTENTS 




















ON DISK: 


BIT 7 


BIT 6 


BIT 5 


BIT 4 


BIT 3 


BIT 2 


BIT1 


BITO 


Disk 1 


172 


1 





1 





1 


1 








Disk 2 


106 





1 


1 





1 





1 





Disk3 


240 


1 


1 


1 


1 














Disk 4 


156 


1 





1 


1 


1 


1 








Sum 




odd 


even 


even 


even 


odd 


even 


odd 


even 


Disk 5 (parity) 


1 











1 





1 






250 BYTE/NSTL 



.AB REPORT SEPTEMBER 1995 



bays, making them somewhat 
awkward to put in and pull out. 
The Raca-Ray does not sup- 
port a spare drive, but it does 
have a user-friendly monitor- 
ing utility called Raca-Lert for 
Windows (see "Honorable 
Mentions" on page 259). You 
can also expand this product to 
a three-rank unit for a total of 
15 drives. 

The Enterprise E-8 PCI 
from Mega Drive Systems is 
an attractively priced unit with 
good performance, features, 
and usability. The Enterprise 
is designed to let you mix and 
match different types of stor- 
age media, including half- and 
full-height drives, half-height 
optical drives, and half-height 
DAT (digital audiotape) mod- 
ules. (Mega Drive reports that 
a popular configuration with 
its customers is an array with 
two mirrored full-height 9-GB 
drives.) The Enterprise has a 
dual-channel Mylex PCI con- 
troller with an HRI (Hardware 
RAID Controller Interface), 
which reports fan and power- 
supply failures to the file 
server. Our one complaint was 
due to the flimsiness of the 
door on the Enterprise's drive 
bays. Because the door dou- 
bles as drive tracks when you 
push the drives into the enclo- 
sure, its design sometimes 
made it difficult for us to seat 
drives properly. According to 
a company representative, 
Mega Drive has already re- 
tooled to correct 
this glitch. 

Placing fourth 
and fifth, with 
nearly identical 
overall scores, 
were the CR12- 
RAID by Con- 
ner Storage Sys- 
tems and the 
FlashDisk SCSI 
by Winchester 
Systems. The 
CR12-RAID 
uses a dual-channel controller, 
supports redundant hot-swap- 
pable drives, power supplies, 
and fans, and can be config- 
ured with up to 12 drives. It 
also has graphical monitoring 
utilities for NT and NetWare 
and a five-year warranty on 
both its drives and subsystem. 



BYTE BEST 



DISK ARRAYS 




In a class all its own ... 



BEST OVERALL 



Digital StorageWorks RAID Array 230 
Subsystem 



^_*3 The Digital StorageWorks RAID Array 230 Subsystem was the clear winner in 
e§§S~^TiA this category. Its fast performance and wide range o f features, including 
\*ju£j^ redundant and hot-swappable drives, power supplies, fans, a sixth drive for 
^PSS^R a hot spare, and a write cache with battery backup, placed it well above the 
*^* other subsystems. Its Online Management Utility for Windows NT provides 

an exact and readable status during a drive failure and rebuild operation. 




OVERALL 



PERFORMANCE INDEX 



BEST DEC StorageWorks RAID Array 230 

RUNNER-UP Mega Drive Enterprise E-8 PCI 

RUNNER-UP Storage Solutions Raca-Ray CM2+ 

RUNNER-UP Conner CR12-RAID 

RUNNER-UP Winchester Systems FlashDisk SCSI $19,737 





EVALUATION 








SINGLE- 


MULTI- 


PRICE 


SCORE 


FEATURES 


USABILITY 


OVERALL 


THREAD 


THREAD 


$12,183 


7.97 


AAAA 


AAAA 


7.61 


7.77 


7.45 


$11,900 


7.06 


AAA 


AAAA 


6.28 


7.60 


4.96 


$13,595 


7.05 


AA 


AAA 


7.17 


6.08 


8.26 


$16,593 


6.56 


AAA 


AAA 


5.47 


4.69 


6.26 


$19,737 


6.55 


AAA 


AA 


6.18 


6.11 


6.26 



Riding high on vaiwMG 



LOW-COST 




Digital StorageWorks RAID Array 230 Subsystem 

With its test-configuration price of $12,183, the Digital StorageWorks RAID Array 230 
Subsystem is an excellent value. For this price, you get five drives and a sixth spare drive, a 
second power supply and fan, battery-protected write cache, monitoring utilities for Windows 
NT and NetWare, a one-year on-site warranty and a five-year warranty on the disk drives. 
Offering many of the same features is the $11,900 Mega Drive Enterprise E-8 PCI. The 
Enterprise has a standard two-year warranty and comes shipped with a DAT (digital 
audiotape) drive module in addition to its five-drive array and one spare drive. 



BEST DEC StorageWorks RAID Array 230 

RUNNER-UP Mega Drive Enterprise E-8 PCI 

RUNNER-UP Procom LANForce-5 

RUNNER-UP Raidtec FlexArray FX 

RUNNER-UP DPT SmartRAID Subsystem 





OVERALL 
EVALUATION 








PERF0RMANC 


E INDEX 






SINGLE- 


MULTI- 


PRICE 


SCORE 


FEATURES 


USABILITY 


OVERALL 


THREAD 


THREAD 


$12,183 


7.97 


▲▲▲▲ 


AAAA 


7.61 


7.77 


7.45 


$11,900 


7.06 


▲▲▲ 


AAAA 


6.28 


7.60 


4.96 


$10,255 


5.97 


▲▲▲ 


AAAA 


3.91 


4.67 


3.15 


$11,195 


5.61 


A 


AAAA 


4.24 


4.34 


4.14 


$12,615 


4.94 


AA 


AAAA 


2.08 


2.59 


1.57 



The Winchester FlashDisk 
SCSI offered better overall per- 
formance than the CR1 2-RAID 
but is priced considerably 
higher than the other top five 
subsystems. The FlashDisk is 
sold in configurations with up 
to 1 28 GB of storage capacity. 
If you're on a budget, two 
of our previously mentioned 
winners — the Digital Storage- 
Works and the Mega Drive 
Enterprise — are priced a I under 
$13,000. At $10,255, Procom 
Technology's LANForce-5 
was the lowest-priced unit 
tested here. The LANForce-5 
offers full redundancy and hot- 
swapping components — drives, 
power supplies, fans, and con- 
trollers, as well as a sixth drive 
for a hot spare — but its perfor- 



mance was below average. The 
company reports that a new 
high-performance controller 
will be available for this prod- 
uct this summer. 

In analyzing the perfor- 
mance of these subsystems, it's 
apparent that RAID controllers 
play a major role. Three of the 
top-ranked arrays — Digital, 
Mega Drive, and Conner — use 
various models of controller 
from Mylex. It's interesting to 
note that write-caching didn't 
determine who made our top- 
five list. As neither the Raca- 
Ray nor the CR1 2-RAID had 
battery backups, their perfor- 
mance scores were based on 
their "write-cache off results, 
and both still made the grade. 
As for reliability, participating 



KEY 

Ratings from lto 4: A is the lowest; 
AAAA is the highest. 



vendors quoted the MTBF 
(mean time between failures) 
of the individual drives in these 
arrays as ranging from 500,000 
to 1,000,000 hours. All the 
arrays we tested successfully 
withstood a simulated single- 
drive failure. Our tests did not 
measure the relative drop in 
performance that these arrays 
would experience while in 
rebuild mode (also known as 
degraded mode). On many 
arrays, when configuring the 
array, you can determine the 
rate of rebuild; the faster the 
rebuild, the more current server 
performance is slowed. 



SEPTEMBER 1995 BYTE/NSTL LAB REPORT 251 



Best for Database Servers 



Database servers are the computer workhorses of many 
organizations. Whether you're running an order-entry 
application in a manufacturing facility or trying to do 
inventory control for a supermarket, you need disk stor- 
age that's big, fast, and reliable. 

We analyzed our benchmark scores to determine which of 
the 16 products tested perform best when connected to a database 
server. Our benchmark recorded the minimum, maximum, and 
average time it took to perform random and sequential reads 
and writes at various points in the array. Using the average 
times, we calculated scores that reflect how fast the disk arrays 
performed relative to one another. Our tests simulate two types 
of environments: single-thread and multithread, which approx- 
imate single- and multiuser workloads. When calculating scores, 




Digital StorageWorks RAID 
Array 230 Subsystem 



TOP 



DIGITAL STORAGEWORKS RAID ARRAY 230 SUBSYSTEM 

The Digital StorageWorks RAID Array 230 Subsystem was fastest in tests that simulate a database 
environment. The StorageWorks' performance was the best of the arrays in our single-task tests 
and second-best in our multitasking tests. The Raca-Ray CM2+ from Storage Solutions was the 
fastest array at handling multiple processes, but it ranked fifth in single-task speed. 



DEC StorageWorks RAID Array 230 

Storage Solutions Raca-Ray CM2+ 

Mega Drive Enterprise E-8 PCI 

StorageTek Nordique Open Storage Facility 

Winchester Systems Flash Disk SCSI 

Key: Ratings from 1 to 4: A is the lowest; ▲▲▲▲ is the highest. 





OVERALL 
EVALUATION 




PERFORMANCE INDEX 






SINGLE- 


MULTI- 


PRICE 


SCORE 


FEATURES 


USABILITY 


OVERALL 


THREAD 


THREAD 


$12,183 


8.62 


▲▲▲▲ 


AAAA 


8.91 


8.76 


9.06 


$13,595 


7.36 


▲▲ 


AAA 


7.78 


5.91 


9.66 


$11,900 


7.34 


▲▲▲ 


AAAA 


6.83 


8.41 


5.26 


$27,000 


6.82 


▲▲▲▲ 


AAAA 


5.17 


4.78 


5.56 


$19,737 


6.81 


▲AA 


AA 


6.72 


6.64 


6.79 



we gave more weight to sequential opera- 
tions than to random ones to reflect the 

importance of such tasks as reading in a 

large data file or loading an executable file. 
Digital Equipment's StorageWorks 

RAID Array 230 Subsystem had the best 

overall performance and the best single- 
thread performance in this category. Storage 

Solutions' Raca-Ray and the Mega Drive 

Enterprise came in second and third, 

respectively. On nearly every multithread 

task, the Raca-Ray's score was the fastest. 

As in its overall score, the Enterprise handled single-thread 

tasks much better than multithread ones. 

In fourth place was the Nordique Open 
Storage Facility by StorageTek Distrib- 
uted Systems. The Nordique is sold as a 
stand-alone or as a component of the 
Nordique 9100, a modular RAID 5 sys- 
tem for users downsizing from a main- 
frame to a Unix or PC network. The 
Nordique was the slowest and most 
expensive subsystem of the top five, but 
its features and usability allowed it to 
edge out the faster Winchester FlaskDisk 
SCSI. Data is protected by redundant and 
hot-swappable drives, power supplies, 
fans, and controllers. The Nordique also 
offers battery backup and support for a 
hot spare. 



FILE SERVERS WITH RAID 

K you're in the market for a new file server and a disk array, you might 
consider a file server with a built-in array. We looked at two: the AST 
Manhattan P Series 5090 and the Compaq ProLiant 2000 M4200A. 

The AST Research ((714) 727-4141) Manhattan is a 90-MHz 
Pentium EISA/PCI (peripheral component interconnect) bus server 
that uses the DPT SmartRAID PM3224 PCI controller. The DPT 
controller has a graphical configuration utility called Storage Man- 
ager, which also handles event logging and user notification of 
error conditions. The AST Manhattan ships with Percepta, a server 
manager and monitoring utility for Windows NT or NetWare. The 
status of the disk array can be monitored from Percepta, which 
uses SNMP traps to hook DPT's Storage Manager. SmartRAID sup- 
ports RAID 0, 1, and 5, a maximum cache of 64 MB, and hot swap- 
ping of drives. The AST Manhattan we tested was shipped with five 
2-GB Quantum Empire Series 2100S hard drives and a CD-ROM 
drive. The price of the tested unit is $15,396. 

The Compaq Computer ((713) 374-0484) ProLiant has dual Pen- 
tium 90-MHz CPUs and an EISA/PCI bus, and it uses the Compaq 
Smart SCSI Array Controller. Our test unit had five 2.1-GB Conner 
C2490A drives, which can be accessed from the server's front 
door, and a CD-ROM drive. The front door has an internal temper- 
ature monitor and a keylock for security. Drives are hot-pluggable, 
and the system supports seven half-height drives for a total of 14.7 



GB. The array is configured via SmartStart, Compaq's CD-ROM- 
based configuration utility. The price of the unit we tested is $24,880 
(the Compaq 1024 monitor is priced separately at $369). 

We configured the disk system in each file server as a RAID 5 array 
of three 2-GB drives and installed Windows NT 3.5 on one of the 
remaining 2-GB drives as a boot drive. We ran our performance 
benchmarks on the file servers to determine how they performed rel- 
ative to one another. 

In the configuration tested, the Compaq ProLiant was consis- 
tently faster than the AST Manhattan. Had the ProLiant been tested 
with the subsystems, it would have ranked approximately sixth in 
overall performance and about fourth in database performance, 
but it was composed of three instead of five drives. 



File Server Performance 



Audio/Video 
score 



Database 
score 



Overall 
score 






12 3 4 5 6 7 

□ Compaq ProLiant 2000 (T~] AST Manhattan 



We ran our 
performance tests 
on the file servers 
to determine how 
they performed 
relative to one 
another. 



252 BYTE/NSTL I^AB REPORT SEPTEMBER 1995 






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All other brand and company/product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies. 



Panasonic 

Communications & Systems Company 



Circle 79 on Inquiry Card. 



How We Tested 



We invited each vendor to sup- 
ply a disk array subsystem 
with five drives that have a 
total capacity of 10 to 12 GB, 
configured as a RAID 5 array. Although 
it wasn't required of them, some ven- 
dors also supplied a sixth drive to act as 
a hot spare. We specified that the sub- 
system's interface to the host be SCSI-2 
Fast/Wide. Of the 16 products tested, 10 
had RAID controllers built into their 
enclosures; eight of these products sup- 
ported a SCSI-2 Fast/Wide single-ended 
termination and the other two supported 
differential termination. To connect the 
single-ended subsystems, we installed 
an Adaptec AHA-2940W PCI-to-Wide 
SCSI adapter in our test file server. To 
connect the differential products, we 
installed an NCR 825 ID PCI SCSI 
adapter. The remaining six arrays 
shipped with their own RAID controller 
boards, which doubled as host adapters 
for these products. 

We used a Dell PowerEdge SP590-2 
system as our file server. The PowerEdge 
is a Pentium 90-MHz-based EISA server 
with two PCI (peripheral component 
interconnect) slots. Microsoft Windows 
NT 3.5 Workstation was installed on the 
boot drive of the Dell. We evaluated each 
product's performance, usability, and 
features, and the test results were weight- 
ed as follows: 50 percent, 25 percent, 
and 25 percent, respectively. 

PERFORMANCE 

We connected each disk array we were 
testing to the file server using the 
appropriate host adapter. We then for- 
matted the array under NT as a single 
drive using the NTFS (NT File System) 
format. We ran a suite of performance 
tests under NT with the array's write- 
back cache off and then on (if both states 
were supported and could be toggled by 
the end user). 

The performance suite simulates tasks 
that a disk array subsystem would per- 
form in a real-world environment. 
Random and sequential reads and writes 
of 4-, 16-, and 64-KB blocks were per- 
formed at different locations on the array 
in a single-thread and a multithread 
environment. Except for the tests that 
read or wrote over the disk array, we set 
the number of blocks per segment so that 
the total size of the region under test was 
128MB. 



PERFORMANCE 
SCORING 

We recorded test results as the average, 
minimum, and maximum time (in sec- 
onds) required to complete each test. The 
average and maximum times gave per- 
formance scores; minimum times were 
for reference only. A product's score is 
relative to how it performed compared 
to the other products. Each product's 
Best for Database Servers score is a 
weighted average of the single-thread 
and multithread "average" recorded 
times. The Best for Audio/Video score is 
a weighted average of the single-thread 
and multithread "maximum" recorded 
times. The Best Overall score is an 
average of the database and audio/video 
scores. We used a product's "cache-on" 
times if the product was supplied with a 
battery-secured write cache; otherwise, 
we used the "cache-off times. 

FEATURES 

We evaluated each product on its cost 
per MB of storage, warranty length and 



coverage, redundant and hot-swappabJe 
components, as well as alarms, security 
features, and maximum storage capacity. 

USABILITY 

We evaluated each product's ease of set- 
up and configuration and the complete- 
ness and clarity of the user's manuals. 
We simulated a single-drive failure, ver- 
ified that the file server could continue to 
operate normally, and evaluated the ease 
of performing a rebuild of the array. 

Contributors 

Michele Guy, Project Manager/ NSTL, has been 

testing hardware and software products for NSTL for 
the past four years. 

Kathleen Bishop, R&D/NSTL, has eight years of 

fi&D experience in the computer industry. 
Bruce Levy, Ph.D., Manager, R&D/NSTL. 

The Lab Report is an ongoing collaborative project 
between BYTE magazine and National Software Testing 
Laboratories (NSTL). BYTE magazine and NSTL are both 
operating units of McGraw-Hill. Inc. Contact the NSTL 
staff on the Internet at editors@nstl.com or by phone at 
(6 JO) 941-9600. Contact BYTE on the Internet or BIX at 
editors@bix.com or at (603) 924-2624. 



RAID ADVISORY BOARD 



The RAID Advisory Board is an organization dedicated to advancing the use and 
awareness of RAID and associated storage technologies. Started in 1992, RAB states 
its main goals as education, standardization, and certification. 

As a forum for discussion on developments in the storage-technology industries, RAB 
recently sponsored RAID '95, a conference held in San Jose, California. During the four- 
day event, attendees could take a course on RAID basics, learn about the latest busi- 
ness and technical issues, and hear discussions about pre- 
dicted future trends. Among the conference speakers was 
Garth Gibson, one of the three original researchers responsible 
for proposing RAID technology. 

Joe Molina, chainnan of RAB, reported that one of this year's 
hot topics was adaptive RAID, a technology in which there is no 
predefined RAID; instead, the RAID subsystem makes this 
decision for the user, based on patterns of data use. Another 
hot topic was integration — that is, RAID subsystems that 
incorporate other types of storage media, such as tape and 
CD-ROM, and that utilize hierarchical storage management 
(e.g., automatically migrating older data off a hard drive and 
onto a tape jukebox). 

Molina predicted that by the year 2000, almost all systems 
will have RAID, except notebooks and low-end stand-alones. PCMCIA RAID will become 
a reality, as will support for interfaces other than SCSI, such as fiber channel and 
arbitrated loop. (Currently, about 90 percent of RAID products are SCSI-based.) Also 
by the year 2000, today's cost of about $2 per megabyte with RAID should decrease 
to about 25 cents per megabyte. Molina agreed that while vendors may find it difficult 
to make money in this kind of market, users will benefit, and there will be plenty of RAID 
products to choose from. 



RAB 

For more information on 
the RAID Advisory Board, 
contact: 



Joe Molina, Chairman 
RAID Advisory Board 
13 Marie Lane 
St Peter, MN 56082 
(507) 931-0967 
fax:(507)931-0976 
0004706032@mcimail.com 



254 BYTE/NSTL LAB REPORT SEPTEMBER 1995 




Make sure your data L\-i 



is fast and secure! 



You might not know how valuable your data is until it is no longer 

available, or even worse, it has been lost forever. If such an event were 

to occur, it will take valuable man-hours to restore the data, if possible, 

and cost your business countless dollars. 

This is why you should invest in a data secure, high availability system, 

before it is too late! 

SOLIDdiskRAID High Performance Systems leaves no room for error. 

SOLIDdisk RAID offers a fully redundant fault-tolerant solution, as well 

as the ability to have your data available continuously. This is 

accomplished since all of the parts, hard disks, power supplies, 

controllers, and ventilators, are fully redundant, andean be exchanged 



during operation in case a defect occurs. The SOLIDdisk RAID Sy- 
stem is a true hot swap unit. There is no down-time, no tools required, 
and best of all, no cost to you! 
There is only one way to guarantee data security, a SOLIDdisk RAID 

System! 

Facts: Transfer rate 20 MB/s (100 MB/s in the future). Up to 80 GB/ 
unit. Max. 128 MB cache. Single or dual processor cache system. 
RAID levels 0, 1 , 3 and 5. MTBDL more than 4 Mio. hours (500 years). 
Supported computer systems: SUN SPARC, IBM RS/6000, Novell 
NetWare, HP9000/800/900, Apple, SGI, Motorola, DEC-VAX, ALPHA. 



Europe: Tel. ++49-89-31 57 19 60 
Fax ++49-89-315 16 94 

Distributors: 

USA: DICKENS DATA SYSTEMS • Tel: 1-800-448-6177 ■ Fax: 1-404-442-7525 

AUSTRIA: INFORMATION STORAGE • Tel: ++43-223 1-66416-0 ■ Fax: ++43-2231-66416-6 

BENELUX : AVANCE • Tel : ++31-3480-30688 • Fax: ++31-3480-30232 




INFORMATION 

STORAGE 



USA: Tel. 1-800-784-RAID 
Internet: http://www. solidinfo.com 



BENELUX : AXIO • Tel : ++3 1-2155-1 1144 • Fax: ++3 1-2155-26580 
SWITZERLAND: SOLID COMPUTER • Tel: ++41-56-701230 • Fax: ++41-56-713069 
CZECH. REP.: SOLID COMPUTER • Tel: ++42-2-436991 ■ Fax: ++42-2-434621 



Circle 109 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 110). 



Best for Audio/Video 



The sound and video files used in 
multimedia applications tend to 
be large, gobbling up disk stor- 
age and placing heavy demands 
on disk I/O. RAID subsystems can pro- 
vide the disk capacity and performance 
required for these applications. To 
determine which 
RAID array would 
perform best in an 
audio/video envi- 
ronment, we looked 
at the maximum 
recorded times of 
each subsystem for 
each test in our per- 
formance bench- 
mark. We used the 
maximum recorded 




Array placed first. Although it was only 
the third-fastest, the StorageWorks' fea- 
tures and usability made the difference. 
The speed demon of this group was 
MicroNet Technology's RAIDbank Plus 
for PCI. The RAIDbank, which uses a 
dual-channel Mylex controller, had the 
best performance overall and fast speeds 
in the multithread tests. The RAIDbank 
features redundant and hot-swappable 
drives, power supplies, and a hot spare. 
When configuring this subsystem, we 
took advantage of MicroNet's walk- 
through service, available to all new 
RAIDbank users (see "Honorable Men- 
tions" on page 259). The RAIDbank's 



NT Adapter Monitor utility needs work; 
it did not issue an alert during our sin- 
gle-drive failure test. However, the 
Administration utility correctly detected 
the RAID's status as "critical," and an 
automatic rebuild took place as expected. 
The Conner CR12-RAID and Mega 
Drive Systems' Enterprise E-8 PCI arrays 
were tied for third. The CR12-RAID per- 
formed multithread tasks faster than it 
did single-thread tasks, and the Enter- 
prise handled single processes better. The 
Storage Solutions' Raca-Ray CM2+ was 
ranked fourth. It performed single-thread 
and multithread tasks at about the same 
speed. 



Digital StorageWorks RAID 
Array 230 Subsystem 



times, because when looking for disk 
storage for audio/video applications, you 
want a system with the least amount of 
slow I/O. For example, a disk array that 
was relatively fast, on average, but had 
several slow results on read tests might, 
in a real-world environment, result in 
video clips that would run correctly and 
then "freeze" at certain points before 
resuming. The result would be similar to 
pressing the pause button on your VCR 
every 10 seconds or so while trying to 
watch a movie. 

Once again, the Digital StorageWorks 



^^| DIGITAL STORAGEWORKS RAID ARRAY 230 SUBSYSTEM 

Vy^5 Even though the StorageWorks RAID Array 230 Subsystem only ranked third in our audio/video bench- 
^^^gft marks, it was still the best overall product in features and usability compared to the other prod- 
ucts we tested. Except for Storage Solutions' Raca-Ray CM2+, the other top-five products were 
either very fast in our multitasking tests— such as the RAIDbank Plus for PCI from MicroNet Technology— 
or fast h our single-task tests, but not both. 



DEC StorageWorks RAID Array 230 
MicroNet RAIDbank Plus for PCI 
Conner CR12-RAID 
Mega Drive Enterprise E-8 PCI 
Storage Solutions Raca-Ray CM2+ 





OVERALL 
EVALUATION 






PERFORMANCE INDEX 








SINGLE- 


MULTI- 


PRICE 


SCORE 


FEATURES 


USABILITY 


OVERALL 


THREAD 


THREAD 


$12,183 


7.32 


AAAA 


AAAA 


6.31 


6.78 


5.85 


$16,395 


6.85 


AA 


AA 


7.22 


5.14 


9.30 


$16,593 


6.79 


AAA 


AAA 


5.95 


4.12 


7.79 


$11,900 


6.79 


AAA 


AAAA 


5.72 


6.79 


4.66 


$13,595 


6.74 


AA 


AAA 


6.55 


6.25 


6.85 



Key: Ratings from 1 to 4: A is the lowest; AAAA is the highest. 



SOFTWARE RAID SOLUTIONS 

Although the focus of our tests was hardware-based RAID (i.e., 
subsystems that use a dedicated RAID controller), if you've already 
invested in storage and don't have $10,000 or so to spend on a 
RAID subsystem, there are many software applications on the 
market that let you configure your existing disk storage as a 
RAID array. These software programs perform RAID calculations 
with the help of your server's CPU rather than relying on a ded- 
icated RAID controller. 

For a NetWare environment: Corel ((613) 728-8200; fax (613) 
728-9790) offers Corel SCSI Network Manager with CorelRAID 2.0 
for $595. CorelRAID uses either RAID 4 or 5, can support a max- 
imum of 16 drives, and supports the hot swapping of drives and 
a hot spare. Under NetWare, you can define users and groups to 
receive messages if a drive failure occurs. To use CorelRAID, you 
need a PC-compatible 386 server running NetWare 3.1x or high- 
er, 4 MB of RAM, three SCSI hard drives, and a SCSI host adapter 
with ASPI (advanced SCSI programming interface). 

For an OS/2 environment. Cyranex ((613) 738-3864; fax (613) 
738-3871), formerly Pro Engineering, offers two software RAID 
packages for OS/2: EZRAID Pro for $795 or EZRAID Lite for $195. 
You can use EZRAID Pro with OS/2 version 2 or higher; it will 



work with SCSI, IDE, ESDI, and 
other types of hard drives and 
host adapters, although Cyranex 
recommends using SCSI devices. 
You can mix different drive types 
and host adapters within the 
same array. A minimum of two 
hard drives is required. EZRAID 
Pro supports RAID 0, 1, 4, or 5, 
supports hot sparing, and has a 




Software from Corel, Cyranex, and 
Veritas offers an inexpensive RAID 
alternative. 



remote failure notification utility and performance monitor. 
EZRAID Lite is designed to be used with OS/2 desktop systems only 
and supports RAID and 1. It also supports hot sparing and 
comes with a performance monitor utility. 

For a Unix environment: Veritas Software ((415) 335-8000; fax 
(415) 335-8050) offers VxVM (Veritas Volume Manager) 2.0, 
which supports RAID 0, 1, and 5 with hot spare drives. VxVM 
2.0 has a GUI for such on-line disk administration tasks as mon- 
itoring disk usage and fine-tuning to handle I/O bottlenecks. 
VxVM costs $1500 for desktop systems and starts at $3500 for 
desktop servers. 



256 BYTE/NSTL EAB REPORT SEPTEMBER 1995 




With p c ? 



Lightning does strike twice! 

Combine DPT's PCI SCSI 
performance with the power of 
your Pentium, and watch your 
system sizzle. Of course you 
can install your DPT PCI SCSI 
adapters with confidence be- 
cause they are fully compatible 
with the latest version of the PCI 
specification, and we have tested 
compatibility with thousands of 
products and operating systems. 



10 Bench™ 

PCI SCSI Host Adapter Performance 


Bj=i_ 


Random Writes 






■■■■■►83% Faster 


__________ 


■■■■■►80% Faster 


Bt 




i 
■ ►57% Faster 


■ DPTPM2Q24-0MB 
Competitor "A" j 


■M>50% Faster 




SOUWs lOMKBfc 1500KB* ^-" 




"■ 



For even faster performance, 
you can easily add hardware 
caching and RAID support with 
optional plug-on modules. 



MUi'fiSM'T NetWare 
WIMXAV3 Tested ord 

('(A1i',\riK£ Approved 




Installation couldn't be easier: 
all DPT PCI SCSI Adapters are 
Plug-and-Play ready and come 
complete with Storage Manager* 
DPT's award-winning setup and 
maintenance software. 

Order a DPT PCI SCSI 
Adapter today and find out for 
yourself just how fast lightning 
really is. 

1-800-322-4378 

HDPT 

Distributed Processing Technology 

140 Candace Drive, Maitland, FL 32751 



Circle 67 on Inquiry Card. 



Jur storage devices can endure long hours, 
natural disasters, and other forms of abuse. 












I /\of unfifee a day at the office. I 



The DE 100 "is a removable 




With room for three I" SCSI 


disk! tape subsystem that allows 


»&*.-* disk or tape 




Mam 


I^IPBLj' 


drives, the 
DS300 


WM 




model is 


" iinJ .stnrc 
data. It's compatible with an 


' ■■ 


the most 

compact 


extensive variety uj standard 


removable storage 


subsystem 


SCSI or IDFJFJDE drives. 




available on the market today. 



The DS500'" is an external rack 
mount that houses nine half- 
height bays, 
\ allows users 
. to integrate 
any SCSI 
peripheral 
combination, and includes up to 
two 300-ivatt power supplies. 



. 



> ,; f:i:i:tH 



An ideal storage 
* chassis for work- 
stations, network 
servers , and PCs , 
the DS 100 pro- 
vides jlexihility 
W^ ]or users to mix and 

match up to four 
SCSI peripherals. 




When it comes to protecting valuable data, only Kingston's rugged 
storage devices have shown they can brave the elements. 
Though they were designed to perform in the most demanding 
commercial environments, they're also tough enough to sur- 
vive in army bunkers, submarines, and even in spacecraft. Our 
Data Silo® enclosures and Data Express'" removables are con- 
structed of rugged steel with a carefully designed and tested 




ventilation system for cooling today's high-performance drives. 
Used in computer rooms, workstations, and network servers, they 
support more SCSI connections and have more options than any 
other storage subsystem on the market. If that doesn't impress 
you, our unbeatable five-year warranty will. So call Kingston 
or your nearest dealer for more information. Because in the 
world of storage systems, only the strong survive. 



Kingston 

Am. TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION 

Call (800) 435-0670 or find us at hi tp://\vw\v.kingston.com 

Kingston Technology Corporation, 17600 Ncwhope Street, Founmin Viitley. CA 92708 USA, (714) 438-1850, Fax (714) 4 18-1847. 

© l l )^5 Kingston Technology Corporation. Kingston Technology is a rcfjisiiTcd trademark ol Kingston Technology Corporation. All rights romvd. 



Circle 72 on Inquiry Card (RESELLERS: 73). 



HONORABLE MENTIONS 




ArteCOII's line of Lynx products offers 
what it calls "100 Percent Investment 
Protection." You can start with a single-drive 
storage unit, move up to a stacked, multidisk 
configuration by interlocking individual 
storage units, and then graduate to a RAID 
tower by keeping the existing drive storage 
units and adding a RAID controller 
subsystem. 



Raca-Lert for WindOWS is an optional monitoring utility for 
the Storage Solutions Raca-Ray CM2+. Its graphical design 
makes it easy to detect a drive failure and begin the reconstruction 
procedure. With a modem connected to the Raca-Ray's second 
serial port, Raca-Lert can dial an emergency number to a tone 
pager, or it can dial a fax machine if a fax modem is attached. 



MicroNet Technology offers a unique service to all its new 
RAID customers: the name and number of a technician who will 
walk you through the installation of your subsystem. No fumbling 
around with a user's manual or searching for the technical-support 
number. 



The Clariion C1300 and the StorageTek Nordique 

Open Storage Facility offered the highest level of 
protection against data loss — 
both include redundant 
drives, two power supplies, 
two fans, a second controller, 
and even a mirrored write- 
back cache. A copy of disk 
writes in cache is maintained 
on both controllers. 




I 



I 



More on the RAID Front 

We weren't able to test the following products, but they are worth mentioning: 
Ciprico's 6900 Series of disk arrays are the first such products to use the 
UltraSCSI interface, which can transfer data at a maximum rate of 40 MBps. 
The 6900 Series was designed with film, video, and medical imaging applica- 
tions in mind. The 6900 Series will be available in June. A nine-drive, 16-GB disk 
array costs $39,575. 

To better compete with lower-priced, single-controller RAID subsystems, 
Clariion began shipping its C150 single-controller 
product in July. The C150 costs $10,995, which 
includes three 2-GB drives, 8 MB of cache memory, 
redundant power supplies and fans, and an inter- 
face kit for Sun, DEC Alpha, IBM, or Intel-based PC 
servers. 

Hewlett-Packard is developing an adaptive RAID 
product called AutoRAID.The exact form AutoRAID will 
take is still under investigation. AutoRAID will 
dynamically adapt its algorithms to best suit the 
host system's data-use patterns. For example, newly 
written data that will probably have the most activity 
is stored using RAID 1 for better performance; as 
this data ages, it automatically migrates using RAID 
5 for cost-effectiveness. 

The Optima HST RAID Solution from Optima Tech- 
nology is a RAID subsystem for NetWare and Unix 
applications. The Optima HST supports RAID 0, 1, 
and 5, up to 32 MB of cache, redundant hot-swap- 
pable drives and power supplies, a hot spare drive, 
and a SCSI-2 Fast/Wide host interface. It is avail- 
able in configurations ranging from 6 to 115 GB. 
Prices start at $9995 for the 6-GB Optima HST 6000. 

Xyratex, a former division of IBM located in the U.K., will begin shipping its 
R9000 subsystem in September. The Xyratex R9000 is a RAID subsystem 
for PC-compatible platforms running under a DOS, Windows, or NetWare envi- 
ronment. The enclosure has two integrated power supplies and fan units and 
supports up to seven drives. To expand it, you can add another tower for a total 
of 14 drives (56 GB). The R9000 supports RAID levels 0, 1, 3, and 5, and up 
to 64 MB of write cache. The R9000 is priced at £17,080. 



Ciprico, Inc. 

Plymouth, MN 
(800) 727-4669 
(612) 551-4000 
fax: (612) 551-4002 

Clariion 

Westboro, MA 
(508) 898-7600 
fax: (508) 898-7501 

Hewlett-Packard Co. 

Santa Clara, CA 
(800) 752-0900 
fax: (800) 333-1917 

Optima Technology Corp. 

Irvine, CA 
(714) 476-0515 
fax: (714) 476-0613 

Xyratex 

Havant 

Hampshire, U.K. 
+44 1705 498851 
fax: +44 1705 498853 



On the 



RAID 0: Data is striped across 
drives; no data redundancy is pro- 
vided. 

RAID 1: Data redundancy is 
obtained by storing exact copies on 
mirrored pairs of drives. 
RAID 2: Data is striped at the bit 
level; multiple error-correcting disks 
provide redundancy; not a com- 
mercially implemented RAID level. 



RAID 3: Data is striped at the byte 

level, and one drive is set aside for 

parity information. 

RAID 4: Data is striped in blocks, 

and one drive is set aside for parity 

information. 

RAID 5: Data is striped in blocks, 

and parity information is rotated 

among all drives on the array. 



HELPFUL HINTS 



• Remember to back up regularly. The RAID 5 configurations 
used here won't protect you in the unlikely event of more than 
one drive failing. 

• If you do invest in a RAID subsystem, you should go through a 
"dry run" of a single-drive failure before bringing the subsystem 
on-line. That way, you'll know ahead of time how to handle this 
situation. Make sure rebuild instructions and your vendor's 
technical-support numbers are posted near the array. 

• Consider configuring your array with drives from several dif- 
ferent manufacturers to reduce the risk of multiple drive failures. 
(One reason the drive makers quote overly optimistic MTBF 
[mean time between failure] rates in a RAID environment is 
that the drives in an array are likely to be from the same 
assembly-line batch; thus, when one drive fails, the others, 
being of the same age and manufacture, are likely to fail at or 
near the same time). 

• The cable and terminator pins in the SCSI-2 Fast/Wide interface 

bend easily. Take care when connecting and disconnecting 
these devices. 

• Finally, don't forget to have a spare drive on hand. 



SEPTEMBER 1995 BYTE/NSTL LAB REPORT 259 



ROLL CALL OF DISK ARRAYS TESTED 



FEATURES 

MANUFACTURER MODEL 


PRICE AS 
TESTED ' 


PERFORMANCE 


HOST ADAPTER AS TESTED 


HARD DRIVE 




SINGLE-THREAD 
RELATIVE 
AVERAGE/MAX. 
PERFORMANCE 5 


MULTITHREAD 
RELATIVE 
AVERAGE/MAX. 
PERFORMANCE 3 


MAX. 
NUMBER 
OF DRIVES 


Artecon, Inc. 


LynxTower LX-5000T 
RAID Subsystem 


$22,995 


4.41/5.33 


5.74/6.45 


Adaptec AHA-2940W 


Conner CFP2107S 


7 


Clariion Advanced Storage 


C1300 Mirrored Cache Disk Array 


$35,391 


4.45/4.02 


4.58/.66 


NCR8251D 


Seagate Barracuda 32550N 


10 


Conner Storage Systems 


CR12-RAID 


$16,593 2 


5.27/4.12 


4.73/7.79 


Mylex DAC960P2 dual- 
channel 


Conner CFP2107 


12 


Data Storage Marketing, Inc. 


HSRAID-8 


$22,430 


4.12/5.03 


4.54/4.15 


Adaptec AHA-2940W 


Seagate Barracuda 32550N 


7 


Digital Equipment Corp. 


StorageWorks RAID Array 
230 Subsystem 


$12,183 2 


8.76/6.78 


9.06/5.85 


Mylex Backplane RAID 
Controller with Digital firmware 


StorageWorks 2.1-GB Wide 
SWXD3-WB 


7 


DPT, Inc. 


SmartRAID Subsystem 


$12,615 


3.96/1.23 


2.51/.63 


DPT PM3224/W 


Seagate ST12400N 


6 


Legacy Storage Systems, Inc. 


SmartArray XE 


$20,957 2 


5.31/4.92 


4.47/6.90 


Mylex DAC960P 3-channel 
with AEMI 


Seagate Barracuda 32550W 


12 


Mega Drive Systems, Inc. 


Enterprise E-8 PCI 


$11,900 2 


8.41/6.79 


5.26/4.66 


Mylex DAC960PD dual- 
channel 


Seagate ST12450W 


14 


MicroNet Technology, Inc. 


RAIDbank Plus for 
PCI RBT2PCI/RPC 


$1 6,395 2 


4.97/5.14 


4.82/9.30 


Mylex DAC960P2 dual- 
channel 


Conner CFP2107E 


6 


Micropolis Corp. 


RAIDION LTX 6.3 plus LM2100 
Add-On Module 


$15,000 


5.93/2.39 


2.74/2.01 


Adaptec AHA-2940W 


Micropolis Model4221 


28 


Perisol Technology 


RaidSafe Plus 7 8MP 


$13,864 


4.68/4.87 


5.38/4.07 


Adaptec AHA-2940W 


Quantum XP32150AL-S 


7 


Procom Technology, Inc. 


LANForce-5 


$10,255 2 


3.88/5.46 


3.85/2.44 


Adaptec AHA-2940W 


Seagate Barracuda 32550N 


7 


Raidtec Corp. 


FlexArray FX 


$11,195 


4.23/4.46 


2.56/5.72 


Adaptec AHA-2940W 


Quantum XP32150 


5 


Storage Solutions, Inc. 


Raca-Ray CM2+ 


$13,595 
$27,000 


5.91/6.25 
4.78/4.55 


9.66/6.85 
5.56/.48 


Adaptec AHA-2940W 
NCR8251D 


Seagate ST32550N 

Seagate Barracuda 
ST12550N 


15 


StorageTek Distributed 
Systems Division 


Nordique Open Storage Facility 


20 


Winchester Systems, Inc. 


FlashDisk SCSI 


$19,737 


6.64/5.57 


6.79/5.74 


Adaptec AHA-2940W 


Seagate Barracuda 32550 


8 



MANUFACTURER 


MODEL 


RECHARGEABLE 

BATTERY 

BACKUP 


TYPES OF 
SECURITY 


PLATFORMS SUPPORTED 


OSES SUPPORTED 




PC 

COMPATIBLE MAC 


POWERPC 


DOS WINDOWS 95 WINDOWS NT 




Artecon, Inc. 


LynxTower LX-5000T RAID 
Subsystem 





D 


t t 


t 


• t t 


Clariion Advanced Storage 


C1300 Mirrored Cache Disk Array 


• 


N 


t 





• t t 


Conner Storage Systems 


CR12-RAID 




E 


t 





i § 


Data Storage Marketing, Inc. 


HSRAID-8 


Optional 


N 


t t 


t 


• t t 


Digital Equipment Corp. 


Storao|eWQrks RAID Array 
230 Subsystem 


' 


E 


t ) 





I t. 


DPT, Inc. 


SmartRAID Subsystem 





E 


t t 


t 


It t 


Legacy Storage Systems, Inc. 


SmartArray XE 


Optional 


E 


t t 


t 


It t 


; Mega Drive Systems, Inc. 


Enterprise E-8 PCI 


t 


E 


t t 


t 


It t 


MicroNet Technology, Inc. 


RAIDbank Plus for 
PCI RBT2PCI/RRC 




E 


t 





It t 


Micropolis Corp. 


RAIDION LTX 6.3 plus LM2100 
Add-On Module 





N 


t t 


t 


It o 




Perisol Technology 


RaidSafe Plus 7 8MP 


§ 


E 


t § 


t 


It t 


; Procom Technology, Inc. 


LANForce-5 


t 


E 


t t 


t 


It t 


Raidtec Corp. 


FlexArray FX 





DE 


t t 


t 


It t 


Storage Solutions, Inc. 


Raca-Ray CM2+ 





N 


t t 


• 1 


1 t t 


StorageTek Distributed 

Systems Division 


Nordique Open Storage Facility 


t 


N 


t 


( 


) 




Winchester Systems, Inc. 


FlashDisk SCSI 


t 


DE 


t • 


t < 


1 t t 





y& = BYTE Best. 



• = yes; O = no; N/A = not applicable. 



Price includes five drives with 2 GB each for a total capacity of 1 GB or approximately 8 GB with parity. 
Price includes a sixth drive for a hot spare. 

Maximum performance is based on the number of transactions completed per time unit. Higher numbers indicate better performance. 
4 Total tested storage capacity excludes space for parity. 



260 BYTE/NSTL LAB REPORT SEPTEMBER 1995 





TESTED/MAX. TOTAL 
STORAGt CAPACITY (GB) K 




RAID CONTROLLER 


STANDARD RAID 
LEVELS SUPPORTED 








RELIABILITY 








REDUNDANT 
COMPONENTS 


H0T-SWAPPABLE 
COMPONENTS 


AUTOMATIC 

REBUILD 

SUPPORTED 


HOT SPARE 
SUPPORTED 


TYPES OF 
ALARMS 
SUPPORTED 




8.4/28 






CMD CRD-5000 


0,3,5 




DPF 


DPF 




t 




VA 




8/32 






Clariion Proprietary 


0,1,3,5 




DPFC 


DPFC 




t 




VR 




8/24 






Mylex DAC960P2 dual-channel 


0,1,5 




DPF 


DPF 









VAR 




8.4/12.6 






CMD CRD-5000 


0,3,5 




DPF 


DPF 




• 




VA 




8.4/25.2 






Mylex Backplane RAID Controller 
with Digital firmware 


0,1,5 




DPF 


DPF 




t 




VR 




8.4/26 






DPT PM3224/W 


0,1,5 




DPF 


DPF 


• 




VA 




8.4/48 
10.5/30 
8.4/24 
8.4/56.7 






Mylex DAC960P 3-channel 
withAEMI 

Mylex DAC960PD dual-channel 
Mylex DAC960P2 dual-channel 
Micropolis GANDIVA 


0,1,5 
0,1,5 
0,1,5 




DPF 
DPF 
DPF 


DP 
DPF 
DP 
DPF 




• 
t 
t 
t 




VAR 






VAR 






VR 




0,1,5 




DPF 


VA 




8.4/12.6 
8.4/24.8 
8.4/22 
8.4/78 

8.4/32 

8.6/34.4 






CMD CRD-5000 
CMD CRD-5000 
Raidtec RUAC-II 


0,3,5 




DPFC 


DP 

DPFC 
DP 
D 

DPFC 

DPF 




• 

• 

• 
t 

• 

§ 




VAR 




0,3,5 




DPFC 


VAR 




0, 1, 3, 5 




DPFC 


VAR 




On-board Intel 960A RISC 
processor 


0, 1, 3, 5 




DPF 

DPFC 

DPF 


VAR 




AMD 29000 
FlashDisk SCSI 


0,1,3,5 
0, 1, 3, 5 




V 






VAR 




Components - . 
D = drive 
P = power supply 
F = fan 
C = controller 



Types of alarms: 
V = visual 
A = audible 
R = remote 



ypes of security: 
D = drives 
N = none 
E = enclosure 



TOLL-FREE 
PHONE 



PHONE 



(800) 872-2783 

800) 672-7729 
;800) 724-3511 
;800) 543-6098 
;800) 786-7967 

;800} 322-4378 
£00) 966-6442 
;800) 404-6342 
;800) 800-3475 

800) 395-3748 

;800) 447-8226 

;800) 800-8600 

N/A 

[800) 745-5508 



;800) 325-3700 



Warranty: 
P = parts 
L = labor 

F = freight to repair center 
Ft = return to customer 



(619)931-5500 

(508) 898-6775 
(407)263-3500 
(303) 442-4747 
(508)841-7000 

(407) 830-5522 
■ (508)681-8400 



ON-LINE ADDRESS 



service@artecon.com 

http://www.dg.com 

raid.support@conner.com 

N/A 

N/A 



INQUIRY 
NUMBER 

1396 



1397 
1398 
1399 
1400 



http://www.dpt.com 1401 

N/A 1402 



(310) 247-0006 


labarta @ u u 1 2 1 . megadnve.com 


1403 


(714)453-6100 


MicroNet@aol.com 


1404 


(818) 709-3300 


http://www.microp.com 


1405 


(408)738-1311 


sales@perisol.com 


1406 


(714)852-1000x414 


http://www.procom.com 


1407 


(404) 664-6066 


raidtec@interramp.com 


1408 


(203) 325-0035 


inlo@ssi.mhs.compuserve.com 


1409 


2443 (708)434-1200 


http://www.stortek.com 


1410 


(617)933-8500 


info@winsys.com 


1411 





SEPTEMBER 1995 BYTE/NSTL LAB REPORT 261 




'B 



oversee a 



,km v. ■ 



,■■■ f)> <:J A 



* r; ' £/■■■ w 

?5. 



#24 million 

budget and support 

2400 users. 

^^ Every month 

Byte 

helps me 

luate 

products & technologies that keep 

ii A National Life 

of the 

productivity 



ah e a 



technology 



» curve. " 



Name: Skip^i 
Title: VP Product Admin 



Company! 



BYTE Render 



stensen 
tration Systems 
urance Company 
$2 4 million 
9+ years 




mm __ 

First POWfifPCS JL# YTE readers set the agenda for V^^ corporate 

Apple's Po wo r Macintosh ond T /- /-p i i i T~*1 ■ 1 1 1 

leM'sPowcrporso^sy^ms lntormation lechnology purchases. 1 heir recommendations can ^Kr^KF take your products 
to the top - or leave them at the door. Why? Because Byte readers are the technology experts. 
They define the short list. They specify brands. They tell the buyers what to buy. 

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I 'I J I 3 Because the Exper ts Decide, 

Sec for Yourself: To find out more about the buying power of BYTE readers, call 603-924-2618 and ask to see our Information Technology Buying Process video. 

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CPU Wars: 

Should you moie 
frmaCtSCtoRISC? 



Intel pushes the 80*86 envelope __ 



CPUs 



CORE TECHNOLOGIES 



Endian Issues 



By supporting two memory-addressing modes, 



the PowerPC can run any OS or application 



WILLIAM STALLINGS 

One of the annoying but important differences 
among processors is the way they store data in 
memory. Most processors use one of two data-organiza- 
tion strategies, known as big-endian and little-endian, 
which are described in detail below. (The term endian is 
derived from a passage in Jonathan Swift's Gullivers 
Travels) Some machines, such as VAXes and systems 
based on the Intel x86 or the Pentium, are little-endian 
machines; others, such as the IBM System 370, machines 
based on the Motorola 680x0, and most RISC machines, 
are big-endian. 

The differences between these strategies are relatively 
minor in terms of performance and efficiency. However, 
programmers and users alike need to be aware of endian- 
ness, because data ordered in one format isn't compatible 
with data ordered in the other. This isn't a problem when 
dissimilar platforms operate autonomously. But in a net- 
worked environment that encourages program portabil- 
ity and data interchange across platforms, this can create 
problems. 

Byte-Ordering 

Endianness has to do with the byte-ordering of multibyte 
scalar values. The concept arises when it becomes neces- 
sary to treat a multiple-byte entity as a single data item with 
a single address, even though it's composed of smaller, ad- 
dressable units. When a programmer assumes a specific 
endian format and attempts to manipulate the individual 
bytes or bits within a range of multibyte scalar values, 
problems can occur. 

The following description of endian byte-ordering il- 
lustrates such a dilemma. Suppose you have the 32-bit 
hexadecimal value 12345678 stored as a 32-bit word in 
byte-addressable memory at byte location 1 84. The value 
consists of 4 bytes, with the least significant byte con- 
taining the value 78 and the most significant byte con- 
taining the value 1 2. There are two ways to store this val- 
ue: Start with value 12 in location 184, or start with value 
78 in location 184. 

The first mapping stores the most significant byte in 
the lowest numeric byte address; this is known as big- 
endian format. The second mapping stores the least sig- 
nificant byte in the lowest numeric byte address; this is 
called little-endian format. For a given multibyte scalar 
value, big- and little-endian formats are byte-reversed 
mappings of each other. In any machine, data aggregates 
such as files, structures, and arrays are composed of mul- 



Three Memory 
Orders of 
Structure K 



tiple data units, each with en- 
dianness. Thus, the conver- 
sion of a memory block from 
one style of endianness to the 
other requires knowledge of 
the data structure. 

The figure "Three Mem- 
ory Orders of Structure K" illustrates how endianness 
determines addressing and byte order. The structure in 
the listing "A Multibyte C Data 
Structure" on page 264 contains 
several data types. The memory 
layout in part (a) of the figure 
results from compilation of that 
structure for a big-endian ma- 
chine; part (b) shows the results 
from compilation for a little-en- 
dian machine. In each case, mem- 
ory is treated as a series of 64- 
bit blocks. 

Several observations about 
this data structure can be made: 



• Each data item has the same 
address in both big- and little- 
endian schemes. For example, 
the address of the doubleword 
that has the hexadecimal value 
545512134748BEBFis08. 

• Within any given multibyte 
scalar value, the ordering of 
bytes in the little-endian struc- 
ture is the reverse of that for the 
big-endian structure. 

• Endianness does not affect 
the ordering of data items with- 
in a structure. Thus, the four- 
character word x3 in the listing 
exhibits byte reversal, but the 
seven-character byte array x4 
does not. Hence, the address of 
each individual element of x4 is 
the same in both structures. 

PowerPC Addressing Modes 

The PowerPC is a bi-endian pro- 
cessor; that is, it supports both 
big- and little-endian addressing 
modes. This bi-endian architec- 
ture enables software develop- 
ers to choose either mode when 
migrating OSes and applications 
from other machines. The OS 
establishes the endian mode in 



AA 


00 
04 
08 

oc 

10 

14 
18 
1C 
20 
24 


AD 


00 
04 
08 
OC 
10 
14 
18 
1C 
20 
24 




AB 


AC 




AC 


AB 




AD 


AA 








AA 






AB 






AC 

AD 






54 


48 


54 


55 
12 


47 


55 


BF 


12 


13 


BE 


13 


47 


13 


BE 


48 
BE 
BF 


12 
55 


BF 


47 


54 


48 


13 


43 


'E l 


12 


22 


W 


22 


12 


'O' 


43 


13 


'P' 


.p. 


■ p . 


13 


'0' 


'O 1 


12 


•w 


■w 


22 


'E' 


"E" 


43 


IR > 


'FT 




■p. 


'P' 
'C 




■e 


06 




19 


06 


19 

06 


~tF 


19 




<p 


35 


l R' 


38 




36 


37 




37 


36 




38 


35 








35 






36 






37 






38 



(a) 



<b) 



(c) 



(a) Big-endian ordering of data. 

(b) Little-endian ordering as seen 
by a PowerPC processor (true little- 
endian ordering), (c) Little-endian 
ordering as found in PowerPC 
storage to minimize data swapping 
during memory accesses. 



SEPTEMBER 1995 BYTK 263 



CORE TECHNOLOGIES 



CPUs 



which processes execute; the default mode is 
big-endian. Once a mode is selected, all sub- 
sequent memory loads and stores are deter- 
mined by the memory-addressing model of 
that mode. 

To support this hardware feature, 2 bits in 
the MSR (machine state register) are main- 
tained by the OS as part of the process state. 
One bit (ILE) specifies the endian mode in 
which the kernel runs when processing an 
interrupt; the other (LE) specifies the pro- 
cessor's current operating mode. Thus, the 
mode can be changed on a per-process basis, which is critically 
important for foreign OS emulation. 

When an interrupt occurs, the processor saves the current MSR 
and loads an MSR for the interrupt-processing routine. The val- 
ue of the ILE bit in the old MSR is copied into the LE bit in the 
new MSR. When execution resumes in the interrupted process, its 
MSR is reloaded with its LE and ILE bits intact. 



A Multibyte C Data Structure 




struct! 

int xl; //OxAAAB_ACAD 


word 


int pad; 

double x2; //0x5455 1213 4748JEBF 
char* x3; //0xl312 2243 
char x4[7]; // ' P ' . ' ' , ' W ' , ' E ' , ' R ' ,'P' 
short x5; //0x0619 
int x6; //0x3536_3738 
> k; 


doubl eword 
word 
'C byte array 
halfword 
word 



location 1A. When a transfer occurs, the system must do an ad- 
dress unmunging and a byte transfer to convert data to the form 
expected by the processor. The processor generates effective ad- 
dresses of 1 C and 1 D for the 2 bytes. These addresses are munged 
(XOR with 1 10) to 1 A and IB. The data bytes are retrieved, 
swapped, and presented as if they were found in the unmunged 
addresses ID and 1C. 



Byte Storage 

The PowerPC architecture specification does not dictate how a 
processor should implement little-endian mode. It specifies only 
the view of memory that a processor has when operating in little- 
endian mode. When converting a data structure from big- to little- 
endian, the processor can either implement a true byte-swapping 
mechanism or use some sort of an address-modification mecha- 
nism. Current PowerPC processors are all big-endian by default 
and use address modification to treat data as little-endian. 

Part (c) of the figure "Three Memory Orders of Structure K" 
shows how memory is laid out when data is stored in little-endi- 
an form for current PowerPCs. This is not a true little-endian or- 
ganization as it is usually defined. Rather, it is designed to min- 
imize the data manipulation required to convert from one endian 
format to another. 

Note that 64-bit scalars are stored in the same formats on the 
PowerPC. To accommodate smaller scalars, a technique known 
as address munging is used. When the PowerPC is in little-endian 
mode, it transforms the 3 low-order bits of an effective address 
during a memory access. These 3 bits are XORed with a value that 
depends on the transfer size: 0x100 for 4-byte transfers, 0x1 10 for 
2-byte transfers, and 0x1 1 1 for 1-byte transfers. The table "Pow- 
erPC Address Munging" below lists the possible combinations. 

For example, the 2-byte value 06 1 9 is stored at location 1C in 
big-endian mode. In little-endian mode, it's viewed by the pro- 
cessor as still being stored in location 1C, but in little-endian 
mode. In fact, the value is still stored in big-endian mode, but at 



POWERPC ADDRESS MUNGING 


4-byte Transfers 


2-b te Transfers 


1-b te Transfers 


(XOR with 100) 


(XOR with 110) 


(XOR with 111) 


Original Munged 
Address Address 


Original Munged 
Address Address 


Original Munged 
Address Address 


000 100 


000 110 


000 111 


001 101 


001 111 


001 110 


010 110 


010 100 


010 101 


011 111 


011 101 


011 100 


100 000 


100 010 


100 011 


101 001 


101 011 


101 010 


110 010 


110 000 


110 001 


111 011 


111 001 


111 000 



Unaligned Data 

This address-munging technique does not work cleanly with data 
that is not aligned on its natural boundary (e.g., a 4-byte value 
is aligned if its address is divisible by 4). When a value is un- 
aligned, its storage in little-endian mode might result in the val- 
ue being split into two noncontiguous parts. When an unaligned 
access is attempted in little-endian mode, an alignment interrupt 
occurs. This causes the processor to transfer to the system-align- 
ment error handler, which handles the interrupt by a series of 
load-and-store operations that emulate the memory access. 

Because of the exception processing, accessing unaligned lit- 
tle-endian data can seriously degrade a processor's performance. 
The simplest fix is to properly align little-endian data. But this 
might not be possible for certain processes, such as an x86 emulat- 
or, which accesses variable-length x86 instructions in memory. 

But another solution is in the works. New versions of the Pow- 
erPC 603 and 604 will handle misaligned little-endian accesses 
in hardware, and thus handle an alignment interrupt the same 
way as in big-endian mode. They will be able to operate in little- 
endian mode without incurring a performance penalty. 

Implications 

The PowerPC architecture is organized for big-endian storage 

and processing. It also provides a transparent method for dealing 

with little-endian programs and data. 
This enables a PowerPC processor to run a program written for 

little-endian memory organization simply by recompiling the 
application on the PowerPC, which reduces the program- 
porting work required. When the recompiled program 
is run on the PowerPC with the LE bit set, the processor's 
address-mapping facility makes all data structures ap- 
pear identical to the layout that the program saw on a 
little-endian machine. This ability to handle bi-endian 
address modes makes the PowerPC processor ideal for 
hosting different OSes, such as on the CHRP (Common 
Hardware Reference Platform). ■ 

William Stallings is an independent consultant. This article 
is based on material from his most recent book, Computer 
Organization and Architecture: Designing for Performance, 
Fourth Edition (Prentice-Hall, 1995). You can reach him on 
the Internet at stallings@acm.org or on BIX c/o "editors. " 



264 BYXE SEPTEMBER 1995 



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Programmii 






The Joy Of J 

One line of J can do the same work as 



hundreds of lines of Pascal or BASIC 



DICK POUNTAIN 

If you are involved in mathematical programming then 
you need to know about the J programming language. 
Even if you perform less abstract tasks like analyzing 
financial data from a corporate RDBMS (relational data- 
base management system), you will find J interesting. 

J is the modern successor to APL, a language that 
developed a cult following among some corporate IBM 
mainframe users in the 1 960s as a rapid and powerful 
(but cryptic) data processing tool. APL suffered from its 
use of an unorthodox character set (that included Greek 
characters, among others), which didn't sit well on ASCII 
text displays and keyboards. 

J is a truly new language by APL's author, Kenneth 
E. Iverson, and implemented by his son Eric and col- 
league Ronald Hui. It's available on a wide range of plat- 
forms including DOS, Windows, OS/2, Unix, and Mac- 
intosh. J is more than just an ASCII-fied APL, but it 
retains the same fundamental principles. Ironically, Win- 
dows and the Mac could now support APL characters, 
but J sticks to ASCII characters — and is the better for it. 

I've been using the Windows release of J version 2.05, 
which can be a powerful calculating engine for Visual 
Basic programs. The J system provides a DDE server 
which you can include in your VB (Visual Basic) pro- 
grams, allowing you do the math in J while writing the 
user-interface and file handling parts of your application 
in VB. J also comes with its own Windows-based devel- 
opment system so you can write stand-alone J programs 
that employ the Windows interface on their own account, 
including DDE, OLE, ODBC (Open Database Connec- 



tivity), VBX (Visual Basic custom controls), 
and all the other trimmings. 

J is an interpreted language, though this 
fact usually has little impact on J's process- 
ing speed. The language's primitive func- 
tions are written in C and are highly opti- 
mized. They will often run faster than the 
obvious equivalents you might write yourself. 

J employs a functional style in which expressions are 
evaluated from right to left. It does support dyadic oper- 
ators (with both left and right arguments) such as + so 
that arithmetic looks quite familiar. There is only one 
data structure in J: the array. A number like 2 is treated as 
an array of rank 0, and text is an array of characters. You 
create new named objects simply by assigning them val- 
ues (this includes programs). J allocates and frees memory 
automatically and invisibly, and the only limit on the size 
of an object is available memory. 



You could use J like a 

k calculator to do 

k statistical 

cluster 

analysis 



Numeric Integration 

A J program for performing numeric integration using Simpson's method. 

NB. form: verb Simpson int 

NB. verb is the monadic function -to be integrated. 

NB. int has 2 or 3 elements: 

NB. CO] lower bound of interval 

NB. [1] upper bound of interval 

NB. [2] number of subintervals (default 128) 

NB. result is the integral 

NB. e.g. 43.75 = A &3 Simpson 3 4 

on=: 2:0 

er '; 'upper' ; 'i nt ' ) = . 31. y. ,128 

. (upper-1 ower)%int 
x . 1 ower+si ze*i . >: int 

* +/val * 3%~ 1 . ( (int-1 )$4 2),1 



The Language 

The syntax of J is extremely 
simple and regular; all f unc- £Y\ 
tions have the same pri- f~~ ~ 
ority; parentheses are 
the only way to alter ex- 
ecution order. J's compo 
nents are named using terms 
taken from English grammar: 
Functions are called verbs, constants are called nouns, ad- 
verbs and conjunctions modify the action of verbs. In fact, 
J is an executable mathematical notation, and Iverson has 
written a series of math textbooks, up to and including vec- 
tor calculus, using J as the descriptive notation. 

The J language consists largely of 70 or so verbs. 
Although J has abandoned APL's hieroglyphics, its verbs 
still have cryptic two-character names like > . or # : . Here 
is a one-line program to compute Hellerman's distance- 
squared similarity measure for a 
matrix of any size : 



simps 
( ' 1 ow 
si ze= 
val = 
size 
) 



dsqt-. +/"l@*:@(-"l/~) 

You could be forgiven for mis- 
taking it for line-noise. To be fair, J 
doesn't have to look this scary; 
mean=. sum % count is a perfectly 
good J definition. The point is, some- 
one fluent in J could hack dsqt from 
the keyboard during an interactive 
session, using J like a calculator to do 
statistical cluster analysis. 

Math problems that would take 
hundreds of lines of Pascal or BA- 
SIC take one line of J. So, J is not a 



SEPTEMBER 1995 BYTE 267 



CORE TECHNOLOGIES 



Programming 



language for the faint of heart. Learning the syntax and semantics 
of all the primitives will take time, but the reward is that you 
can then do extraordinarily intricate array and matrix computations 
that would be difficult or impossible in, say, a spreadsheet. 

Most of the verbs either generate arrays or perform operations 
on elements of arrays. You can combine primitive operations by 
using adverbs to form new operations. For example, i . 89 gen- 
erates a list of the integers up to 89, and + is the humble sum 
operation. The adverb / — called "insert" — causes its left argument 
to be inserted between the elements of its right argument. So +/ 
x means sum the whole list x, and hence +/ i. 89 sums all the 
integers up to 89. Or again, the adverb "tie" is represented by * . 
Its action is to combine several verbs into one (called a gerund). 
The gerund + ** x - when applied to 1 2 3 4 will calculate 1+2*3- 
4. If you need to use such constructs more than once, you can give 
them a name, as in 



ger= 



where = . is just the assignment operator. To save names perma- 
nently, you store the text into script files, which when loaded 
execute as though typed from the keyboard. 

Unlike APL, J supports conventional control structures like 
if. . . then and whi 1 e. You could define factorial as: 



SI 



f actori al= 
a=. 1 

le. y. : 
a = . a*; 

.=. y. - 

a 







whi ' 

do. 

y. 

end. 



(where y . refers to the verb's right argument), though a hard- 
ened J-bird would probably prefer the cryptic definition: 



f actori al 



1: * (]*factorial@<: ) @. 



Actually it's pointless to do either, as factorial is a built-in 
primitive verb, ! . 

Another J innovation is the concept of a "locale," or private 
name space, so that mydef defined in locale A is different to my - 
def in locale B. Locales enable you to write modular applications 
while avoiding name clashes. 

Finally, an important (if rather unaesthetic) feature 
of J is the "foreign conjunction" which is the way you 
do system dependent, nonmathematical things. The 
conjunction ! : takes two numbers as left and right 
arguments to produce a verb which is a system call. For 
example, 1 ! : is the directory call, so 1 ! : ' * . txt ' will list all 
the text files in the current directory. This construct compounds 
J's unreadability, though a diligent programmer can always write 
a library of meaningful synonyms. 

Windows and J 

You can write J programs that fully exploit the Windows graph- 
ical interface (or the Mac, or OS/2, and so forth) by using verbs 
called wd commands (actually, wd is a friendlier synonym for 
11! : 0). For example, 

wd 'mb "Dick says" "Hello!" ;' 




Del Pushbutton 


a j 
a 1; 
o \ 

\ 


Pushbutton 


E 



Hl 



This J demo program is displaying 
some of its own built-in controls and 
some external VBXs, like the graph 
and the spinbox. 



pops up a Windows 
message-box with title "Dick says" and content "Hello." J's inter- 
preted nature doesn't mean that windowing operations are slow. As 
with VB, when a window is open it's mostly Windows GDI (Graph- 
ical Device Interface) code being executed. 

J's Windows driver provides 10 control classes: button, edit, 
listbox, combobox, scrollbar, static text, isigraph, isipicture, isi- 
ole, and vbx. Isigraph is a graphics box, and J contains many 
graphics commands (e.g., gpolygon) to draw in it, while isiole is 
the graphical presentation for an embedded OLE object. The vbx 
control class allows you to add VBX controls into J programs. J 
can drive other windows applications via DDE links and OLE 1 
linking and embedding, but it does not yet support OLE 2. 

J's vedi t verb let's you visually edit any parent window and 
its controls (i.e., by dragging with the mouse), and J's publishers 
have used it to good effect in writing a simple but effective forms 
editor supplied with J. The editor lets you build an application by 
choosing controls from a menu, like a mini-VB. 

Though J's Windows interface is powerful and well thought out, 
it's still easier to write complicated user interfaces using VB, and 
J lets you do just that. Including JDDE.FRM and JDDE.BAS in 
your VB project gives you a DDE link to a J server, along with an 
attendant API. For example, the VB routine j d o ( s $ ) executes its 
string argument as an expression in J, while a variety of data 
exchange routines will retrieve values from J and format J-style 
arrays in VB-style arrays. You can even make 
an executable version of your VB application 
that includes a J run-time server. 

Finally, J is a powerful tool for manipulat- 
ing numeric data held as tables in a corporate 
relational database. A ddsql verb lets you 
execute SQL statements directly from J code. 



Strand Software, Inc. 

Shorewood, MN 
(612) 470-7345 
fax: (612) 470-9202 
amfaust@aol.com 



The Way of J 

J is not a programming language that everyone will take to, but 
it will prove interesting and useful to more than just those confined 
to mathematics departments. Programmers working in such busi- 
ness sectors as insurance, banking, derivatives trading, and plan- 
ning need precisely the combination of ultrasophisticated math 
functionality, database connectivity, and a Windows interface 
that J so capably provides. ■ 

Dick Fountain is a BYTE contributing editor based in London, U.K. 
You can reach him on the Internet or BIX at dickp@bix.com. 



268 BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 





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Springtime at Sun 



SunSoft's experimental OS contains 



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DOUG TAMASANIS 

On March 21, the first day of spring, SunSoft re- 
leased to the research community a "concept car" 
for the next generation of OSes. Called, naturally enough, 
Spring, it is the fruit of labor begun in the mid-1980s. 
The company decided to produce a new OS, unconstrained 
by the requirement to support legacy software, that was 
distributed, multithreaded, and fully object-oriented. 

Although Spring will not be the next version of So- 
laris, many of the concepts found in Spring will eventually 
migrate to SunSoft's commercial OS. Technology devel- 
oped for Spring is the foundation for Sun's DOE (Dis- 
tributed Objects Everywhere). Pieces of Spring have also 
found their way into the object technology being developed 
by the OMG (Object Management Group). 

Defining Interfaces 

A Spring object is an abstraction containing a state and a 
set of methods to manipulate that state. SunSoft calls the 
description of the object and its methods an interface. 
This interface defines interactions between an object pro- 
viding a service (i.e., a server) and an object using the 
service (i.e., a client). 

To maintain openness and not tie developers into a sin- 
gle programming language, SunSoft developed an IDL 
(interface definition language) to define the interfaces. 
An IDL compiler converts IDL into three pieces of code 
in the chosen target implementation language: the IDL 
interface, client-side stub code, and server-side stub code 
(see the figure "Spring IDL"). 

The IDL interface is language-specific. In C, for ex- 
ample, this is a header file with method definitions, con- 
stants, and types defined in the IDL interface. Client-side 
stub code is dynamically linked to a client's program, al- 
lowing access to an object implemented in another ad- 
dress space or on another machine. Server-side stub code 
is linked into an object manager to translate incoming re- 
mote object invocations into the run-time environment 
of the object's implementation. 

These three pieces of code enable objects in a particu- 
lar language to treat IDL-def ined objects as if they were 
native-language objects. Thus, if your client object were 
in C++, you would use an IDL-to-C++ compiler to pro- 
duce C++-compatible header files and stub-code objects. 
If a server object's implementation is in C, you would 
have to use an IDL-to-C compiler to generate the server- 
side stub code to transform incoming calls into corre- 
sponding C procedure invocations on the C objects cor- 



responding to the IDL objects. Spring's IDL 
forms the basis of the IDL adopted by the OMG. 



Invoking Objects 

All Spring interfaces are defined in IDL, yet IDL 
doesn't define anything about how to implement 
operations on an object or how to convey opera- 
tion requests to an object. To use an object, you merely in- 
voke operations defined in its interface. The clientand server 
object don't need to know if the object on the other side of 
the interface is in the same address space, in another ad- 
dress space on the same machine, or on another machine. 
The IDL-generated stubs use Spring's subcontract mech- 
anism to communicate. Subcontracts provide a flexible way 
to control the implementation of object invocations, the 
transmission of object references between address spaces, 
therelease of object references, and similar object run-time 
operations. Other uses include the implementation of a num- 
ber of object run-time mechanisms. 

Server-based objects typically use the Spring doors 
mechanism to communicate between client and server (see 
the figure "Spring Doors" on page 272). Most subcon- 
tracts optimize the case when the client and the server are 
in the same address space by performing a local call rather 
than calling through the kernel. 

Spring also supports serverless objects, where the entire 
state of the object is always in the client's 
address space. When Spring passes a 
serverless object between address ^fl I Spring IDL 
spaces, it copies the object's state 
to the new address space. 
Passing a serverless ob- 
ject is akin to passing a \ 
struct, while passing a 
server-based object is sim- 
ilar to passing a pointer 
to its remote state. 

Spring Kernel JE5 

Spring's microkernel v *^B 
design has two components 1 
that run in the kernel mode. 
The VMM (virtual memory manager) 
provides the code facilities for paging vir- 
tual memory. The microkernel proper 
called the nucleus. 

The nucleus supports three abstractions: domains, 
threads, and doors. Domains are analogous to processes in 
Unix. Threads execute within domains. Typically, each 
Spring domain is multithreaded, with separate threads 
performing different parts of an application. Doors support 
object-oriented calls between domains. A door describes 
a particular entry point to a domain, represented by both 
a program counter and a unique value that is chosen by the 




SEPTEMBER 1995 BYXK 271. 



CORE TECHNOLOGIES 



Operating Systems 



Spring Doors 




domain. The object server typically 
uses this value to identify the state of 
the object. 

Each domain has an associated table 
of doors to which it has access. Mul- 
tiple door identifiers in different do- 
mains may reference a single door. 
Possession of a valid door gives the 
processor the right to send an invoca- 
tion request to that door. In the target 
domain, all invocations on a given 
door are equivalent, specifying only 
that the invokerhas somehow acquired 
a suitable door identifier. There is no 
knowledge of who the invoker is or 
which door identifier it used. 

Spring uses network proxies to extend 
the nucleus invocation mechanism and trans- 
parently connect the nuclei of different machines. 
These proxies are normal user-mode server domains and 
receive no special support from the nucleus. One Spring 
machine can include several proxy domains that speak differ- 
ent network protocols. 

Proxies transparently forward door invocations between do- 
mains of different machines. When a client on machine B invokes 
door Y, machine B forwards the call over the network to proxy A. 
Proxy A does the door invocation, and the door invocation arrives 
in the server domain. Neither the client nor the server need be aware 
that proxies exist. The client just performs a normal door invoca- 
tion, and the server just sees a normal incoming door invocation. 

Spring maps door identifiers into network handles for trans- 
mission over the network and remaps back to the door when the 
door identifiers arrive from the network. A network handle con- 
tains a network address for the creating proxy and a set of bits to 
identify a particular door that is exported by this proxy. 

Spring implements an extensible, demand-paged virtual mem- 
ory system that separates caching pages from the tasks of storing 
and retrieving pages. A per-machine VMM handles mapping, 
sharing, protecting, transferring, and caching of local memory. 

Most clients of the virtual memory system deal only with ad- 
dress space and memory objects. An address-space object rep- 
resents the virtual address space of a domain. A memory object 
is a memory abstraction mapped into address spaces, such as a file 
object. The VMM implements address-space objects. 

A memory object has operations to set and query the length, and 
to bind to an object. Binding ensures that two equivalent mapped 
memory objects will share the data cached by the VMM. There 
are no page-in/page-out or read/write operations on memory ob- 
jects. The Spring file interface provides file read/write opera- 
tions but not page-in/page-out operations. By separating the 
memory abstraction from the interface providing the paging op- 
erations, the memory-object server and the pager-object server can 
be in different machines. 

The VMM obtains data by invoking a pager object imple- 
mented by an external pager. An external pager performs co- 
herency actions by invoking a cache object implemented by a 
VMM. When a pager asks a VMM to map a memory object into 
an address space, the VMM must be able to obtain a pager object 
to let it manipulate the object's data. Association between the 
pager and a cache object is necessary to ensure coherency. Typ- 
ically, there are multiple pager-cache object channels between a 
given pager and a VMM. The external pager implementing the 



memory object maintains data coherency between different 

VMMs that are caching a memory object. 

Coherently caching data using more than one VMM requires 

a two-way connection between the VMM and an external pager 

or file server. The VMM needs a connection to the external pager 
to let the VMM obtain and write out data, and the external 
pager needs a connection to the VMM to let the provider 
perform coherency actions. Spring employs pager and cache 
objects to represent these connections. 

What's in a Name? 

Most OSes have several name services tailored for specific 
kinds of objects (e.g., files, users, and printers). Spring pro- 
vides a uniform naming service allowing any object to 
p ^fejV be bound to any name. Use of a common name service 
/0vs? . ' eliminates construction of name spaces by all object im- 
ify,> plementations. But remember that Spring is completely 
object-oriented, so it can support multiple name servers. 
Spring allows association of objects with a name that is 
in a context or name binding. Contexts are themselves objects, 
containing name-to-object associations that clients use toper- 
form naming operations. Objects can be concurrently bound to 
different names in different contexts or not bound to any name. 
By binding contexts in other contexts, Spring creates a naming 
graph. This is a directed graph with nodes and labeled edges, 
where the nodes with outgoing edges are contexts. 

Unlike naming in traditional systems, Spring contexts and name 
spaces are first-class objects. That is, you can directly access and 
manipulate them. Also, Spring objects derive persistence through 
naming. Generally, applications will acquire their objects from the 
name service. If the region of the name space where the object is 
found is persistent, the object will also be persistent. 



Spring Research Distribution 

University/public researchers: $75 
Commercial researchers: $750 
(800) 786-7638 



Spring Is Not Unix 

Spring is not Unix, but it does 
provide binary compatibility for 
a number of Solaris programs by 
using a Unix-emulation subsys- 
tem. The emulation runs as user-level code and employs no Unix 
code. The implementation consists of twocomponents: a shared li- 
brary dynamically linked with each Solaris binary and a set of 
Unix-specific services exported via Spring objects implemented by 
a Unix process server in a separate domain. 

The Unix process server implements functions that are not 
part of the base Spring system and which cannot reside in the 
shared library due to security reasons. The system provides 
enough Unix emulation to support standard utilities, such as 
make, vi, csh, X Window System, and various Solaris pro- 
gramming tools used by the Spring developers. 

Running Unix in emulation would clearly be unacceptable in 
production environments, which is why SunSoft wants it known 
that it does not intend to make Spring the next version of So- 
laris. The company has learned its lesson from the porting ef- 
fort that got it to Solaris. However, Spring demonstrates just 
what you can do if given the chance to build a sparkling-new 
OS with modern software engineering methods, without worry- 
ing about legacy systems. ■ 

Doug Tamasanis is a BYTE senior technical editor. He holds an 
MS. in physics and systems engineering and is a senior member of 
the IEEE. You can reach him on the Internet or BIX at editors 
@ bix.com. 



272 BYXE SEPTEMBER 1995 




Networks 



CORE TECHNOLOGIES 









Tuning In to ISDft 



Wireless transmission methods help speed 




ISDN deployment 



JEFFREY FRITZ 




Dick Tracy's famous wrist radio was way ahead of its 
time as a portable communications device. It 
allowed Tracy to be anywhere in the city and still stay in 
■ m contact with the people and resources he needed to 
do his job. By contrast, digital telecommunica- 
tions services are anything but portable. Most 
are lashed by twisted pair to wall-mounted face- 
plates. The lack of portability reduces flexibility 
and restricts access. It also creates dependency on 
1 outside agencies, like the telephone carriers, to 
provide service to the faceplate. 

As with most digital services, ISDN has been a tethered 
service requiring physical connections to the fiber- and 
copper-based telephone network. Considering the wide 
range of voice, video, and data applications it supports, 
ISDN's lack of mobility has been extremely constrain- 
ing. Fortunately, a new form of ISDN, called ISDN Radio, 
is breaking the copper umbilical cord and offering users 
unheralded communications freedom. 

ISDN Radio comes in two flavors: satellite and radio 
(see the figure "ISDN Radio/Satellite Configurations" 
below). Satellite ISDN is based on VSAT (Very Small 
Aperture Terminal) technology. VSAT uses transportable 
satellite link equipment and relatively small uplink/down- 
link dishes. Connections are made using leased or 
call-based satellite channels. Radio ISDN uses 
specialized modems called spread-spec- ^ 
trum modems which distribute the sig- Mw' 
nal over a wide bandwidth, &^ 

reducing interference and im- 
proving security. While satel- 
lite ISDN can span continents, 
radio ISDN's range is limited. It 
is broadcast primarily via trans- 
mitters operating on 1 W or 
less. The low power restricts 
the range, depending on anten- 
na height and terrain, to a max- 
imum radius of 30 miles. 



take days or even weeks to process, ISDN 
Radio equipment can be set up quickly. It's 
not unusual to have service in place within 
24 hours. This makes ISDN Radio espe- 
cially valuable when unexpected events take 
place, such as a network outage, an urgent 
site coming on-line, a network demonstra- 
tion that was scheduled without advance notice, or a last- 
minute video conference. 

It's also possible to have ISDN Radio service in loca- 
tions where terrestrial ISDN is not available. Where there 
is no terrestrial ISDN, ISDN Radio can step in as an 
extension service. ISDN Radio's transportability can bring 
ISDN to a non-ISDN location. It can also extend ISDN 
past the infamous "last mile," which occurs when ISDN is 
available locally, but the remote site exceeds the 1 8,000- 
foot distance from the central office. 

That's where ISDN service delivered over a satellite 
link can help. "Satellites can seamlessly extend ISDN 
from any ISDN public network to remote locations that do 
not have access to ISDN terrestrially," says Thomas von 
Deak of NASA's Lewis Research Center. "This is im- 
portant because ISDN will form the basis for the first im- 
plementation of the Nil [National Information Infra- 
structure] and the Gil [Global Information Infrastructure]." 

Reaping Other Benefits 

ISDN Radio adds more than basic network connectivity. 
By nature, ISDN Radio is redundant. Connections are not 
made over the terrestrial telephone network, but through 
radio or satellite. The local telephone company is either out 
of the loop entirely, or ancillary to the connection. This 
makes terrestrial outages of far less consequence. Net- 
work administrators who are challenged to keep their 
networks alive no matter what the situation will find 



Quickness Counts 

Among ISDN's biggest draw- 
backs are long installation time, 
distance limitations, and a lack 
of ubiquity. ISDN Radio can 
help resolve each of these flaws. 
While terrestrial ISDN orders 




Desktop 

conferencing 

system 



Videoconferencing 
system 



Remote PC or 
/remote CAN 



Radio and satellite-based ISDN will make the service more readily available. 



SEPTEMBER 1995 BYTE 273 



CORE TECHNOLOGIES 



Networks 



ISDN Radio particularly attractive. Should a disaster such as 
earthquake, fire, flood or tornado disrupt terrestrial-based WAN 
connections, the network manager can call on an ISDN Radio 
provider to quickly restore services. The company may also 
choose to have ISDN Radio in hot standby, or even in active 
service. When the terrestrial connections go down, the ISDN 
radio links can be pressed into service. 

• Broadcasters realize that ISDN can provide enhanced audio 
quality without the need for multiple analog lines or audio fre- 
quency shifting equipment. A single BRI (Basic Rate Interface) 
line without compression can provide 7.5-kHz bandwidth audio. 
For comparison purposes, 7.5 kHz is equivalent in quality to a 
decent AM station. Increasing audio bandwidth to 15 kHz, com- 
parable to FM quality, or adding stereo can be achieved with 
multiple ISDN lines or compression. This makes ISDN ideal for 
remote broadcasts that sound as if they originated in the studio. 

Points to Ponder 

ISDN Radio is not without its disadvantages. It requires extra 
equipment, some of which is fairly expensive. It takes special 
know-how to set up, operate, and maintain the service. Satellite 
time can be expensive, and satellite channels require access to a 
satellite provider. ISDN Radio is subject to the same limitations 
as any radio service. Interference and poor signal quality can 
cause problems. Most importantly, satellite delays adversely 
affect the quality of ISDN Radio's service. 

Satellite links introduce a fair amount of delay (see "When 
Timing's Critical" above). If severe enough, delays can garble 
voice transmissions, scramble video, and collapse WAN con- 
nections. For example, a terrestrial ISDN BRI (Basic Rate 
Interface) delays the signal about 10 milliseconds. An international 
terrestrial circuit experiences delays of 140 ms. A single satellite 
hop has a marginal range one-way delay of 260 ms. Bidirec- 
tionally, satellite delays can be well over 500 ms. This puts satel- 
lite delays in the unacceptable range for some applications. 

Delays can cause problems for isochronous applications that 
require audio and video synchronization, or are intolerant of dis- 
ruptions in information flow. Delays can also cause problems 
for network applications. If the delay is long enough, the net- 
work protocol may assume that the communications link has 
been lost and time out the session. Even a less drastic network 
response to delays can cause unnecessary retransmissions, colli- 
sions and, in severe cases, broadcast storms. Users considering 
ISDN Radio for network or time-sensitive applications should take 
steps to make sure that the technology will work for them. 

What the Future Holds 

One of the more interesting demonstrations of ISDN Radio tech- 
nology is NASA's ACTS (Advanced Communications Tech- 
nology Satellite), which the Space Shuttle Discovery launched on 
September 1 2, 1993. The NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleve- 
land, Ohio, manages the satellite; it is a test of digital communi- 
cations that span the spectrum when it comes to ISDN satellite 
applications. ACTS provides single hop mesh ISDN that attempts 
to integrate seamlessly with terrestrial networks. No attempt is 
being made to use specially modified equipment for the tests. 
Off-the-shelf ISDN equipment is currently being tested over the 
ACTS and used in demonstrations to the public. Interestingly, 
NASA has cross connected ACTS and terrestrial ISDN circuits 
through a traffic terminal in Cleveland. This allows access to the 
ACTS system from anywhere an ISDN connection is available. 
The large number of companies, universities, and research 



WHEN TIMING'S CRITICAL 

Signal delays pose problems for isochronous applications. 


Service 


Delay (ms) 


Quality of Service 


National T-1 Service 
Terrestrial ISDN 
National analog service 


1 

10 

25 


Acceptable 
Acceptable 
Acceptable 


International terrestrial service 


140 


Acceptable 


Single hop satellite 


260 


Marginal 


Bidirectional satellite 


520 


Unacceptable 





organizations that use ACTS includes Comsat, the U.S. Army 
Research Labs, the National Telecommunications and Informa- 
tion Administration, and NIST (National Institute of Standards and 
Technology). There are several interesting technology examples 
being tested on ACTS. In one experiment, Corporate Computer 
Systems, JPL (Jet Propulsion Labs), and CBS Radio are demon- 
strating ISDN high-quality audio transmissions. The North Amer- 
ican ISDN Users' Forum has been testing a PC-based multi- 
media teleconferencing system over a VSAT-transportable link 
back to the Lewis Research Center, the JPL, and other sites. 

One particularly interesting application is a disaster-recovery 
and communications-augmentation experiment. Ohio Univer- 
sity conducted tests to help Huntington Bank recover from a 
simulated disaster that created a total loss of communications. 
ACTS was used to transmit financial data such as deposits, 
account balances, and transfers of funds. The experiment mea- 
sured the ability to switch over to a backup communications sys- 
tem within an acceptable period of time as well as the economi- 
cal advantages of using ISDN satellite as a backup system. 

Bellcore is conducting experimentation with satellite-based 
PCS (Personal Communications Services). The goal of this 
research effort is to demonstrate a satellites' capabilities for 
enhancing ground-based personal communications voice and 
data services. The experiment will determine the ways in which 
local exchange network providers can interface to wireless service 
providers and the kinds of services that should be offered. 

Finally NIST has connected the ACTS ISDN system to the 
government's FTS2000 digital communications infrastructure 
and is investigating interoperability issues between the terrestri- 
al and satellite systems. 

Given encouraging results from ACTS and early user suc- 
cesses, ISDN Radio appears worthy of consideration as a vehicle 
to provide redundant network backup, remote WAN connec- 
tions, broadcast remotes, or world-wide videoconferencing. If 
your local service provider gives you a blank stare when you 
ask for ISDN connections, ISDN Radio could be your answer. 

Clearly, ISDN is getting more interesting by the moment. No 
longer tethered by copper umbilical cords, the freedom to have 
digital voice, data, and video services at any time and any place 
is truly exciting. Dick Tracy would have been very much at home 
with ISDN Radio. ■ 

Jeffrey Fritz is a telecommunications engineer responsible for the 
design and management of data communications for West Virginia 
University, including its ISDN applications lab. He is the chair of the 
North American ISDN Users' Forum Enterprise Network Data 
Inter connectivity Family. Mr. Fritz also chairs the National 
Information Infrastructure Working Group. He is the author of 
Sensible ISDN Data Networks (WVU Press, 1992). You can contact 
him on the Internet at jfritz@wvnvm.wvnet.edu or on BIX at 
editors@bix.com. 



274 BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 



POURNELLE 



JERRY POURNELLE 



Of COM Ports and Digital Frogs 



I 



t has been a busy month. First off, I was the keynote 
speaker at the Association for Media and Technology in Edu- 
cation in Canada, which met this year at the University of 
Guelph. The city of Guelph is about an hour from Toronto, 
just far enough that it hasn't lost the feel of a university town in 
a rural setting; it reminded me of Iowa City in the 1950s. 
AMTEC is one of the older organizations promoting technol- 
ogy in education. 

A major issue in education technology is distance learning. 
Studies by the Danish Ministry of Education conclude that the 
critical cost factor is how to make low-paid people — such as stu- 
dents — do the work formerly done by high-paid people. Dan- 
ish and other studies also indicate that the general result of ap- 
plying high technology to education is to increase educational quality, but at 
increased costs; it's rare when high-tech education saves money. That's a big 
disappointment in this era of falling education budgets. 




Guelph is the major center of Canadian vet- 
erinary education. Lifelearn V., a private com- 
pany in a joint venture with the university, has 
developed one way to both increase education 
quality and save money. They've got the first 
really practical applications for CD-I (CD In- 
teractive) I've seen. 

Lifelearn uses CD-I for multiple reasons. First, 
it's easy to use, and it requires no computer ex- 
perience. Second, they can give away the CD-I 
box, which outputs NTSC video into a TV set, as 
part of the course. Finally, since many parts of 
the course materials feature real-time demon- 
strations, they want interactive full-motion video, 
which CD-I supplies nicely. 

Continuing education is important in many 
professions. Sometimes it does some good, but, 
alas, all too often continuing education work- 
shops degenerate into a series of Mickey Mouse 
sessions at which you get your ticket punched 
while vacationing on Maui or a Phoenix golf 
course. Some of those refresher workshops may 
be valuable, but Lifelearn offers an alternative. 
For less money, you can get the Interactive Mul- 
timedia Self -Study Modules prepared by vet- 

ILLUSTRATIONS: EMILY THOMPSON © 1995 



erinary experts accredited in both Canada and the 
U.S. Because it's on CD-I and audiotape, every- 
one in the clinic can take the machine home and 
go through the course materials. Course con- 
tent varies from canine dental surgery through 
cardiology to dairy farm health management. 

The Lifelearn CD-I system impressed me a 
lot. I'm certain that soon enough this kind of 
thing will be available — from one source or an- 
other — for dozens of professions. Meanwhile, 
if you're a veterinarian, you should know about 
the Interactive Multimedia Self-Study Modules. 

Of course, there's an awful lot of pure hype about 
educational software. One (very badly produced) 
video I have spends half an hour telling about its 
problem-solving approach to education. Princi- 
pals wax eloquent on how this launches high 
school students into lifetime learning. Other 
teachers tell us that the kids just love this stuff 
because it's not a boring book. Then we're in- 
formed that "problem solving is a very unique 
process." You can re-create electronically just 
what the student did to solve the problem. 
What they're selling is authoring materials. 



Jerry attends an 
education 
conference and 
then learns a 
thing or two about 
communications 
software in 
Windows 95 



continued 

SEPTEMBER 1995 BYTK 275 



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The value of the course will depend en- 
tirely on the teacher choosing the right 
problems to solve. While this may be valu- 
able, it's hardly new. 

This is all of a piece with the new edu- 
cation fad that says it's not important what 
kids learn. "We teach them how to think, 
not what to think." That sounds wonderful 
until you ask the next question: What is it 
they are to think about? And must they 
discard 2000 years of history — largely a 
history of problem solving? 

Long years ago when I was a student, 
there was an education fad called general 
semantics. By studying the science of 
meaning, we were going to solve all hu- 
man problems. Like all education fads, 
this one contained some valuable (if not 
always original) insights. One of 
these was that humans are time 
binders: they don't have to 
learn by making the same 
mistakes their ancestors 
did. We don't have to dis- 
cover all facts for ourselves 

It's clear that learning facts 
without understanding isn't 
much of an education, and stu- 
dents are highly motivated to 
play games rather than study 
facts. But the weakness of the problem- 
solving approach to education is that it's no 
use solving problems unless they are re- 
lated to the real world; and while the abil- 
ity to think things through is valuable, 
sometimes what you need is to be told how 
someone else did it. 

We tend to learn to do what we've al- 
ready done. Every sports coach under- 
stands this. Left to themselves, students 
generally won't stumble onto proper tech- 
nique. Take fencing as an example. Hand 
a class of beginners weapons and protec- 
tive equipment, and in a week, they'll have 
"problem-solved" their way to so many 
bad habits they may never be any good. 

I've recently seen essays criticizing the hy- 
pertext concept as undeliverable hype. Now 
it's true that despite a decade of work and 
some financing from Autodesk, Ted Nel- 
son and his associates didn't finish Xan- 
adu; but that's not the main problem with 
hypertext. 

The big problem is the hypertext con- 
cept itself. For example, there's Nelson's 
book, which you can start reading any- 
where you like and read the chapters in 
any order. That's only a book, of course. 
His ultimate vision was Xanadu, comput- 
ers connected on-line to give you all 
knowledge as hypertext, so that you could 
read everything in the world in any order 
you liked: the universe of knowledge with- 



Circle 106 on Inquiry Card. 

276 BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 



out any imposed structure. 

It's attractive. We've all had the expe- 
rience of going to an encyclopedia to look 
for one thing and emerging hours later. 
We often learn something that way, too; 
but I suspect the ones who learn the most 
are those who came to the encyclopedia 
with an intellectual framework into which 
they could put their new knowledge. Un- 
organized facts aren't science, they're 
merely anecdotes; it takes structured theory 
to turn anecdotes into data. 

We don't have Xanadu yet, but we do 
have hypertext CD-ROMs. Most have lit- 
tle or no structure. You can peel off facts in 
any order you like. These may be useful to 
experts well grounded in the subject mat- 
ter, but in the hands of be- 
ginners, they're more likely 
to be tools for amusement 
rather than for learning. The 
same is true of unstructured 
problem-solving education. 
It may generate enthusiasm, 
but all too often, it's the en- 
thusiasm of the beginning fencer 
handed weapons and a mask. 

Lifelearn's educational approach is 
successful because they're building on a 
solid foundation. They don't teach the ba- 
sics of veterinary medicine, nor are they 
concerned with a general education in 
problem solving. What they do is show 
already competent people new develop- 
ments in their field, along with practical 
techniques they can use. 

Lif elearn has a large staff and a big budget. 

Digital Frog International has neither. 

I don't know how many frogs have been 
slaughtered to provide subjects for dis- 
section in high school labs, but Digital 
Frog's "frog-friendly software" may help 
to change that. The Digital Frog is a CD- 
ROM developed by students on a shoe- 
string; their entire capital investment, in- 
cluding a Power Mac, was under $10,000. 

They used a high-quality 35mm macro 
camera to take pictures of each stage of 
the dissection of a frog by an expert. Shots 
were made from many angles, and the 
whole thing was synchronized with a lec- 
ture. The pictures were digitized by turning 
the rolls into Photo CDs. They used an in- 
expensive JVC camcorder to capture im- 
ages for QuickTime movies of frog activ- 
ities, such as a frog catching a fly. 

Then they added QuickTime anima- 
tions, drawings, and diagrams, with ex- 
cellent narration. The result is far more in- 
structive — at least to me — than dissecting 
a frog, and there's no formaldehyde smell. 
The Digital Frog won the "best of show" 
award at AMTEC, and rightly so. 

continued 



^:.:A;:S-v 



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-Communications Week, Apn'124, 1995 

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Windows boasted the most applications 

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mmm 



If you teach high school biology, you'll 
definitely want the Digital Frog. It's an 
excellent example of what new technol- 
ogy and ingenuity can do for education. 

My latest trip was to Microsoft for another 
dog and pony show about Windows 95. 
I've been using W95 on my main system 
for about three months now, going through 
a dozen "builds" as Microsoft fixes re- 
ported bugs. I have to say I like it; in par- 
ticular, I like the user interface better than 
those of either Windows or OS/2. More 
important, though, it works. 

There are some anomalies. I'll get to 
one of them in a moment; but the important 
thing is that I've had far less trouble getting 
used to W95 than I did Windows itself. 
Longtime readers will remember many 
columns in which I was screaming in frus- 
tration. That hasn't happened with W95. 

One anomaly involves QEMM. W95 
installs from a setup program, and it 
doesn't seem to matter whether you're in- 
stalling over DOS, Windows, or an ear- 
lier W95. In each case, you get a warning 
that you're running QEMM, and you 
should disable it until the installation is 
finished, or else W95 may not identify all 
your hardware correctly. I suspect that 
mostly means thatQEMM loads some de- 
vice drivers into high memory and W95 
isn't sure it will find them all; in any event, 
I have ignored that message in the past 
with no ill effects. 

This last time, though, I decided to heed 
the message. I canceled the installation, 
removed all references to QEMM from 
my CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT 
files, and put in DOS HIMEM.SYS and 
EMM386.EXE. Then, just for good mea- 
sure, I exited W95 with the option to boot 
up in DOS and ran the DOS MEMMAK- 
ER.EXE program, answering "yes" to the 
question about running programs that need 
expanded memory. 

The result wasn't good. Not only did I 
end up with DOS windows that were about 
100 KB smaller — far too small to run most 
games — but my expanded memory had 
vanished as well. I rebooted. That auto- 
matically brings the machine back up in 
W95. When I ran the setup program again 
to finish my upgrade, I was told that I'd 
interrupted it last time and was warned 
there might be trouble; but there wasn't 
any difficulty, except that I got messages 
that EMM386 couldn't load, and my DOS 
windows remained tiny. I put up with that 
for about 5 minutes before I overwrote the 
CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT 
files with my older versions containing 
QEMM. When I rebooted and let QEMM 
do its thing, I had no problems. My DOS 



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windows are 590 KB, and expanded mem- 
ory works again. 

I've been using Franklin Quest's Ascend PIM 

(personal information manager) for sev- 
eral years now. Telemagic is a far better 
contact manager, but it's designed for a 
much larger operation than mine. While 
there are many good things about Ara- 
besque's Ecco, Ascend is good enough. 

I've just installed version 5.0, and the 
upgrade illuminates a problem with W95 
communications. 

Despite the improvements in Procomm 
Plus for Windows, I unrepentantly use Pro- 
comm 2. I'm used to it. It runs on my Gate- 
way HandBook (a 286) and does fine in a 
DOS window; but it has quirks. After I 
switched to W95, 1 had an annoying glitch. 
At first, Procomm couldn't find the mo- 
dem. When I hit Escape and dialed again, 
lo!, all was well. 

Naturally I blamed that on W95. Then I 
found that Ascend 4.0 worked just fine in 
Windows 3.1 1 and W95, but version 5.0 
wouldn't dial in W95. Instead, I got a Win- 
dows message that some other device had 
the COM port. Franklin Quest had no ad- 
vice — surprisingly, they have never tested 



Ascend with W95 — but they told me that 
Ascend 4.0 had its own dialer, while ver- 
sion 5.0 uses the Microsoft Dialer built 
into Windows. 

You access the controls for the Mi- 
crosoft Dialer through the Telephony but- 
ton on the control panel. For reasons hav- 
ing to do with cable connections, I've used 
COM1 for the mouse and COM2 for the 
modem since DOS days. I had no prob- 
lems with SideKick, Desqview, or any ver- 
sion of Windows; but with W95, no mat- 
ter that I told Telephony to use COM2, 
Ascend 5.0 would report that the commu- 
nications device was in use by another pro- 
gram. Finally, in exasperation, I shut down 
the machine, plugged the mouse into 
COM2, and connected the modem to 
COM I. Then I told both Procomm 2 and 
Telephony what I'd done. That fixed it. 
Ascend 5.0 dials just fine now. 

Now I have discovered that if you give 
Procomm 2 an initialization string, it must 
have Control-M at the end, else it waits 
for a Return. I lost the Control-M while 
installing W95 (my fault I'm sure); it was 
never a problem with W95 itself. My 
apologies to Microsoft: they've been trying 
to fix that bug since I reported it. 



Although that fixed the problem — As- 
cend 5.0 dials just fine now — alas, it has 
not fixed the "must access it twice" prob- 
lem with Procomm 2, which remains as 
an annoyance. So it goes. 

OS/2 Warp Connect is nifty, and it really is 
an improvement over standard Warp. In 
theory, it's still only Warp 3.0 with con- 
nectivity; in practice, they've incorporated 
some bug fixes and made installation sim- 
pler by adding more device drivers. 

OS/2 is still harder to install than it 
ought to be. Every time I say that, I get 
letters from readers who bought one or an- 
other flavor of Warp and had absolutely 
no problems with the installation, and oth- 
ers who think it was easier to install than 
Windows ever was, so your mileage may 
vary. Once installed, OS/2 Warp Connect 
is pretty solid. Unlike W95, which still 
contains some 1 6-bit code, OS/2 is all 32- 
bit. With only a few windows open, there's 
little difference in speed between OS/2 
Warp Connect and the test versions of 
W95; but if you keep a lot of windows 
open and do a lot of multitasking, the dif- 
ference can be dramatic. 

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I've managed to get three simultaneous 
communications programs — two using 
9600-bps modems, and one using a serial 
port — as well as a print job to run in OS/2. 
The printing was pretty slow, but the com- 
munications tasks worked without losing 
data. I haven't tried that with 



you can choose to shut down individual 
applications or the entire system. Warp 
doesn't do that. If you press Ctrl-Alt-Del, 
the system will reboot without further cer- 
emony. Alas, that means that if you run a 
particularly badly behaved application, 
you may find yourself unable 



W95, but I don't need to. Just xN > 
keeping a number of windows 
open (and doing nothing) will f 
noticeably slow down W95. £ 

The big new feature of .5 
OS/2 Warp Connect is > 
built-in peer-to-peer net- ^Wv/y© 
working capability. OS/2 
Warp Connect supports IBM LAN Server 
2, 3, and 4, and the LAN Server on AIX 
and AS/400. You can connect to Windows 
for Workgroups, Windows NT Server, 
W95, and the Microsoft LAN Manager, 
as well as all versions of Novell NetWare. 
The feature set is comparable to W4WG, 
with cut and paste across the network. I 
mildly prefer the W95 user interface, but 
the Warp interface is good enough. 

OS/2 Warp Connect works just fine, 
with one exception. In Windows and W95, 
if you do Ctrl-Alt-Del, you get a dialog 
box that gets you back to the OS, where 



f &rmat s ftv £^* rg * g. 




dNl37y- M3N . s?2!S 3l!d'^ 



to get back to OS/2. That hap- 
pens more often with bad 
Windows applications in 
Warp, but I've had it happen 
with a DOS program as well, 
and it's a terribly frustrating 
experience. 



One reason Microsoft held rk latest dog and 
pony show was to impress journalists with 
just how many software developers are 
writing applications for W95; it worked. 
About a hundred companies, hardware and 
software, had booths in a miniature trade 
show. The booths were small, not flashy, 
and the emphasis was on technical demon- 
strations. It reminded me of the early days 
of the West Coast Computer Faire. 

Naturally, the Microsoft Applications 
Group was showing the most products, in- 
cluding new versions of Microsoft Office; 
but there were many others. Traveling 



Software was there with new versions of 
LapLink for Windows. You'll really like 
what they can do with W95. Philippe 
Kahn, still chairman of Borland but no 
longer running that company, was there 
demonstrating Starfish Software's Side- 
Kick for Windows. 

Symantec was there, with a new ver- 
sion of Norton Utilities for W95. 1 use that, 
and I'd hate to live without it. They also 
have a new Norton Navigator (a desktop 
replacement) for W95. I've got it, but I 
don't really feel the need; I rather like the 
W95 interface. But if you get W95, be sure 
to get the appropriate Norton Utilities. 

You'll also need the Windows 95 Re- 
source Kit from Microsoft Press. It has 
over 1300 pages and goes into great de- 
tail on stuff you'll want to know. There's 
a good section on using long filenames 
and what happens if you transfer those 
files to systems that don't support long 
filenames. Reading that will lead you to 
look into long file extensions — you're no 
longer limited to three characters after the 
dot — and how those can be used to tell 
W95 things about a file. That will lead you 
to read the section on the Registry, a W95 

trick to cut down on the sizes of INI files. 

continued 



URGENT-YOUR INPUT NEEDED 



Platform Issues in Applications Development 



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in developing applications to run on brand new OSes or those 
in a state of flux (as with Windows 95 in its beta days); at 
cross-platform development tools, problems, and capabilities; 
and at what the advent of (at least partially) object-oriented 
OSes means for applications developers. 

These are complex questions and to do them justice we'd like 
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282 BYTE SEPTEMBER 1995 



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«m 



Bottom-line question for Windows users: 

Should you change OSes? In my judg- 
ment, yes you should. W95, Windows NT, 
and OS/2 Warp Connect are all significant 
improvements over Windows and W4WG. 
You'll be better off with one of those. 

Deciding which one isn't so easy. If 
you're operating in a large corporate en- 
vironment, you should probably be con- 
sidering Windows NT versus OS/2 Warp 
Connect plus OS/2 LAN Server. You'll 
certainly want to consider Lotus Notes, 
and now that IBM is buying Lotus, you'll 
want to watch developments there. 

For home users, the choice is a bit sim- 
pler. The less you like fooling around with 
your machine, the more you're going to 
appreciate W95. You're far more likely to 
have a painless upgrade going from Win- 
dows to W95 than you will when switch- 
ing to Warp. 

One big attraction of OS/2 has been that 
it is a better DOS than Windows and, for 
that matter, a better DOS than DOS. That 
remains true, but it's not a better DOS than 
W95 — and it's certainly not a better Win- 
dows than W95. The more you run Win- 
dows (not W95, just Windows) applica- 
tions, the more you'll appreciate W95. 
And, of course, we don't even know what 
IBM plans for handling applications writ- 
ten for W95 itself. We do know there will 
be far more applications written for W95 
than for OS/2. 

I'm keeping both. We'll continue to run 
OS/2 Warp Connect, but I have to say my 
prime machine is already running W95. 
That could change. Stay tuned. 

It's silly, but I'm still taking two laptops on 
trips. The Gateway Liberty